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Early History to 1897: Identity Formation and Modern Zionism
Era 1
  • Jewish law, custom and anti-Semitism knitted Jews as a people
  • Surviving as a minority schooled Jews on self-reliance
  • Failure to achieve civic equality prompted Zionism, Jewish nationalism
Era I
Era II 1898 to 1948: Autonomy and State-Building
Theodore Hertzl
  • Translating an idea into reality required Jewish leadership, commitment, and pragmatism
  • Recruiting support from great powers made Israel a reality
  • Inept Arab decisions and societal fragmentation gave Zionists an unsurmountable edge
Era II
Era III 1949 to 1979: From Sovereignty to Recognition
  • Israel’s building blocks linked people, land, an economy and collective self-defense
  • Success in the June 1967 War solidified Israel as a state
  • Egypt took the unprecedented Arab step of accepting Israel as a reality
Era IV 1980 to Present: Recognition to Normalization
Era IV
  • Israel flourished as a democracy with a multi-party system
  • Solidifying a strategic relationship with the US benefitted both country’s welfare
  • Seeking peaceful borders and neighbors determined its well-being
Era IV


Era 1 Era 2 Era 3 Era 4

The timeline contains more than 900 entries, following Jewish History through Jewish identity in the diaspora, Zionism, to contemporary issues in Israel. Search by year or by a subject through time.

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