Holy Roman Emperor Louis (son of Charlemagne) issues a Charter of Protection to Italian Jews, encouraging Jewish trade (including slave trade), relaxing political restrictions, and allowing some juridical autonomy.
Thank you for your personal interest in learning about modern Israel
Contributions from people like you allow CIE to assemble and compose materials about Israel's rich and vibrant story. Please play a beneficial role in sustaining our mission. Donate to assure inspired learning for yourself and for others.