he Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann Series A, 

1885-1952  

BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 

This is a composite biographical index, collected from each of the twenty-three individual biographical indexes published originally at the end of each separate volume of Weizmann’s Letters. Identifying information includes a persons affiliations, birth and date dates, important turning points in a careers, and other valuable information. 

There are 133 pages of individuals identified. Aside from David Tidhar’s extraordinary  Encyclopedia of Builders and Founders of Israel in Hebrew, which is in 19 volumes and took 22 years to complete, this collection may be one of the most complete available indices of Jewish and Zionist persons in English and of course, only covering Chaim Weizmann’s life.

[Reprinted with express permission from the Weizmann Archives, Rehovot, Israel

by the Center for Israel Education www.israeled.org]

ABBREVIATIONS

A.C. → Actions Committee

A.J.A. → Anglo-Jewish Association

B.D.→ Balfour Declaration

B.E.F.→ British Expeditionary Force

B.O.D. → Board of Deputies of British Jews 

C.B.F. → Central British Fund for Jewish Relief and Rehabilitation 

C.Z.O. → Central Zionist Office

D.F.→ Democratic Fraction

D.S.O.→ Distinguished Service Order

E.E.F.→ Egyptian Expeditionary Force

E.Z.F. → English Zionist Federation

F.A.Z. → Federation of American Zionists (later Zionist Organization of America)

G.A.C. → Greater Actions Committee

H.I.A.S. → Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society

H.Z. → Hoverei Zion (Lovers of Zion)

I.C.A.→ Jewish Colonisation Association

I.T.O. → Jewish Territorial Organization

J.C.T.→ Jewish Colonial Trust

J.D.C. → American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 

J.N.F. →Jewish National Fund

K.H. → Keren Hayesod (Palestine Foundation Fund)

K.K.L. → Keren Kayemet L’Israel (Jewish National Fund) 

N.Z.O. → New Zionist Organization 

O.A.M. → Order of Ancient Maccabeans 

O.E.T.A.→ Occupied Enemy Territory Administration

O.R.T. → Organization for Rehabilitation through Training

P.I.C.A. → Palestine Jewish Colonisation Association 

P.L.D.C. → Palestine Land Development Company 

P.Z. → Poalei-Zion (Socialist Zionist Party)

S.A.C.→ Smaller Actions Committee

U.J.A. → United Jewish Appeal

U.P.A. → United Palestine Appeal

W. → Chaim Weizmann

W.I.Z.O. → Women’s International Zionist Organization 

W.Z.O. → World Zionist Organization

Z.C.→ Zionist Congress (I Z.C.—First Zionist Congress)

Z.E. → Zionist Executive

Z.G.C. → Zionist General Council

Z.O. → Zionist Organization

Z.O.A. → Zionist Organization of America

Z.Y.C. → Zionist Youth Conference, Basle, 1901

AARONSOHN, Alexander (1888-1948). B. Zichron Ya’akov. Brother of Sarah and Aaron Aaronsohn. Employed at U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1910-13. Founding president, Society of Gideonites, 1913-14. Took part in the campaign against Palestine’s locust plague, 1914-15. A founder of Nili, pro-British intelligence network in Palestine, 1915. Engaged in propaganda against Central Powers, U.S.A. 1915-17, then served in British Military Intelligence in Egypt. Arriving in Palestine with the British in Winter 1917, he initiated the Jewish Committee in Jaffa as a Jewish intelligence bureau operating for the conquerors. Active in recruitment for Palestine battalion. Awarded D.S.O. Among founders of Bnei Binyamin Association, formed by sons of Jewish farmers, to serve the economic, cultural, and security purposes of the colonies and its president, 1921-24. In 1920 he accompanied W. to the San Remo Conference. Among founders of Hebrew daily Doar Hayom, as well as Arabic and English periodicals. He furnished intelligence to the British authorities during the Arab disturbances in the 1930s, and joined Intelligence Corps in 1940. Later, he endeavored to utilize his personal contacts with the British military authorities on behalf of the Yishuv, and sought also to mediate between the Haganah and the dissident Jewish groups. Author of several works, including one on the Turks in Palestine and another on his brother and sister.

ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN (1882-1951). B. Mecca. Second son of Sherif Hussein ibn Ali. Among leaders of Arab Revolt 1916. Occupied Transjordan 1921, and established himself as Emir of Transjordan under British protection. From 1946 assumed title of King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. In 1948, at termination of British Mandate in Palestine, his Arab Legion occupied greater part of West Bank of Jordan and the Old City of Jerusalem, these areas being subsequently incorporated into his kingdom. Assassinated 20 July 1951 outside al-Agra Mosque in Jerusalem.

ABERSON, Dov BER (1866-1929). Pseudonyms: Ben-David, D.A., Taras. B. Suchari, Province of Mohilev, White Russia. Left-wing Yiddish journalist. Brother of Zvi Aberson. Active in P.Z. in United States. An early socialist and H.Z., he emigrated to U.S.A. in 1890s where employed as labourer in leather industry. Moved to London in  1901. Member D.F., among founders, 1902, of radical Zionist group Maaravi. Among organizers of earliest P.Z. groups in England, 1903. Member E.Z.F. Returned to U.S.A. end 1904, conducting propaganda there for pro-Palestine faction of P.Z. Participated in establishment of P.Z. in U.S.A., 1905, with election to its Central Committee.

ABERSON, Zvi (1875 ?-1951). B. Dubrovna, Byelorussia. M. 1905 Rosa Grinblatt (q.v.). Having started in Russia as a Bundist, attracted to Zionism while studying in Paris and became an active Zionist after moving in 1901 to Geneva, where he joined the Zionist group Hashahar. Became widely known by devastating attack on Bund at Z.Y.C., 1901. Among founders of D.F., member of its Programme Committee, and member of D.F. group of delegates at V and VI Z.C. (1901, 1903). Delegate to VII Z.C. (1905). After establishment of League of Nations, resident representative at Geneva Committee of Jewish Delegations, and subsequently (1922-25) of Z.O.

ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM MARK (1864-1939). B. London, settled in Johannesburg 1902, and Principal of Jewish Government School there. A founder of Transvaal Teachers’ Association and twice President of Johannesburg and Rand Teachers’ Association. Long service on Executive of South African Jewish Board of Deputies. President of South African Zionist Federation 1911-31, then its Hon. Life President.

ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL (1858-1925). B. London. After teaching at Jews’ College appointed senior lecturer in Rabbinic and Talmudic Literature at Cambridge 1902. Founding President, Union of Jewish Literary Societies, 1902. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. President, Society of Historical Theology Oxford. Jointly with Claude G. Montefiore, edited Jewish Quarterly Review 1888-1908. Though non-Zionist, he recognized Palestine as spiritual centre of Jewish people and was an early protagonist of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Author of numerous works on Judaism.

ABRAHAMS, Sir Lionel (1869-1919). B. London. British civil servant. Entered India Office, 1893, rising to Assistant Under-Secretary of State, 1911-19. Hon. Treasurer, I.T.O., 1905-07. Member, International Council, I.T.O., 1907-18. Among signatories of letter to The Times expressing support of anti-Zionist manifesto issued by David L. Alexander and Claude G. Montefiore in May 1917. 

ABRAMOVICH, GREGORY (1880 ?-1933)—also known as Zvi Abrahami, Zvi Farbman, Michael Farbman. Journalist and author. Orig. Odessa. Studied Munich and Zurich. Helped to organize Z.Y.C., 1901. In 1902 or 1903 joined Syrkin’s Zionist-Socialist group, Cheirus. On the ‘Uganda’ issue seceded (1905) from Z.O. and joined the Territorialists, identifying himself with the Zionist-Socialist Workers’ Party (‘Z.S.’) and becoming a leading exponent of its ideas. Wrote for the press on economic questions and Jewish emigration. Later went into publishing in Russia, but in 1915 abandoned this and settled in England, where by his writings he established himself as a recognized expert on U.S.S.R. affairs.

ADAM, SIR ERIC GRAHAM FORBES (1888-1925). Civil servant. Joined F.O. 1913; on British delegations to Paris, P.C., 1919, London and San Remo Confs., 1920, Lausanne Conf., 1922-23.

ADLER, CYRUS (1863-1940). U.S. scholar and public worker. Taught Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1887-93, becoming asst. professor 1890; librarian at Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1892-1905 and asst. secretary 1905-08. A founder of Jewish Publication Society of America 1888 and of American Jewish Historical Society 1892, subsequently President of both bodies. Founding President of Dropsie College, Philadelphia, from 1908, and simultaneously of Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York 1924-40. On A.J.C. delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919; A.J.C. President from 1929, the year he was appointed non-Zionist co-chairman of Council of enlarged J.A. Author, 1930, of Memorandum on the Western Wall for a Special Commission of League of Nations. Adler was a department editor of Jewish Encyclopaedia 1901-06 and editor of Jewish Quarterly Review 1916-40. His autobiography, I Have Considered the Days, published 1941.

ADLER, ELKAN NA-rti. (1861-1946). B. London. Son of Chief Rabbi Nathan Adler. Lawyer, bibliophile. An early member of Hovevei Zion in England. He gave long service to the A.J.A. (a Council member), the B.O.D., and their Conjoint Foreign Committee. President of Jewish Historical Society of England, he was a dedicated collector of manuscripts, in the pursuit of which he travelled the world. Author of works on Bibliography, History and Travel.

ADLER, Nahum Isaac (1874-1942). B. Mohilev. Insurance agent, public and communal worker. Brought to Palestine as a boy with the Bilu group, studying at Mikveh Israel Agricultural School. Manager of an I.C.A. agricultural settlement in Cyprus, Margoa. Moved to Liverpool in 1899, then to Manchester, where he became actively associated with W. in the Zionist movement, as well as being his insurance agent. Provincial vice-president, E.Z.F., 1927-35. Grand Commander, O.A.M., 1933, and head of Manchester branch, 1934-37. Participated in XII, XVI-XVIII Z.C., 1921,1929-33. Eventually settled in Jerusalem.

ADLER, Swot, (1895-1966). Physician and parasitologist. B. Russia. Brought to England 1900, he studied at Leeds and Liverpool Universities. Pioneered research on malaria in Sierra Leone 1921-24, joined H.U. 1924, professor and director of its Parasitological Institute from 1928. Chalmers Gold Medal of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1933; F.R.S. 1957; Israel Prize for Medicine 1957.

ADLER-RUDEL, SALOMON (1894-1975). B. Czernowitz (Austro-Hungary). General secretary Austrian Poolei Zion 1915-18; secretary Jewish National Council, Vienna 1918-19. Director of Welfare Organization for Eastern Jews, Berlin 1919-30. director department of Jewish Community, Berlin 1930-34; general secretary Reichsvertretung der Juden 1934-36; with Central British Fund, London 1936-49, whereupon he settled in Israel. Director of J.A.’s Department of International Relations 1949-56, then joined Leo Baeck Institute in Jerusalem (director, 1958) His Ostjuden in Deutschland, 1880-1940, publ. 1959.

AGRONSKY (later AGRON), GERSHON (1894-1959). Journalist. B. Ukraine, he arrived in U.S. as child. In W.W.I. he served with Jewish Legion in Palestine; a Press officer of Zionist Commission 1920-21; editor of J.T.A. 1921-29; headed Press Office of Zionist Executive in Jerusalem 1924-29. In 1932 founded English-language daily Palestine Post (from 1950 Jerusalem Post) and was its editor-in-chief. On J.A. delegation to U.N. Conference at San Francisco 1945; Director of Israel Government Information Office 1949-51; Mayor of Jerusalem 1955-59.

AHAD HA’AM—Hebr. pseudonym, meaning ‘One of the people’, of Asher Zvi Ginzberg (1856-1927). By the Hebrew writings in which he developed his conception of Spiritual Zionism established himself as a leading figure among the Jewish thinkers and men of letters of his day. B. Skvira, Ukraine. Settled in Odessa 1886 and became member of Odessa Committee of Hovevei Zion. Founded Bnei Moshe 1889. Began literary career with essay in Hebrew journal Hamelitz, 1888. Visited Palestine in 1891 and again in 1893. First volume of collected essays published under title Al Parashath Derachim (`At the Crossroads’), 1895. Founded 1896, and edited until 1902, Hebrew journal Hashibah. Attended I Z.C., 1897, but did not join Z.O., being out of sympathy with Herzl’s Political Zionism. Gave principal address at Minsk Conference, 1902, and served on Cultural Commission set up by the Conference. Settled in London, 1908, as representative of Russian-Jewish firm of tea-merchants (Wissotzky’s). Fourth (and last) volume of his collected essays published 1913. Appointed member of Curatorium of Haifa Technical Institute and actively involved, on the Zionist side, in the controversies of 1913-14 concerning its educational policy. One of W.’s intimate advisers in the discussions leading to the Balfour Declaration, 1914-17. Settled in Palestine, 1922, and lived in Tel Aviv until his death in 1927. Among his writings available in English translations are Selected Essays, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1912; Ten Essays on Zionism and Judaism, Routledge, 1922; Ahad Ha’am: Essays, Letters, Memoirs, East and West Library, 1946.

AITCHISON, CRAIGIE MASON, LORD (1882-1941). Called to Scottish Bar 1907; K.C. 1923. M.P., Lab. (later Nat. Lab.) 1929-33. A foremost criminal advocate, he was Lord Advocate for Scotland 1929-33, Lord Justice Clerk 1933-41. On Cabinet Committee established to determine British policy in Palestine following 1930 Passfield White Paper and chairman of its legal sub-committee. Chairman of the Government interdepartmental committee considering a development scheme for Palestine 1931.

ALEINIKOV, MICHAEL (1880-1938). B. Smolensk. While law student in Kharkov active in Zionist circles there. Joined D.F., was its delegate to VI Z.C., 1903, and worked for Jewish University project. Practiced law in Kharkov for a time, subsequently settling in Odessa as legal adviser to Baku petroleum concerns and engaging in Zionist propaganda activities there. Participated in Russian Zionist Conferences at Helsingfors (1906) and The Hague (1907). Delegate VII, VIII, XI, XIII Z.C., 1905, 1907, 1913, 1923. In 1913 he moved to St. Petersburg. There, besides his industrial and commercial pursuits, was on Russian Zionist Central Committee until leaving Russia. Following February Revolution, 1917, directed Department of Jewish Political Affairs of Russian Zionist Central Committee and was member Political Bureau of Jewish Deputies to Duma. Published Zionist periodical Raszviet (‘Dawn’) which reappeared in July 1917. In 1919 at Paris Peace Conference representing Russian Zionist Central Committee and one of representatives of National Jewish Council. Elected G.A.C. July 1920. For some years member Committee of Jewish Delegations in Paris. In 1926 emigrated to Palestine, settling in Haifa and devoting himself to public activity. From 1931 member Council of Hadar-Hacarmel, the first exclusively Jewish quarter of Haifa, and was its chairman from 1932 until his death.

ALEXANDER, JACOB (“JACK”; 1887-1971). B. England, immigrated to South Africa 1911, lecturing at Grahamstown University. On Executive of South African Zionist Federation 1916-18, and its Secretary 1919-43. On Executive of South African Jewish Board of Deputies, of which treasurer 1923-26. Settled in Palestine 1944, leaving for U.S. 1961.

ALEXANDER, SAMUEL (1859-1938). B. Sydney. Philosopher. In England from 1877, studying and teaching at Oxford. Professor of Philosophy at Manchester University 1893-1924. President Aristotelian Society 1908-11, 1936-37, member British Academy from 1913. Befriended W. in Manchester. Sympathetic to Zionism and sometime member Academic Council of Hebrew University. His works include Space, Time and Deity.

AL-HUSSEINI, MUSA KAZEM (1850-1934). B. Jerusalem. Arab nationalist leader in Palestine. Mayor of Jerusalem 1918-20. Became President of Palestine Arab Executive in December 1920. Headed Arab delegations to London 1921,1923,1930.

ALLENBY, (Viscount) Edmund Henry (1861-1936). B. Brackenhurst, U.K. British army officer. Began his military career in South Africa in 1882, serving there until 1902. Inspector-General of Cavalry, 1910-14. Commander, Cavalry Division of B.E.F. in France, 1914-17. C.-in-C., E.E.F., 1917-19, leading conquest of Palestine and Syria. Head of O.E.T.A.; As High Commissioner in Egypt, 1919-25, was involved in Britain’s renunciation of Egypt’s protectorate status. Promoted Field Marshal in 1919.

ALTSCHUL, MICHAEL (1866-1931). B. Novogrodek, White Russia. Chemist. Editor of scientific publications in Germany. Worked 1893-1915 in Prof. Raoul Pictet’s gas liquefaction company, and subsequently engaged in business in Berlin.

AMERY, Leopold Stennett (1873-1955). B. India. British journalist, barrister and statesman. Wrote for Manchester Guardian, 1897-99. Assistant to Foreign Editor of The Times, 1899-1909. Reported Boer War, 1899-1900, subsequently producing Times History of the South African War in seven vols. Called to Bar 1902. Unionist M.P., 1911-45. Army intelligence officer 1914-16. Assistant Secretary to War Cabinet and to Secretary of State for War, 1916-19. Helped in formation of Jewish Legion and in framing text of Balfour Declaration. On staff of Lord Curzon’s Sub-Committee on Territorial Desiderata on the Terms of Peace, 1917. Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Colonies 1919-21. Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to Admiralty, 1921-22, and its First Lord 1922-24. Colonial Secretary 1924-29. Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs 1925-29. Strongly pro-Zionist, he condemned the Passfield White Paper (1930) and MacDonald White Paper (1939). Secretary of State for India and Burma 1940-45. His memoirs: My Political Life.

ANGELL, SIR NORMAN (1874-1967). Economist, author, worker for international peace. B. England, he passed his youth in America, returning to Europe in 1898 as correspondent of American newspapers, and journalist on French and English newspapers. General manager of Paris Daily Mail 1905-14, editor of Foreign Affairs 1928-31. Labour M.P. 1929-31, knighted in 1931. Nobel Peace Prize 1933. His best-known work The Great Illusion, publ. 1910, revised 1933.

ARLOSOROFF, CHAIM VICTOR (1899-1933). Zionist statesman and labour leader. B. Ukraine, brought by his parents to Germany 1905. In 1918 he joined Hapoel Hatzair and was a key figure in founding of Hitandut (Socialist-Zionist party) 1920, and editor of its periodical Die Arbeit. In 1923 he was elected to A.C. and in 1924, on completing his studies in economics at Berlin University, settled in Palestine. Member of Yishuv delegation to League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission, 1926. With the founding of Mapai (Palestine Labour Party) in 1930, he became one of the party’s leading spokesmen. A. staunch supporter of W., was elected member of the Zionist and J.A. Executives and head of J.A. Political Dept in 1931. Began organizing emigration of Jews from Nazi Germany and the transfer of their assets to Palestine. Assassinated by unknown assailants in Tel Aviv June 1933. His collective writings and diaries were published in Hebrew, 1934-35 and 1950.

ARONSOHN, Aaron (1876-1919). B. Bacau, Rumania. Agronomist. In Palestine from 1882, his parents were among founders of Zichron-Ya’akov. After studies (sponsored by Baron Edmond de Rothschild) in France 1893-96, he engaged in agricultural instruction and was a founder of the Palestine Agricultural-Technical Office, 1901. Gained world-wide recognition for his discovery of ‘wild wheat’ in Palestine, 1906, and in 1910 established, with American-Jewish support, the Agricultural Experimental Station at Athlit. On Central Relief Committee of Jewish community, 1914-16. With others, founded `Nili’ espionage organization to serve British, 1915, traveling in 1916 to Cairo, where he directed espionage and supplied intelligence for the General Staff’s planning of Palestine military campaign. In Cairo organized the ‘Special Committee for Relief of Jews in Palestine’ for transfer of funds from U.S.A. and Europe to Yishuv. Engaged in Zionist activity in London, 1917, then conducted propaganda in favor of British Middle East policy in U.S.A. Returned to Palestine 1918 with the Zionist Commission, then on Zionist delegation at Paris Peace Conference. Died in aircraft accident over English Channel. His published works include his 1916-19 Diaries.

ATKINSON ADAM, Matthew (?-1939). British patent agent acting on W.’s. behalf. Associate Member of Institute of Civil Engineers.

ATTLEE, CLEMENT RICHARD (1883-1967). British Prime Minister 1945-51.A lawyer, he was lecturer at London School of Economics 1913-23. Following war service, he was first Labour mayor of Stepney, 1919-20. M.P. (Lab.) 1922-55; Parliamentary Private Secretary to Leader of Opposition (Ramsay MacDonald) 1922-24; Under-Secretary of State for War 1924; Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1930-31; Postmaster General 1931; deputy Leader, then Leader of Opposition, 1935-40; joined Churchill’s wartime coalition as Lord Privy Seal; Secretary of State for Dominions 1942-43; deputy Prime Minister 1942-45. He was again Leader of Opposition 195155. Cr. Earl 1955.

BAECK, LEO (1873-1956). Rabbi and religious thinker, leader of Progressive Judaism. B. Poland, studied in Breslau and Berlin, occupied pulpits in Germany from 1897 (from 1912 in Berlin). Among founders of K.H. in Germany (its President 1937); a non-Zionist member of J.A. Administrative Committee from its inception. In 1933 he became President of Jewish representative body authorized by Nazis. Deported to Theresienstadt 1943, released in 1945, moved to London where he was President of Council of Jews from Germany and chairman of World Union for Progressive Judaism. From 1945 until death also served as Professor of History of Religion at Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati. In 1954 the Leo Baeck Institute for study of history of German Jewry was established, and he served as its first President. Author theological works.

BAER, WALTER” (1895-1970). Swiss banker, communal leader and philanthropist with strong Zionist sympathies. Succeeded his father (d. 1922) as head of Julius Bar & Co., Zurich. From 1929 he and his wife became close friends of the Weizmanns. Honorary Fellow and Governor of Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot.

BAKER, PERCY PAUL (1875-1940). B. Dusseldorf. Merchant. Pioneer of Zionism in Scotland. Member E.Z.F. Executive 1903-09, 1918-40, and hon. secretary 1906-09. Delegate IV-VII, XVII Z.C., 1900-05, 1931. G.A.C. 1901-03. Supported East Africa project. Member B.O.D. Brother-in-law of Max Shire (q.r.). Died with wife and son in air-raid.

BAKSTANSKY, LAVY (1904-71). B. Russia, graduate of Herzliya high School, Tel Aviv, and London School of Economics. General Secretary Zionist Federation of Great Britain from 1930; director Joint Palestine Appeal; on Executive, Foreign Affairs and Erez Israel Committees, Board of Deputies of British Jews.

BALDWIN, STANLEY, first Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (1867-1947). Conservative M.P. 1908-37; Joint Financial Secretary to Treasury 1917-21; President of Board of Trade 1921-22; Chancellor of Exchequer 1922-23; Prime Minister May 1923-Jan. 1924 and again Nov. 1924 to 1929; Lord President of Council in Ramsay MacDonald’s National Government 1931-35; Lord Privy Seal 1932-34; Prime Minister June 1935 to May 1937; handled the Abdication Crisis of 1936. Lord Rector of Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities, Chancellor of St. Andrews and Cambridge Universities.

BALFOUR (Earl of), ARTHUR JAMES (1848-1930). B. East Lothian, Scotland. Conservative statesman, philosopher. Member of Parliament 1874-1922. Member of all Salisbury Governments from 1885 onwards. Prime Minister 1902-05, the East Africa proposal being made to Z.O. during his tenure. Met W., 1905, 1906 and evinced sympathy for Zionism. First Lord of Admiralty 1915-16. Foreign Secretary 191619, during which period negotiations with Z.O. on future of Palestine culminated in Balfour Declaration. Represented Gt. Britain at Peace Conference 1919. and at first meeting of League of Nations 1920. Lord President of Council 1919-22, 1925-29. Order of Merit 1916, earldom 1922. Guest of honour at opening ceremony of Hebrew University, Jerusalem 1925. Fellow of Royal Society from 1888, president British Academy 1921-28. Authored works on political thought and philosophy.

BAMBUS, WILLI (Ze’ev) (1862-1904). B. Berlin. Author and editor. Among founders of H.Z. society Ezra, and a H.Z. leader in Germany. Edited jficlisches Volksblatt, Vienna, 1889-91. Among founders Society for Jewish History and Literature, Berlin 1892, and Jewish national association Young Israel (of which first secretary). Owner-editor of Zion in Berlin from 1897. Delegate I, II Z.C., 1897, 1898. Withdrew from and  Z.O. but continued practical work for Palestine. The Hilfsverein der Deutschen juden was founded 1901 to his concept, and he became secretary on its establishment. Active in field of economic development of Palestine, on which he was an authority, writing extensively on this subject.

BARKER, SIR EVELYN HUGH (b. 1894). G.O.C. British Troops in Palestine and Transjordan 1946. Commissioned 1913, he served in both world wars. Commanded 8th Corps 1944 to Apr. 1946. G.O.C. in C., Eastern Command 1947-50. Promoted General 1948; A.D.C. to King George VI 1949-50. During his command in Palestine severe measures were taken against the Jewish population.

BARLASSINA, MGR. Lows (1872-1947). B. Turin. Latin prelate. Parish priest of St. John Lateran, Rome, 1912-18. Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem 1920-47. Anti-Jewish and anti-Zionist, supported Arab claims in Palestine.

BARON, BERNHARD (1850-1929). Industrialist and philanthropist. B. Russia, immigrated to U.S. as a boy. Perfected a cigarette-making machine, an invention he brought to London 1896 and exploited in his own company. He later purchased Carreras, one of the oldest tobacco concerns in England, expanding it to become one of the world’s largest. Accumulating a fortune, he set up charitable trusts, and made substantial gifts to the J.N.F., K.H. and H. U.

BARTH, ARNOLD AHARON (1890-1957). B. Berlin. Banker and lawyer. Son of Semitic linguist Jacob Barth, grandson of Azriel Hildesheimer, noted Rabbinical scholar. Leader of Mizrachi movement in Germany from 1920. On K.H. Executive, he served as attorney for Zionist Congress Court 1921-38, and as its Chairman from 1946. Practiced law in Palestine 1933-38, Asst. Director of Anglo-Palestine Bank (later Bank Leumi Le-Israel) 1938-47, its Director-General from 1947 until death. Author, works on Zionist and religious topics.

BASCH, VICTOR GUILLAUME (1863-1944). B. Budapest. French Jewish thinker and public figure. Lecturer at Sorbonne from 1907, and Professor of Aesthetics and History of Art there from 1921. A founder of League for Rights of Man,.1898,- its president from 1926. In 1915 he undertook a mission for French Government to United States to win Jewish support for Allied Powers. On right wing of French’. Socialist movement, he was sympathetic to Zionist cause. During Nazi occupation he was on Central Committee of French underground organization and was murdered (with his wife) in Lyons. Author of works on German literature and philosophy, art, and political and social questions.

BEARSTED, (WALTER HORACE SAMUEL) 2nd Viscount (1882-1948). Chairman of Shell Oil Company from 1920. Philanthropist, art patron, and Jewish communal figure. With Sir Herbert Samuel and Simon Marks he led campaigns, including missions to America, 1936, on behalf of German and Austrian Jewry. Member of advisory committee to Jewish delegation at St. James’s Conference, 1939, on future of Palestine.

BEAVERBROOK, (WILLIAM MAXWELL AITKEN), 1st Lord (1879-1964). B. Canada, immigrated to England 1910. Created peer 1917. Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster and Minister of Information 1918-19. Acquired control of Daily Express 1918, Evening Standard 1923. Member of Churchill’s War Cabinet 1940-42, Minister of Aircraft Production and Minister of Supply 1941-42, Lord Privy Seal 1943-45. Argued that the Balfour Declaration damaged British interests in the Muslim world.

BECKER, JAMES HERMAN (1894-1970). B. Chicago. Investment banker. Among initiators, Jewish War Relief Conference, Chicago 1914. Served with U.S. Army in Europe 1918-21, assisting war victims through American Relief Association and later as Director-General of J.D.C. in Europe. Returning to America, he was active in various Jewish organizations, being a non-Zionist member of Jewish Agency from 1929, and President of Chicago Jewish Welfare Fund from 1936, an office held for some 30 years.

BECKER, Julius (1881-1945). B. Waldenburg, Silesia. Journalist. Studied at Breslau and Berne and among founders of Student Zionist Societies in these cities. Doctorate from University of Berne 1906. Appointed secretary of the Berlin Department of Central Zionist Office 1907. Employed by Ullstein Publishing House 1908-33, mainly working on Die Vossische Zeitung. From 1908 editor of German Z.O. publication Judische Rundschau. Aug.-Dec. 1913 edited Die Welt, organ of W.Z.O., having been on Central Committee German Z.O. from 1910. Sent to Constantinople in 1917 as agent for Ullstein’s and on behalf of Z.O. Transferred to Geneva 1919 as representative of Ullstein News Service and League of Nations correspondent for Die Vossische Zeitung. Thereafter an active member of Swiss Z.O., on its Central Committee and its Geneva leader. In 1933 invited by Chinese Government to set up a modern Press Service there. Represented Jewish Agency at League of Nations 1934-5. Delegate VIII, IX, X, XI, XV, XX Z.C., 1907, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1927, 1937. Emigrated to New York 1941.

BEHAM (also known as BOEHM), ARIEH LEIS (1877-1941). Physician. B. Kovno Province. As Kharkov student, founder of Bnei Zion Society and member of Kharkov Kadimah Society. Delegate to IV Z.C., 1900, and to Minsk Conference, 1902. Supporter of D.F. After settling in Palestine in 1913, took active part in Jewish affairs in the fields of public health and education.

BEILINSON, MOSHE (1889-1936). B. Veprika, Russia. Writer, journalist and spokesman of Jewish labour movement in Palestine. Qualifying as physician 1913, briefly in medical practice. Dedicated his life to Zionist Socialism. Resided in Italy 1917-24, then settled in Petah Tikvah as an agricultural labourer. He joined Editorial Board of recently founded Davar, 1926, henceforward writing most of its editorials. Commemorated in Beilinson Hospital near Tel Aviv.

BELISHA, BARROW ISAAC (?1853-1906). B. Melbourne. Lived from an early age in Manchester. Active in Jewish affairs and among first H.Z. Later joined I.T.O.

BELKOVSKY, GREGORY (MOSES Zvi) (1865-1948). Lawyer. B. Odessa. An active Zionist from his student days. Professor of Roman Law at University of Sofia, 1893-7. After returning to Russia, served as Zionist regional leader for St. Petersburg area. Elected to G.A.C. at III, VI, and VIII Z.C., 1899, 1903, 1907. Member of delegation sent to Herzl by Kharkov Conference of Russian Zionists, 1904, to protest against the ‘Uganda’ project. Chairman, 1918-19, of Central Council of Russian Jewish Communities, and Chairman, 1922-4, of clandestine Russian Zionist Centre. Expelled from Soviet Union, 1924, and settled in Palestine, where actively associated with Union of General Zionists.

BEN-AVI, ITTAMAR (1885-1943). B. Jerusalem. Hebrew journalist. Son of lexicographer and pioneer of modern Hebrew revival, Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. Lived in U.S.A. during W.W.I. Editor of Hebrew daily, Doar Hayom, 1919-29, 1931-36. Died in U.S.A.

BENDERLY, SAMSON (1876-1944). B. Safed, Palestine. American Jewish educator. Emigrated to U.S.A. 1898 and studied medicine there. In 1910 appointed Director of Bureau of Jewish Education in New York. A pioneer of the use of Hebrew as a language of instruction.

BENDERSKY, ISRAEL (1865-?). B. Kiev. Physician. Member H.Z., he participated in IV, VI, X, XI Z.C., 1900, 1903, 1911, 1913. Among initiators of Society of ewish Physicians and Scientists for Improving Sanitary Conditions in Palestine established Berlin 1912. Proposed creation of Faculty of Medicine at Hebrew University, in which regard he promised a substantial contribution for purchase land in Jerusalem.

BENDERSKY, SOLOMON (1866-1908). Physician. B. Kishinev. Early adherent of Hovevei Zion. From 1899 to 1903 member of G.A.C. and Zionist regional leader for Bessarabia-Volhynia area.

BENENSON, Gregory (1861-1939). B. Minsk. Industrialist. Entered oil business in Baku, moving to St. Petersburg after 1905, where his interests embraced real estate and mining investments, a gold mining company and the Anglo-Russian Bank. Spent war years in London, initiating a committee which mediated between the Government and unnaturalized Russian Jews facing conscription in British army or deportation to Russia. Returned to Russia, 1917, then became active in real estate transactions in New York. Returning to London in his later years, he and his family maintained close friendship with the Weizmann family.

BENES, EDUARD (1884-1948). Czechoslovak President 1935-38, and from 1945 until forced to resign in 1948 due to Communist demands. Professor at Prague Academy of Commerce 1909-12, and sometime Professor of Sociology at University of Prague. General Secretary, Czechoslovak National Council in Paris 1917; Minister of Foreign Affairs 1918-35, Premier 1921-22. Following Munich, 5 Oct. 1938, he became visiting professor at Chicago University. Led Czech Government-in-Exile in London during W.W.II. As a champion of rights of small nations, he warmly supported Zionism.

BENFEY, HANS (1869-?). Chemist. W.’s friend in Manchester. Manager of inorganic acid producing plant, Clayton Aniline Co., where W. was his colleague. Later moved to Berlin, working in Jakob Michael Enterprises. Returned England 1939, where he died.

BEN-GURION (GRUEN), DAVID (1886-1973), b. Plonsk (then Russian Poland), joining Poalei Zion movement 1903, settling in Palestine 1906. Agricultural worker in Lower Galilee 1907-10. Delegate to XI Z.C., 1911. Studied law in Turkey 1911-14, returning to Palestine on outbreak of war. Exiled, he arrived in America 1915, returning to Palestine 1918 in ranks of Jewish Legion. Among founders of Ahdut ha-Avodah, 1919, and Histadrut 1921-35, when he became chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive. Among those responsible for Biltmore Programme, 1942. He ordered the suppression of dissident underground groups active against British at end of W.W. II, then led political struggle against the British, authorizing Haganah operations. A principal Zionist spokesman before the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry (1946) and UNSCOP (1947), he led defense effort from Dec. 1947, and proclaimed State of Israel 14 May 1948. P.M. and Minister of Defense in provisional and subsequent governments. He declared Jerusalem the capital of Israel, 1949, and launched Israel Bond Drive in the U.S. 1951. In Dec. 1953 he resigned from the government, joining kibbutz Sdeh Boker in Negev. Recalled as Minister of Defence Feb. 1955, and after the elections of Nov. 1955 resumed also as P.M. Resigning June 1963, he left Mapai in 1965 to form Rafi party. On eve of Six-Day War (June 1967) Rafi rejoined the government and Ben-Gurion subsequently formed the `State List’ for the elections of 1969. He resigned from the Knesset in 1970, writing his memoirs.

BENTWICH, HERBERT ZVI (1856-1932). B. London. Admitted a solicitor, London 1877, then called to Bar. Member of Law Society from 1891 and London Chamber of Arbitration. Editor, 1907-24, of Law journal. Joined H.Z. in 1892, and among founders that year of Maccabeans, the society of Anglo-Jewish intellectuals and  professional men on whose behalf he organized Palestine pilgrimage in i 897. Joined Z.O. 1898, delegate H, V–XI, XIV Z.C., 1898, 1899, 1901-13, 1925. Prominent in London Zionist Conference 1898 that preceded formation in 1899 of E.Z.F. Chairman Central Committee E.Z.F. 1899, on its Executive 1906-10. B.O.D. from 1901. Zionist legal adviser in establishment of J.C.T. Opposed East Africa project. Supported practical work in Palestine. Member G.A.C. 1905-11. Grand Commander Order of Ancient Maccabeans 5907-17. Established Maccabean Land Company 1911, to purchase land in Palestine. On U.K. Zionist Political Committee of 1916. An active communal figure, he was a founder and first president, Bnei-Brith’s First Lodge of England and its representative on Committee of Jewish Delegations at Peace Conference, 1919. Resided in Jerusalem in later years.

BENTWICH, NoRm.v. DE NIArros (1883-1971). B. London, son of Herbert Bentwich. Lawyer, authority in International Law. Delegate X, , XX Z.C., 1909, 1911, 1927. In Ministry of Justice, Egypt 1912-15. With British Army in Middle East, 1915-18 (gaining M.C.). Legal Adviser to Military Administration in Palestine 1918-19, Attorney General of Mandatory Government 1920-31. Actively engaged in establishment and progress of Hebrew University, being on its Preparatory Committee from 1922, a Governor from its foundation in 1925 until 1932, Vice-Chancellor 1925-26, Vice-Chairman of Board of Governors from 1953. Protagonist of Arab-Jewish rapprochement through Brith Shalom Society established 1926, subsequently joining Ihud, which favored a bi-national state. Professor of International Law at Hebrew University 1932-51, lecturer at The Hague Academy for International Law 1929,1934. With advent of Nazism, he became closely associated with the cause of Jewish-German refugees. Assistant for Jewish Affairs to League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from Germany, 1933-35 and active in the Council for German Jewry 1936-39, being awarded the O.B.E. for his public services. A leader of the Jewish Committee for Refugee Aid during World War II, he subsequently became Chairman of the United Restitution Organization. Chairman, British Society of Friends of Hebrew University from 1951, President of Jewish Historical Society 1960-62. Chairman, National Peace Committee and Jewish Peace Society. A prolific author, he was joint Editor of 7eivish Review, 1910-13, 1932-34.

BEN-ZVI, ISAAC (1884-1963). Second President of Israel. B. Poltava, Ukraine, active in Poalei Zion and Jewish self-defense in Russia. Immigrated to Palestine 1907, and was a founder of association of Jewish watchmen, Hashomer, 1909. Exiled by the Turks in 1915 (together with David Ben-Gurion), he went to America, was a founder of Hehalutz there, returning to Palestine in 1918 as a soldier in Jewish Legion. Appointed by Sir Herbert Samuel to Palestine Advisory Council, 1920, he resigned after Jaffa riots of 1921. A founding-member in 1920 of Maodrut and Va’ad Leumi (Jewish National Council), being chairman of latter from 1931, and President from 1945. Member of Jerusalem Municipal Council from 1927, resigned after Arab riots of 1929, re-elected in 1934. He participated in the `Round Table’ talks in London of 1939. On establishment of State of Israel he was a Mapai member of First and Second Knessets, 1949, 1951, and on death of W., 1952, was elected Israel’s President, and re-elected 1957,1962. In 1948 he founded and headed Institute for Study of Oriental Jewish Communities, named the Ben-Zvi Institute in 1952. Authored The Exiled and the Redeemed, describing these communities, publ. 1958.

BERARD, MAURICE ROBERT GEORGE. B. 1891. French banker. After W.W.I. among founders Bank of Syria and Lebanon, and was successively its General-Secretary, Administrator and President (until 1945). Became acquainted with W. through Robert de Rothschild (q.v.). He interceded in Damascus on W.’s behalf in possible acquisition for Jewish ownership of Arab lands on Lebanese border.

BERGER, ISAAC (1875-1945). B. Minsk. Among founders of Minsk Pottle Zion. Elected head of central organization of Poole Zion societies of the Minsk type at their Minsk Conference in 1901. Attended Z.Y.C., 1901, and joined D.F. Poale Zion delegate to V and VI Z.C., 1901 and 1903. One of organizers of Minsk Conference, 1902. When, on ‘Uganda’ issue, the Minsk Poole Zion sided with the Territorialists, Berger left them and identified himself with the General Zionists. Active in fund-raising efforts of K.H. in Poland and Bessarabia, 1921-34. Settled in Palestine, 1935.

BERGER, JUNA LEIB (1867-1917). B. Minsk. Elder brother of Isaac Berger (q.v.). Attended Odessa Hovevei Zion Conference, 1890. Member of Bnei Moshe. Leading Zionist worker in Pinsk in 1890s and among founders of Pinsk `reformed’ (i.e. modernized) heder. Delegate to I Z.C., 1897. Itinerant propagandist for J.C.T. and J.N.F. Later, prominent in Zionist activities, Vilna and Moscow. Settled in Palestine, 1912.

BERGER, Juuts (1883-1948). B. Cologne. Secretary of Central Zionist Office in Cologne 1905-10, resigning through his opposition to official policy. ‘Responsible Editor’ of Die Welt 1906-10, Ha’olarn 1907-08. Participated in VI, VIII, XI, XII Z.C., 1903, 1907, 1913, 1921. Re-appointed Secretary of Central Zionist Office, Berlin 1913-20, with responsibility for financial affairs. In K.H. Central Europe Department, Berlin 1920-24, he then settled in Palestine as head of K.K.L. Propaganda Office, 1924-28. Published articles and Zionist pamphlets.

BERGMANN, ERNST DAVID (1903-1975). Organic chemist. B. Germany, Privatdozent, University of Berlin 1928-33; moved to London where began his close association with W. Scientific Director Daniel Sieff Research Inst. and Weizmann Inst. of Science 1934-51; Director, Scientific Dept., Israel Ministry of Defence 1949-66; Chairman, Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1952-56; Director, Israel Inst. for Biological Research, from 1952; Professor of Organic Chemistry H.U. from 1953; Israel Prize for Natural Sciences 1965.

BERLIGNE (later Ginzburg), Bella (1896-1969). B. Tzaritzin, Russia. Daughterof Eliahu Berligne and intimate friend of W. Employed as a nurse, and in censorship department, by British in Palestine, 1918. Later studied in Switzerland.

BERLIGNE, ELIYAHU MEIR (1866-1959). B. Mogilev. Prominent communal figure in Palestine. After law studies in Moscow went into business in Tsaritsyn (Stalingrad, Volgograd), where he joined Zionist Committee. Delegate V, VI Z.C., 1901, 1903, and Russian Zionist Conference, Minsk, 1902. Member D.F. In 1907 emigrated to Palestine where among founders two years earlier of Atid manufacturing concern. Pioneer settler in Tel Aviv 1909 and chairman of its Municipal Committee 1917-19. Member, Jewish Community Delegation to Peace Conference, 1919. On Executive of Jewish National Council ( Va’ad Leumi) throughout its existence (1920-48), occupying various posts : Treasurer, member of its Education Committee, Board chairman of Otzar-Hayishuv Bank (1926), representative of National Council on Actions Committee. On supervisory committee of Geulah Society 1922-35, chairman of Board of Governors of Haifa Technion from 1941, on Board of Supervisors of Herzlia Gymnasium. Signatory to Declaration of Independence on proclamation of statehood and a General Zionist representative on Council of Provisional Government of Israel.

BERLIN (from 1949 BAR-ILAN), MEIR (1880-1949). Leader of religious Zionism. B. Russia. In 1911 appointed Secretary of world Mizrachi movement, moving to U.S.A. in 1915 as President of U.S. Mizrachi. From 1925 a Board member of J.N.F. Settled 1926 in Jerusalem, where he served as President of world Mizrachi and as its representative in Zionist and Yishuv institutions, including clandestine committees for defence, and on Zionist Executive 1929-31. A leading opponent of the Palestine partition plan (1937) and of White Paper (1939), advocating civil disobedience and complete non-cooperation of yishuv with the government. An initiator of National Religious Front in State of Israel, and founding-editor of religious Zionist newspapers. Bar-Ilan University near Tel Aviv, and Bet Meir, an agricultural settlement near Jerusalem, were named in his honour.

BERLIN, SIR ISAIAH. B. Riga, 1909. Order of Merit 1971 Brought to England as a boy, he became a lecturer in philosophy at New College, Oxford, 1932; Fellow of All Souls, Oxford 1932-38, Research Fellow 1950-57; Fellow of New College 1938-50. Served with British Information Service in New York, and with British embassies in Washington and Moscow during W.W.II and subsequently. Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory 1957-67; first President, Wolfson College, Oxford 1966-75; President, British Academy from 1974; formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England; on Board of Governors, Hebrew University. Editorial Board, Weizmann Letters and Papers. Author, inter alia, of Karl Marx 1939, The Hedgehog and the Fox 1953, Life and Opinions of Moses Hess 1959.

BERNADOTTE, FOLKS, Count Bernadotte of Wisborg (1895-1948). Soldier and diplomat; nephew of King Gustavus V of Sweden. During W.W.II headed Swedish Red Cross, securing the exchange of many prisoners of war and inmates of German concentration camps. The Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler used his good offices in 1945 to forward peace proposals to the Allies. Appointed 20 May 1948 by U.N. Security Council to mediate in Arab–Israel conflict, and negotiated the first truce (11 June). He developed a peace plan which was rejected by both the Arab States and Israel and failed to achieve endorsement by U.N. General Assembly in Nov. 1948. Assassinated in Jerusalem 1 Sept. 1948 by Jewish extremists.

BERNARD-LAZARE—see LAZARE, BERNARD.

BERNFELD, Simon (1860-1940). B. Stanislav, Galicia. Rabbi and historian. Following studies at University of Berlin and Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, awarded Doctorate and ordained in 1885. Chief Rabbi of Sephardic Jewish communities in Belgrade 1885-94, then returned to Berlin where he remained until his death. While occupying no specific post in Berlin, he engaged in research and literary activities, much of which was in Hebrew.

BERNSTEIN, LEON (LEIB) (1877-1962). Journalist. B. Vilna. Actively associated, in the 1890s, with Jewish labour movement in Kovno and Vilna. Later, member of Build Central Committee. Manager, 1900-01, Russian Social-Democratic Union press in Geneva, where in 1901 he organized a Bundist group.

BERNSTEIN, MATTHIAS MAX (1862–?). B. Mitava (Mitau, Yelgava), then Kurland Province, Russia. Physician. Studied at Moscow and Berlin Universities. Moved to England 1892. Delegate VI, VII Z.C., 1903, 1905, opposing East Africa project. On Executive of E.Z.F., 1903.

BERNSTEIN-KOHAN, JACOB (1859-1929). Physician. B. Kishinev. Founded Jewish nationalist students society, Dorpat University, 1884. At I.Z.C., 1897, elected to G.A.C., on which he continued to serve until 1905. Director, 1897-1901, Zionist Correspondence Centre at Kishinev. Prominently associated with Z.Y.C., 1901. Among founders of D.F. and member of its Programme Committee. At Minsk Conference, 1902, elected to serve on Cultural Commission set up by the Conference. On the ‘Uganda’ issue (1903-05) one of the leading Zione Zion (anti-Ugandists). Member of S.A.C., 1905-7, and of G.A.C., 1907-11. Went to Palestine in 1907 but in 1910 returned to Russia, where he resumed his Zionist activities. After a second unsuccessful attempt to settle in Palestine in 1925, again returned to Russia, where he devoted himself to medical work in the Jewish colonies in the Crimea.

BEVIN, ERNEST (1881-1951). Began career in trade union movement as national organizer of Dockers’ Union 1910-21; General Secretary, Transport and General Workers’ Union, 1921-40; Minister of Labour and National Service 1940-45. As Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1945-51, his Middle East policy based on major role of the Arabs there and the assumption that Palestine could not solve the Jewish problem, led him into conflict with, and hostility against, Zionist Organization, and ultimately to submission of Palestine question to United Nations, 1947.

BIALIK, CHAIM NACHMAN (1873-1934). B. Radi, Ukraine. The ‘national poet’ of Modern Hebrew literature. Traditionally educated, he became acquainted with secular works and helped found a Hovevei Zion group at Volozhin Yeshiva. Began literary activity in Odessa, with encouragement from Ahad Ha’am, and among founders of influential Moriah publishing house there, 1905. Soon established as the outstanding Hebrew writer, his major themes being the rebirth of the Jewish people and the Return to Zion. Belr HaHaregah (In the City of Slaughter’), his poem of anguish and outrage over the Kishinev pogroms of 1903, had enormous impact on Russian Jewish youth. Leaving Russia 1921, he established the Dvir publishing house in Berlin. Settled in Tel Aviv 1924, and made that city a centre of Jewish cultural life, founding there the Oneg Shabbat movement. Chairman of Va’ad HaLashon Hahnit (Hebrew Language Council). Died in Vienna.

BICKERMAN, JOSEPH (1867-1945). Journalist. B. Podolia, Russia. Active anti-Zionist from student days in Odessa in late 1890s. His critical analysis of Zionism in the monthly Russkoye Bogatstvo (July 1902) attracted much attention in Russia and abroad. From 1905 lived in St. Petersburg, where he wrote for the Russian liberal press. After 1917 Revolution, associated with Russian monarchist emigre circles in France.

BIENENSTOCK, MAX JACOB MEIR (1881-1923). Pseudonyms : Stock, Ginz, Icaveret. B. Tarnow, Galicia. Author and educationalist. Joined Hatehiya Zionist Society while at high school. Founder and chairman, Zionist Academic Society Bar-Kochba in Tarnow, 1902, and librarian and secretary Zionist Academic Society Przedswit (Before Dawn’) while student in Cracow, 1902-4. Participated in conferences of Austrian Z.O., 1905, 1906. Teacher, Royal Gymnasium in Wadowice, 1904-7, obtained Doctorate Cracow University 1908 and passed teaching examinations 1909. Instructor at Royal Gymnasium in Stryy from 1909. In Vienna from outbreak of War till 1916, afterwards devoting himself to public activities. With annexation of Eastern Galicia to Ukrainian Republic, he was among architects of Jewish autonomy, with membership of local Council, and subsequently Central National Jewish Council member responsible for educational network. On Polish absorption of Galicia, appointed instructor at Jewish Gymnasium in Lvov 1919, and following year its Principal. He was among founders of Zionist Labour Party, Hitandut, and was its delegate XII Z.C. (1921). Elected to Polish Senate 1922 as a Nationalist Jewish representative. He published various works on German literature and pedagogy, and was author many articles on politics.

BIENSTOCK, BERTHOLD (1861-1940). B. Krotoszyn, district of Poznan. Physician and bacteriologist. Graduated in Breslau 1888 and subsequently practised as ear, nose, and throat specialist in Mulhouse, where he also engaged in scientific research. In 1900 he discovered the microbe bacillus potrificus Bienstock. Author various scientific works. Delegate V, VII Z.C., 1901, 1905.

BIRNBAUM, NATHAN (1864-1937). Writer. B. Vienna. One of the founders of Vienna Jewish Zionist students society, Kadimah, 1882. Edited Jewish nationalist journal, Selbstemancipation, 1885-6, 1890-3, and the Berlin Jewish German-language monthly Zion, 1896-7. Took part in I Z.C., 1897, and served for a time as secretary of Z.C., but later discarded Zionism in favour of the view that what was needed for Jewish national regeneration was cultural autonomy for a Yiddish-speaking Jewry in the diaspora. About 1918 turned from this to religion, becoming an active adherent of the ultra-Orthodox Jewish organization, Agudath Israel.

BLANK, REUBEN (1866-c. 1954). Writer. B. Kishinev. Studied at Zurich, Paris, and Berlin. Secretary, 1902, of Berlin non-partisan committee for helping Russian Jews studying at German Universities. After settling in St. Petersburg in 1905, published writings on Jewish subjects and was also a frequent contributor to the Russian general press. During part of First World War was Petrograd correspondent of the Anglo-Jewish Association. Spent part of the war years in England. Later moved to Berlin, and finally to New York.

BLAU, Julius (1861-1939). B. Pleschen, district of Poznan. Prominent in Jewish community of Frankfurt-on-Main, and its president from 1903 until his death. Active in many Jewish organizations, among them I.C.A. Executive Committee.

BLOCH, BENJAMIN MARCUS (1900-1959). Physicist. B. Ukraine, studied at Prague. Journalist on Pan., Tagblatt 1920-29, then until 1934 assistant to Prof. Jacques Errera of Brussels ‘University, when he was invited by W. to head Physics Dept. of Daniel Sieff Institute. From 1936 he was the Institute’s administrative director, continuing in this capacity with Weizmann Institute. In W.W.II he established at the Institute a pharmaceutical factory which functioned 1941-49.

BLUM, LEON (1872-1950). First socialist and first Jew to become French Premier. In his youth achieved some success as a writer. A dreyfusard, he joined Socialist Party 1899. Elected to Chamber of Deputies in 1919. Prime Minister 1936-37. Vice-President of Cabinet 1937-38. Prime Minister and Finance Minister March-Apr. 1938. Arrested by the Vichy regime, 1940, and handed over to the Nazis. At his trial at Riom, his brilliant defence confounded the Germans and the ‘men of Vichy’, and the former ordered suspension of the trial. Liberated from imprisonment 1945. Premier Dec. 1946 Jan. 1947. A strong supporter of Zionism, Blum joined Jewish Agency for Palestine in 1929.

BLUMEL, ANDRE (1893-1973). Jurist, President of French Zionist Federation 1955-60. A close friend of Leon Blum, he was the latter’s Chef de Cabinet while Premier, 1936-37. He was imprisoned during the German occupation of France, 1940-44, and in 1945 was for a short period Chef de Cabinet of the Minister of Interior. His strong leftist sympathies, expressed in the Jewish Communist Press, compelled his resignation from the Zionist movement.

BLUMENFELD, JOSEPH (1886-1960). B. Kishinev. Chemical engineer. M., 1909, Rachel Khatzmann, sister of V.W. Settled in Paris 1905 as student and assistant of Prof. Urbain. Director of chemical factory in Launay, Normandy, 1914-27. Established his own company, Societe Produits Chimiques des Terres Rares, 1919. Engaged in industrial application and marketing of W.’s chemical discoveries.

BLUMENFELD, KURT YEHUDAH (1884-1963). B. Treuberg, East Prussia. Active in Zionist movement from 1904, he was Director of Information Dept. of W.Z.O. 1910-14. Editor Die Welt 1913-14. President of German Z.O. 1923-33. Settled in Palestine 1933, and joined K.H. Board.

BODENHEIMER, MAX ISIDORE (1865-1940). Lawyer. Among founders of German Zionist Federation and Chairman of its Central Committee, 1897-1910. Member G.A.C., 1897-1921, and President of J.N.F., 1907-14. During First World War, member of Komitee fiir den Osten, designed to serve as intermediary between Jews and German authorities in occupied parts of Eastern Europe. After the War, identified with Zionist-Revisionist movement until its secession from the Z.O. in 1935. Settled in Palestine, 1935.

BOGRACHOV (BOGER), Crum (1876-1963). B. Berdyansk (Osipenko), Ukraine. Hebrew education pioneer. Principal of first Hebrew school in Berdyansk, 1897-9. Subsequently teacher in Ekaterinoslay. Studied in Berne, 1901-6, obtaining Doctorate there. Delegate VI–VIII Z.C., 1903-7. Opposing East Africa project, he was active in Zionei-Zion. Emigrated to Palestine 1906 and among initiators Hebrew Gymnasium Jaffa (later, Herzlia Gymnasium) of which a Board member. Active in Ivria, Hebrew language society, and from 1907 on its Central Committee. On deportation from Palestine, 1915, he founded school for refugee children in Alexandria, heading it till 1917. Returning to Palestine 1918 he rejoined the Board of the Gymnasium, of which he was Principal 1940-51. On Tel Aviv Municipal Council 1920-30. Delegate first and second Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Hanivharim) 1920-31. On Palestine Central Committee of World Union of General Zionists, he was on A.C. from 1937 and a General Zionist member Second Knesset 1951-5.

BOLS, MAJOR-GENERAL, SIR LOUIS JEAN (1867-1930). Served in Europe 1914-17 and in Palestine and Syria 1918-19 as Allenby’s Chief of Staff. Subsequently he became Chief Administrator of O.E.T.A. in Palestine. After the disturbances in Jerusalem (4-6 Apr. 1920) he recommended the replacement of the Zionist Commission by a Zionist Advisory Council of three members under his control, a recommendation which was not accepted. With establishment of the civil administration under Sir Herbert Samuel, June 1920, Bols returned to Britain.

BOOTHBY, ROBERT JOHN GRAHAM (Lord). B. 1900. Politician, M.P. (U.) 1924-58; Parliamentary Private Secretary to Winston Churchill (Chancellor of Exchequer), 1926-29; Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Food 1940-41; a British delegate to Consultative Assembly of Council of Europe 1949-57, vice-chairman of its Committee on Economic Affairs 1952-56; Rector, University of St. Andrews 1959-61; President, Anglo-Israel Association.

BOROKHOV, BER (1881-1917). B. Zolotonosha, Ukraine. Yiddish writer and philologist, and an outstanding theoretician of Socialist Zionism. Among founders of P.Z. in Russia 1906, he became leader of P.Z. World Union.

BORUKHOV, AARON (1869-1946). Teacher and writer. B. Vilna. Entered Berne University, 1899. Took part in Munich preparatory conference (Apr. 1901) for Z.Y.C. Member of D.F. group of delegates at V Z.C., 1901. Delegate to VI Z.C., 1903. Appointed secretary of Hovevei Zion Odessa Committee, 1906, and later, of Russian Zionist Centre, Vilna. Settled in Palestine, 1912.

BORUKHOVICH (BORUKH), JUDAH ISAAC LEIB (1874-1953). Pseud.: Libi, Hanin, Ben-Meir, Nitzotz, Reshef. B. Taurage (Tauroggen), Lithuania. Author and Hebrew educator. Studied in Berne 1901-6, where he obtained Doctorate. Member Academic Zionist Society there. From 1907 teacher at Jewish Gymnasium in Vilna, continuing on transfer to Ekaterinoslav 1916. Returned to Lithuania 1921, teaching at Gymnasium in Kovno. From 1923 editor and translator for Omanuth Publishing House in Homburg, Germany. Emigrated to Palestine 1925, and for ten years taught at Herzlia Gymnasium, Tel Aviv. Contributor to Hebrew periodicals, he translated from various languages (awarded Tschernikhovsky Prize for translation of Faust), writing also in Yiddish and German.

BRAININ, REUBEN (1862-1939). Pseudonyms : Avjoseph, B. Moses, Federman, Dr. Schreiberman, Kulmus, Ahad-Hazionim, etc. B. Lyady, White Russia. Hebrew author, journalist, and critic. Active Bnei-Zion Society and founder Safa Brura, Hebrew language society, Moscow 1888. Settled in Vienna 1892. Published Mimizrah Umima’ arav, review of Jewish studies, 1894-9. Moved to Berlin 1896. Delegate I, V–VIII, XI, XIV Z.C., 1897, 1901-7, 1913, 1925. Opposed East Africa project. Active in Hebrew language associations Ivria and Histadrut Lesafa Uletarbizt knit. Emigrated U.S.A. 1910, in Canada 1911-16, then settled in New York. Elected 1917 to Executive Federation of American Zionists (since 1918: Z.O.A.), its hon. vice-chairman 1926-7. Edited Zionist periodical Hatoren 1919-25. President, Histadrut knit (organization for the promotion of Hebrew culture) in U.S.A. and founder Hebrew Authors Society there. Visited U.S.S.R. 1926, and his enthusiastic articles on Jewish situation there earned him condemnation by Zionist circles. Thenceforward active in ICOR, society for promotion of Jewish settlement in Soviet Union. Contributed also to Yiddish and German periodicals.

BRAND, JOELJENO (1906-1964). B. Romania, brought as child to Germany 1910. Active in left-wing politics, he was arrested 1933, but released a year later and joined Poalei Zion (socialist Zionist movement) in Budapest, where from 1938 he participated in semi-clandestine organization for helping Jewish refugees. Established contact with German Nazi agents then secretly working in Hungary. In 1943 he became a member of Budapest Jewish Relief Committee, and in this capacity met Adolf Eichmann, chief of operations for extermination of European Jewry. On Eichmann’s orders Brand left in May 1944 for neutral Turkey, to present J.A. with a German proposition (the sincerity of which has never been established) to release a large number of Jews in exchange for the supply of trucks and food. He was arrested in Syria by the British, who claimed that they suspected him of being a Nazi agent, and was taken to Cairo. In Oct. 1944 he was released by which time many more Jews had been deported to death camps. Brand remained in Palestine, and after the war devoted himself single-mindedly to tracking down Nazi war criminals. He testified at the Eichmann trial in Jerusalem, 1961, and died in Frankfurt while testifying against two of Eichmann’s chief aides.

BRANDEIS, Louis Dembitz (1856-1941). B. Louisville, Kentucky. Attorney in Boston, Mass., 1879-1916, Justice of Supreme Court 1916-39. Campaigned to restrict power of giant corporations and for progressive labour laws. A close associate of President Wilson (q.v.), he later promoted the socio-economic approach that largely served as basis for F.D. Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’. Joined F.A.Z. (later Z.O.A.) in 1912, its hon. president 1918-21. Soon became leader of Zionist movement in U.S.A., with chairmanship of Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs 1914-16, and its hon. president 1916-21. Hon. presidency of W.Z.O., 1920. Worked for establishment of American Jewish Congress. Under his influence Pres. Wilson adopted a positive though undeclared attitude towards the plan to create Jewish national home in Palestine under British protection, as embodied in B.D. In 1917 assisted in formation of Jewish Legion and American Zionist Medical Unit. Following a 1919 visit to Palestine he argued that the period of political activity was over, that the Z.O. should concentrate on making the country economically independent through reconstruction and immigrant absorption, bringing professional experts onto Zionist Executive accordingly. He wanted Palestinian affairs to be conducted by locally-elected representatives, and fundraising by the Zionist federations in the diaspora. Criticising the actions of the Zionist Executive, he opposed, at London Conference, 1920, establishment ofJewish Agency and Keren Hayesod. The Z.O.A. nevertheless endorsed W.’s policy at its Cleveland Convention, 1921, and Brandeis and his supporters resigned their Zionist offices. He continued activity for Palestine, inspiring the creation of Palestine Cooperative Company which in 1925 became Palestine Economic Corporation and Palestine Development Council. In 1930 supported return of ‘Brandeis Group’ to American Zionist Executive. Wrote extensively on issues of capital and labour, law, and Zionist and Jewish problems.

BRANDT, Bolus (BARuKri) (1860-1907) (pseudonyms, Arendt, Arndt, Yevrei). Economist and writer (Russian, Hebrew and Yiddish). B. Ukraine. Early adherent of Hovevei Zion and, as graduate student in Berlin in early 1890s, member of Russian Jewish Academic Society. Took part, under assumed name, in I Z.C., 1897. Wrote on Jewish matters for Russian general press. From 1897 an official of the Russian Ministry of Finance.

BRODETSKY, SELIG (Asher) (1888-1954). B. Olviopol, Ukraine. Mathematician. Arriving in London in childhood, he caused a sensation at being bracketed Cambridge Senior Wrangler at age 20. Doctorate at Leipzig, 1913. Lecturer, Bristol University 1914-19, Leeds 1920-24, then professor there until 1948. Active in Zionist student affairs, he joined E.Z.F. Executive in 1914, being a vice-president 1922-48, president 1948, then hon. president. Participated in XII-XXIII Z.C., 1921-51. On W.Z.O. Executive 1928-51, heading Jewish Agency’s political department in London until 1949. Favoured expansion of Jewish Agency. Though in General Zionist group that, supported W., he remained on Agency Executive under Nahum Sokolow’s presidency, 1931-35. Zionist representative on C.B.F. on its establishment 1933, and Council for German Jewry founded 1936. Grand Commander, O.A.M., 1935-49. President B.O.D. 1939-49. A Governor of Hebrew University from 1926, with membership of its Academic Council, and its president 1949-51. Spent his last years in London.

BROMBERG, FYODOR (FEIVEL) (1862-1941). Teacher and journalist. B. Odessa. M. sister of Catherine Dorfman (q.v.). From 1897 prominent among active Zionists in Kherson. Delegate to Minsk Conference, 1902. Joined Zionist Socialist party (`Z.S.’), 1921.

BROWN, DAVID ABRAHAM (1875-1958). B. Edinburgh, Scotland. Became prominent as industrialist and community leader in Detroit, Mich. Chairman of American Jewish Relief Campaign, 1921-22, of United Jewish Campaign, 1925-38, and active K.H. worker. In 1929 moved to New York, where he assumed control of Broadway National Bank and Trust Co. and became publisher of weekly American Hebrew, 1930-35. Chairman of Finance Committee, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1924-35, J.D.C. Board member, 1920-37, and of Palestine Economic Corporation, 1925-36.

BRUCK, GREGORY (Zvi) (1869-1922). Physician. B. Chernigov, Ukraine. Early adherent of Hovevei Zion. Member of G.A.C., 1899-1905, and during that period Zionist regional leader for Homel area. Appointed Crown Rabbi, Vitebsk, 1901. At Minsk Conference, 1902, delivered opening address, coming out strongly against D.F. Member of first Russian Duma, 1906. Disapproved of Zionists figuring as separate party at Duma elections and on that issue seceded from Z.O., but later rejoined it and was delegate to X and XII Z.C., 1911 and 1921. Went to Palestine in 1920, but returned to Europe in 1921 and died in Berlin.

BRUENN, ZE’EV WILIIELM (1884-1949). B. Milveslaw, province of Posen, then Germany. Physician and citrus-grower. Settled in Palestine 1911, practicing medicine at Hadera. On establishment of Nathan Straus Health Station in Jerusalem he served as its director, 1912-14, with responsibility for anti-malarial and contagious diseases department. Served in German Army during First World War, returning to Hadera 1920 to become a farmer. Member of Hadera Local Council, becoming President in 1914. On Central Committee of Jewish Farmers Federation, and especially active on Citrus Marketing Board. A founder and Governor of agricultural school at Pardess Hanna.

BRUTZKUS, Jurrus (1870-1951). B. Palanga (Polangen), Lithuania. Physician, author, and historian. While student in Moscow member Bnei-Zion. From 1894 in St. Petersburg, where as member Voskhod editorial staff, 1899-1902, he encouraged national tendency in paper’s policy. Editor Evreiskaya Zhizn 1904. Joined Z.O. at its inception, member D.F. Delegate VI, VIII–XIII, XV, XVI Z.C., 1903, 1907-23, 1927, 1929. Opposed East Africa project at VI Z.C. but subsequently retracted. Settled Minsk 1905. From 1906 on Russian Zionist Central Committee and Regional Leader for North. G.A.C. 1907-11. As ‘synthetic’ Zionist, favoured combination `political’ and ‘practical’ Zionism with Gegenwartsarbeit in Diaspora. Served Austrian front First World War. Elected to abortive All-Russian Constituent Assembly, 1917, and headed Central Office for Immigration to Palestine, an affiliate of Russian Zionist Executive. Minister for Jewish Affairs in Lithuanian government 1922-3. Subsequently in Berlin where active in O.S.E. (World Union for Protection of Health of Jews), and ultimately its head. On Nazi accession to power transferred to Paris as hon. president O.S.E. and Board member O.R.T. and H.I.A.S. (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society). After residence U.S.A. emigrated Israel 1949. Published articles in Yiddish, Hebrew, and Russian, and works of historical research.

BUBER, MARTIN (MORDECAI ZEEV) (1878-1965). B. Vienna but spent early years in Lemberg. Studied at Leipzig, Berlin, and Zurich and finally graduated at Vienna (Ph.D., 1904). Joined Z.O. 1898 and took part in III Z.C., 1899. Appointed editor Die Welt, 1901. A leading member of the group of D.F. delegates at V and VI Z.C., 1901 and 1903. A founder, and member of the first board of directors of the Jitdischer Verlag (est. 1902). Active supporter of Jewish University project in its early stages (1902-3) and again on its revival in 1913. On ‘Uganda’ issue (1904-5) anti-Ugandist. Founder and editor of the Berlin monthly Der Jude, 1916-24. After collapse of D.F. in 1904 withdrew from Zionist politics, but eventually gravitated towards the socialist Hapoel Hazair and at XII Z.C., 1921, moved on their behalf a conciliatory resolution, which the Congress adopted, on the Zionist attitude towards the Arab people. Later, actively associated with the efforts of Ihud and like-minded groups to promote Jewish-Arab understanding. The publication in 1922 of Ich and Du, the most widely-known of his prolific output of works on the borderland between theology and philosophy, was followed by his appointment, in 1924, as lecturer in the history of the Jewish religion at the University of Frankfurt, which in 1930 made him an honorary professor. This appointment terminated with Hitler’s rise to power in 1933, and, after serving for a time as Principal of the College of Jewish Studies in Frankfurt, he settled in Palestine in 1938. Professor of Sociology and Philosophy at the Hebrew University from 1938 until his retirement, in 1957, with the title of professor emeritus.

BUKHMIL, JOSHUA HESHEL (1869-1938). B. Ostrog, Volhynia. Active member of Zionist Students Society at Montpellier University. Sent by Herzl, 1897, on mission to Russia to work for Hovevei Zion participation in I Z.C. Addressed Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. and of its Programme Committee. A leading supporter of Syrkin’s Cheirus movement so long as main object was to extract funds for Zionist purposes from I.C.A., but took no part in its later Zionist-Socialist activities. On ‘Uganda’ issue (1903-5) sided with anti-Ugandists. Later, engaged in Zionist propaganda in Russia and in fund-raising for K.H. Settled in Palestine, 1923.

CAMPBELL, SIR JOHN (1874-1944). Civil servant; served in India 1897-1922; vice-chairman of Greek Refugee Settlement Commission 1923-27, 1929; economic and financial adviser to C.O. 1930-42.

CANTOR, EDDIE (IsmoR Iskowrrz, 1892-1964). U.S. Jewish comedian B. New York City, he started in vaudeville, and went on to achieve success in musical comedy, films, radio and television. Prominent in social and educational activities of Young Men’s Hebrew Association, and founder, 1922, of Eddie Cantor Camp Committee for disadvantaged boys. From 1936 he raised substantial sums for Youth Aliyah. He was a founder and President of Screen Actors’ Guild and Jewish Theatrical Guild. In 1964 he was decorated by President Lyndon B. Johnson for services to United States and humanity. Wrote reminiscences.

CASEY, RICHARD GARDINER (1890-1976). Australian politician, liaison officer in London between British and Australian Governments 1924-30. Member Federal Parliament 1931-40, 1949-60; held several posts in Australian government. Minister to U.S. 1940-42; Minister of State resident in Middle East and member of U.K. Cabinet 1942-43; Governor of Bengal 1944-46. In charge of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (C.S.I.R,O.) 1949-65. Governor-General Australia 1965-69. Raised to Peerage 1960. Publication of Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann (1960-68).

CECIL, Edgar Algernon Robert (Viscount Cecil of Chelwood) (1864-1958). B. London. Conservative statesman, M.P. 1906-10, 1911-23. Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs 1915-18, Minister of Blockade 1916-18, Lord Privy Seal 1923-24, Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1924-27. Worked for disarmament and establishment of League of Nations. President League of Nations Union 1923-45. Wilson Peace Prize, 1924, Nobel Peace Prize, 1937.

Chairman, Provisional Committee for Anglo-Jewish Conference of Zionists and non-Zionists seeking a common basis of action to give effect to the Balfour Declaration, 1917-18. Member, Advisory Committee on Palestine headed by Herbert Samuel to draft proposals for submission to the Peace Conference in Paris, 1919. President, Jewish Historical Society, 1916-18. Knighted 1915. Author of The Expulsion of the Jews of England in 1290.

CHAJES, HIRSCH (ZVI) PERETZ (1876-1927). B. Galicia. Rabbi, scholar and Zionist leader. Lectured at Collegio Rabbinico Italiano in Florence from 1902, at University of Florence from 1904. Rabbi of Trieste 1912-18. Chief Rabbi of Vienna 1918-27. Chairman of A.C. 1921-25.

CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH (5836-19 4) . B. London. Mayor of Birmingham 1873-6. Member of Parliament, 1876-1914. President Board of Trade, 1880-5. President Local Government Board, 1886. Secretary of State for Colonies, 1895-1903.

CHANCELLOR, LT.-COL. SIR JOHN ROBERT (1870-1952). High Commissioner for Palestine 1928-31. Joined Royal Engineers 1890; served in India 1890-97; Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Mauritius 1911-16; Trinidad and Tobago 1916-21; Southern Rhodesia 1923-26. On retiring from Government service, 1931, he was active in such organizations as International Colonial Institute and Royal Empire Society, which he served as Vice-President.

CHAPIRA, BERNARD ELEAZAR Dov (1880-1967). Pseudonym: Eldash Hagelili. B. Safad. Semitic scholar, teacher, and journalist. Early in century, when he was already contributing to Hebrew Press, studied Semitic languages in Paris and was Hebrew teacher at People’s Academy established by Zionists. On editorial staff of L’Echo Sioniste, organ of French Zionists. Supported Jewish University project. After First World War lecturer in Semitic languages at Ecole des Hautes Etudes in Paris. Librarian at Bibliothèque Nationale and Alliance Israelite Universelle. Settled in Jerusalem in 1947 and published booklets and articles on linguistic and biblical research.

CHURCHILL WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER (1874-1965). After varied military career overseas, he was elected Conservative M.P. for Oldham 1900, but joined Liberal Party in 1904. President of Board of Trade 1908-10; Home Secretary 1910; First Lord of Admiralty 1911-15; Minister of Munitions 1917-18; Secretary for War and Air 1918-21. Colonial Secretary 1921-22, and Minister responsible for 1922 White Paper on Palestine, which governed British policy there for a decade. Left Liberal Party 1922 and out of Parliament until 1924, when he returned as Conservative. Chancellor of the Exchequer 1924-29, then without office until appointed First Lord of Admiralty 1939-40. Prime Minister 1940-45, 1951-55. Knight of the Garter 1953. Received Nobel Prize for Literature, 1953.

CLARK-KERR, ARCHIBALD JOHN KERR, LORD INVERCHAPEL (1882-1951 ). Entered diplomatic service, 1906. After foreign postings and F.O. service at home, he was sent to Cairo 1922, where he acted as Counsellor 1923-25. Ambassador to Iraq 1935-38, China 1938-42, U.S.S.R. 1942-46, U.S.A. 1946-48.

CLAYTON, Sir Gilbert (1875-1929). B. Ryde, U.K. British army officer, serving irt. Middle East from 1900. Private Secretary to Sir Reginald Wingate, 1908-13. Sudan. Agent and Director of Intelligence for Egyptian Army in Cairo, 1914-17. He was. simultaneously responsible for the Arab Bureau, with key function in formulation of Hussein-MacMahon Letters, 1915. As Brigadier-General, was Chief Political Officer to E.E.F. 1917-19, and to O.E.T.A., 1918-19. Military Governor of O.E.T.A.-South, 1917-19. Initiator of Weizmann-Feisal meeting, 1918. Cautiously sympathetic to Zionism. Adviser to Egyptian Ministry of Interior 1919-22. Chief Secretary to Palestine Government, 1922-25, and involved in decision to sever Transjordan from Palestine, 1923. Mediated in border disputes between Hedjaz and its neighbors, 1925, and played a role in conclusion of Treaty of Jeddah, 1927. High Commissioner of Iraq 1928-29.

COHEN, BENJAMIN VICTOR (born 1894). U.S. lawyer and Presidential adviser. He served the London Zionist Bureau 1919-21, and was counsel to the Zionist delegation at the Paris P.C. and at San Remo. In 1933, he joined an inner circle of advisers to President Roosevelt, serving in various governmental offices, and played an influential role in discussions leading to formulation of U.N. Charter. His work at United Nations continued under Presidency of Lyndon Johnson, to whom he acted as adviser.

COHEN, ISRAEL (1879-1961). B. Manchester. Journalist. Pseud.: Hamazkir. Among founders London Zionist League, 1904. Secretary E.Z.F. 1909-10. English Secretary at Central Zionist Office in Cologne and Berlin, 1910-13. From 1918 in charge of Propaganda and Public Relations Department of Zionist Executive in London, traveling on Zionist missions to communities throughout world. After XII Z.C., 1921, appointed W.Z.O. General Secretary, retaining this office until 1939. Author of works on contemporary Jewish and Zionist affairs.

COHEN, JOSEPH Louis (1891-1940). B. Manchester. Economist. An editor of Zionist Banner, 1910, and close to W.’s Zionist group. President, Cambridge University Zionist Society, 1913. Continued studies in New York, 1914, and active there in organizing Jewish Legion of British Army, 1918. Returning to England, he became Reader in Economics at Cambridge, then at London School of Economics. On Executive of International Union for Social Advancement, and British representative on Social Insurance Commission of I.L.O. A sometime economic adviser to Marks and Spencer, Ltd., he joined Labour Party and directed political office of World Union of Poalei-Zion, London. Participated in XVII, XIX Z.C., 1931, 1935. On U.K. Executive, Friends of Hebrew University. Hon. Secretary of C.B.F., established 1933, a founder of Council for German Jewry, 1936. Author of works on economics, contributor to Zionist Press. Killed in London air raid.

COHEN, LIONEL LEONARD (1888-1973). From 1951, Lord Cohen of Walmer. Jurist. B. London, educated Eton and Oxford; called to Bar 1913, K.C. 1929, Bencher Lincoln’s Inn 1934, Judge of Chancery Division of High Court 1943-46; Lord Justice of Appeal and Privy Councillor 1946-51; Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1951-60. A B.O.D. Vice-President 1934-38, President London Board of Guardians 1940-47, and of Jewish Historical Society of England 1948-49.

COHEN, SIR ROBERT W ALEY (1877-1952). Industrialist and communal leader. Managing director of Shell Transport and Trading Co. (from 1907) and chairman of Economic Board for Palestine and of Palestine Corporation. President of United Synagogue and responsible for establishment, 1919, of Jewish War Memorial (later Jewish Memorial Council). He collaborated with W. in the 1920s but remained opposed to political Zionism.

COHN, JOSEF. B. 1904 Berlin, Ph.D. Heidelberg 1929. Moving to England 1933, he served as secretary for Bureau for Settlement of German Jews, 1933-35; W.’s personal assistant 1935-38, and his representative in U.S. for Sieff Institute affairs from 1938. Executive Vice-President European Committee of Weizmann Institute from 1955. Author, England and Palestine (Berlin 1931). Awarded Bundesverdienstkreuz (First Class) by Federal Govt. of Germany.

CORALNIK, ABRAHAM (1883-1937). B. Lyman, Ukraine. Author, dramatist, and journalist. Obtained Doctorate in Vienna. Member Editorial Board Z.O. organ Die Welt, Cologne 1906-7. Delegate VIII, XV Z.C., 1907, 1927. In U.S.A. 1915-17, then in Russia on Editorial Board Zionist Petrograder Tageblatt. Settled in New York 1920 as assistant editor Zionist Der Tog. Elected to Z.O.A. Executive 1926. A.C. member 1927-9. Wrote in Yiddish, German, Hebrew, and Russian.

COWEN, JOSEPH (1868-1932). B. Plymouth. Merchant. Delegate I, III–XVI Z.C., 1897, 1899-1929. Among founders E.Z.F. and its president 19 2,1913-17. Among founders J.C.T. 1899, of which Board member from 1901 and chairman 1921-32. Member G.A.C. 1900-1, 1903-7. A cousin of Israel Zangwill, he supported East Africa proposal at VI Z.C., 1903, being elected to East Africa Commission. A trustee of Here’s estate and guardian of his son Hans. Board member Jewish Chronicle from 1907, chairman from 1927. Served on U.K. Zionist Political Committees of 1916, 1917. Member Zionist Commission in Palestine 1918. On K.H. Board, and K.H. chairman in England I921. Member Zionist Executive 1921-5. On Council of A.J.A.

CRANBORNE, VISCOUNT (Robert Arthur James Cecil, 5th Marquis of Salisbury, 1893-1972). Cons. M.P. 1929-41; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1935-38; Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs 1940-42, 1943-45, for Colonies 1942; Lord Privy Seal 1942-43, 1951-52; Leader of House of Lords 1942-45, 1951-57; Chancellor Liverpool University from 1951; Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations 1952; Lord President of Council 1952-57.

CREECH JONES, ARTHUR (1891-1964). Labour M.P. 1935-50,1954-64. National Secretary, Transport and General Workers Union 1919-29; Organizing Secretary, Workers Travel Association 1929-39. Parliamentary Private Secretary to Ernest Bevin when Minister of Labour and National Service 1940-45; Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Colonial Office 1945-46; Secretary of State for Colonies 1946-50; U.K. delegate to U.N., 1946,1947-48.

CROSSMAN, RICHARD HOWARD STAFFORD (1907-74). Labour M.P. 1945-70. Fellow and Tutor at New College, Oxford, 1930-37. Asst. Editor New Statesman and Nation 1938-55. Asst. Chief, Psychological Warfare Division Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) 1944-45. Member Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine 1945-46 (after which he wrote his Palestine Mission, 1947). On Labour Party Executive 1952-67. Minister of Housing and Local Government 1964-66; Lord President of Council and Leader of House of Commons 1966-68; Minister of Health and Social Security 1968-70. Editor New Statesman 1970-72. While serving on Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry he became a staunch supporter of Zionism and a devoted admirer of W., on whose biography he was engaged at time of his death.

CROWE, Sir Eyre (1864-1925). B. Leipzig. British civil servant. Educated Dusseldorf and Berlin. Secretary, British delegation to Peace Conference at The Hague, 1907. Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1912-20, with responsibility for the Eastern Department, which included Turkey. Minister Plenipotentiary to Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Permanent Under-Secretary at Foreign Office, 1920-25.

CROZIER, WILLIAM PERCIVAL (1879-1944). Journalist, joining Manchester Guardian 1903. Director of Manchester Guardian and Evening News from 1921, editor of Manchester Guardian from 1932.

CRUM, BARTLEY CAVANAUGH (1900-59). Attorney, practising both in California, where born, and New York. Special Counsel to President’s Committee of Fair Employment Practices 1942. Consultant to U.S. delegation at San Francisco Conference of United Nations, 1945. Member of Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine, 1945-46. He became strongly pro-Zionist, publishing Behind the Silken Curtain, 1947. 

CUNLIFFE-LISTER, SIR PHILIP (Viscount Swinton 1935; Earl Swinton 1955; 1884-1972). Called to Bar 1908 ;Conservative M.P. 1918-35; Parliamentary Secretary, Board of Trade 1920-21; Secretary Overseas Trade Dept. 1921-22; President Board of Trade 1922-23,1924-29,1931; Secretary of State for Colonies 1931-35; for Air 1935-38; Chairman U.K. Commercial Corporation 1940-42; Cabinet Minister resident in West Africa 1942-44; Minister for Civil Aviation 1944-45; President National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations 1949; Chancellor Duchy of Lancaster and Minister of Materials 1951-52; Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations 1952-55. Authored I Remember (1948) and Sixty Years of Power (1965).

CUNNINGHAM, SIR ALAN GORDON (b. 1887). Seventh and last British High Commissioner for Palestine, appointed Oct. 1945 and leaving 14 May 1948, when Israel proclaimed independence. Commissioned 1906, serving in both world wars. He was G.O.C. Allied Forces in East Africa 1940-41, when he received Italian surrender. He then led 8th Army as full General in first Libyan offensive, but the early failures of this campaign brought his return to U.K., and he became G.O.C. in C., Eastern Command 1944-45.

CURZON OF KEDLESTON, GEORGE NATHANIEL, MARQUIS (1859-1925). Entered parliament as a Conservative, 1886; Under-Secretary of State for India 1891-92; Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1895-98; Viceroy and Gov.-Gen. of India 1899-1905; Chancellor of Oxford Univ. 1907, and Lord Rector of Glasgow Univ. 1908; Lord President of Council and member of Inner War Cabinet, 1916. Foreign Secretary from 1919, serving in both the Coalition and Bonar Law’s Cabinets. In 1924 again Lord President of the Council.

DAICHES, SAMUEL (1878-1949). B. Vilna. Rabbi, lawyer, and Assyriologist. Studied Berlin, Koenigsberg, and Leipzig. Ordained at Berlin Rabbinical Seminary 1902. Obtained Doctorate 1903, then settled in England. Rabbi Sunderland community 1905-7. From 1907 lecturer at Jews’ College, London. Member, B.O.D. from 1913, Council A.J.A., and on their Joint Foreign Committee. Grand president, District Grand Lodge Bnei-Brith 1929-32. Member, Order of Ancient Maccabeans. Delegate VI–XIII Z.C., 1903-23. Actively opposed East Africa scheme. Vice-president E.Z.F. 1919-28. During 592os on Governing Council, Institute of Jewish Studies of Hebrew University.

DALTON, EDWARD HUGH (1887-1962). Politician, M.P. (Lab.) 1924-59. Following war service, he became lecturer at London School of Economics, 1919; Reader in Commerce and Economics, University of London, 1920-36; Parliamentary Under-Secretary, F.O., 1929-31; Minister of Economic Warfare 1940-42; President of Board of Trade 1942-45; Chancellor of Exchequer 1945-47; Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1948-50; Minister of Town and Country Planning 1950-51; Minister of Local Government and Planning 1951; raised to peerage 1960.

DAVIDSON, ELIAIIU (1870 ?-1923). B. Mohilev. As a student in Berlin in 1890s, was a leading member of the Russian-Jewish Academic Society, member of Bnei Moshe, and interested in movement, promoted by ‘Jargon Committees’, for dissemination of Yiddish literature. Delegate to I Z.C., 1897. After II Z.C., 1898, left Zionist Movement, identified himself with the Bund, and engaged in anti-Zionist propaganda among Jewish student colonies in Germany and Switzerland. In 1901 severed connexion with the Bund and thereafter conducted anti-Bundist campaign within the Social-Democratic movement. Returned to Russia after Oct. 1917 Revolution and became a University professor at Kiev.

DAVIES, HAROLD (1886-1959). B. Nottingham. Chemist. Collaborated with W. in scientific work over extended period. Research Assistant in Department of Organic Chemistry at University of Manchester 1910-12. Employed in research by Strange & Graham Company in London 1912-15. W.’s assistant in developing manufacturing processes of acetone, and as Chief Chemist at Admiralty Laboratories, Woolwich 1918-19, then employed by a London firm of patent agents of which W. was a client. Assisted W. in establishing his laboratory in London, 1931, and Daniel Sieff Research Institute Laboratories in Rehovoth, 1934. W.’s personal assistant at the Institute from 1935, member of its Executive and in charge of financial affairs. Returned to England 1948.

D’AVIGDOR-GOLDSMID, SIR OSMOND ELIM (1877-1940). President of AngloJewish Association 1921-26. On I.C.A. Board from 1919, President from 1934. President of Board of Deputies of British Jews 1926-33. Joint chairman of British section of Jewish Agency for Palestine 1933-35.

DE HAAN, JACOB ISRAEL (1881-1924). Dutch Jewish poet and journalist. A freethinker in his youth, de Haan later became strongly Orthodox. Settling in Palestine 1918, he became correspondent of Daily Express, and lecturer at Government Law School. Joined the Agudas risroel movement, and its chief spokesman in Palestine. His opposition to Zionism made him an object of hatred among Zionist Jews in Palestine. Assassinated in Jerusalem by Jews, 1924.

DEEDES, Sir Wyndham (1883-1956). B. London. British army officer’ and civil servant. Served in S. Africa, Bermuda, Ireland and Malta. Officer in Turkish Gendarmerie, 1910-14. Intelligence Officer at Gallipoli, 1915; Chief Intelligence Officer to E.E.F., 1916-17, when made connection with Aaron Aaronsohn and Nili group. Served in Palestine, 1917-18, moving close to Zionism out of religious motives. Strongly influenced by W. during the latter’s leadership of Zionist Commission. British Military Attaché in Constantinople, 1918-19, Director-General of Public Security in Egypt, 1919-20, Chief Secretary to Palestine Government, 1920-23. During May 1921 riots he authorised enlistment of a company of Jewish soldiers to protect Jews in Jaffa and Tel Aviv. Opposed restrictions on Jewish immigration into Palestine, though with proviso that radical changes be made in the Jewish National Home policy. Upon returning to England devoted himself to social work among East London poor, and visited Poland, Czechoslovakia and the U.S.A. on behalf of Zionist movement. Active in work of rescue of Jewish youth from Germany and Austria. Among founders of British Association for the Jewish National Home in Palestine during World War II, and Chairman of Anglo-Israel Association, London, 1949-51.

DEICHLER, CHRISTIAN (?-?). German chemist. Came into contact with W. in Berlin in later 1890s. His associate in early chemical researches and all patents taken out in the period 1900-3. Later, practiced as patent lawyer in Berlin.

DEVONSHIRE, (VICTOR CHRISTIAN WILLIAM CAVENDISH), 9th Duke (1868-1938). Unionist M.P. 1891-1908. Financial Secretary to Treasury 1903-05. Governor-General of Canada 1916-21. Secretary of State for Colonies – 1922-24.

DIXON, HAROLD BAILY (1852-1930). B. London. Lecturer in chemistry, Oxford 1879-86. Professor of chemistry, Manchester 1886-1922. Member governmental committees on mining affairs. President Chemical Society, 1909–I Z. Published works on his research.

DIZENGOFF, MEIR (1861-1937). B. Bessarabia. First Mayor of Tel Aviv. Founded Kishinev H.Z. Society 1886. Studied chemistry and glass manufacture in France 1888-90, then lived in Odessa, where a founder-member H.Z. Committee from 1890. Emigrated Palestine 1893, managing glass works in Tantura. Moved to Jaffa 1894, joined Board Bnei-Moshe, and collaborated with Aaron Eisenberg in establishment labour organization Ha’aretz Veha’avoda. Returned Odessa 1897, delegate V–VII, XV, XVI Z.C., 1901-5, 1927, 1929. Opposed East Africa project. Among founders, 1904, Geulah Society for purchase of land in Palestine, managing its Jaffa branch 1905-10; and of Ahuzat Bayit Society, which founded Tel Aviv 1909. Headed Tel Aviv Council 1910-21. With evacuation by Turks of Tel Aviv residents 1917, he headed Emigration Committee and established society for refugee assistance. Established Ha’ezrah Organization 1918, aiming at changes in organization of Palestine Jewish community. On Executive of Jewish Provisional Committee in Palestine 1919. Mayor of Tel Aviv 1921-5, 1928 till death. Member, Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) 1926-30, and chief of Department of Commerce and Industry in Zionist Executive 1926-7. Among founders, and president, League of Nations Union in Palestine.

DOBKIN, ELIVAHU (1898-1976). B. Russia, secretary of Hehalutz in Poland and Belorussia 1918-23; chairman of Executive of World Federation of Hehalutz 192332; member Zionist General Council from 1926; settled in Palestine 1932. He served as director of Histadrut Immigration Department; deputy member of J.A. and Zionist Executive 1937-46, thereafter full member; head of J.A. Immigration Department during World War II; head of J.A. Youth and Hehalutz Department 1951-68, and chairman of K.H. Board 1951-62.

DORFMAN, CATHERINE (GITTEL) (1881-1935). Physician. Orig. Kherson. Entered Geneva University 1900. Joined Geneva Zionist students group, took active part in preparations for Z.Y.C., 1901, which she attended, and assisted W. in D.F.’s Geneva Information Bureau. Member of Geneva Zionist Students Society, Hashahar, 1902-3. From 1906 practised medicine in Russia, where she later joined the Zionist-Socialist party (`Z.S.’). Settled in Palestine, 1925 and did medical work in the Emek (Valley of Jezreel) settlements and in Jerusalem.

DREYFUS, CHARLES (1848-1935). B. Rixheim, Alsace. Chemist. Studied Mulhouse and Strasbourg, receiving Doctorate. Moved to England 1869 and employed at Radcliffe Industries. A founder of Clayton Aniline Company in 1876 and managing director till retirement 1913. On Manchester Municipal Council 1897-1906. President East Manchester Conservative Association 1906-17 and chairman Balfour’s constituency committee in electoral campaign there 1906, arranging W.’s meetings with Balfour 1905, 1906. President Congregation of British Jews (Manchester), 1901-5. Among initiators Victoria Memorial Jewish Hospital, of which president 1903. President Manchester Zionist Assoc. from 1903, on Executive of E.Z.F. from 1904, and its president 1909-10. Delegate V–VII, IX Z.C., 1901-5,1909. Resigned his Zionist offices 1910, but during First World War resumed activity in Manchester. Returned to France 1932.

DRUMMOND, SIR ERIC (Earl of Perth; 1876-1951). Joined F.O. 1900; private secretary to Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1906-08, 1908-10. A private secretary to P.M., 1912-15; private secretary to Foreign Secretary 1915-19; Secretary-General to League of Nations 1919-33; British Ambassador to Italy 1933-39. At Ministry of Information 1939-40. Deputy Leader of Liberal Party in House of Lords from 1946.

DUBOSARSKY, JOSEPH (1880-1944). Physician. B. Kerch, Crimea. As Berlin student, joined Zionist students society, Kadimah. Member of Berlin group of D.F. After returning to Russia, seceded from Z.C. on ‘Uganda’ issue and became a Territorialist. Moved, 1924, to Paris, where actively associated with Jewish Refugee Aid Committee. Died at Auschwitz.

DUGDALE, BLANCHE (‘BAFFY’) ELIZABETH CAMPBELL (1880-1948). British supporter of Zionism; niece and biographer of Earl Balfour. Employed in British Naval Intelligence 1915-19; head of Intelligence Dept. of League of Nations Union 1920-28, and on British delegation to League of Nations Assembly 1932. Trusted adviser of W., in whose cause she utilized her influential contacts in politics and society. A noted public speaker at Zionist gatherings, she served on various committees to aid Jewish refugees during W.W.II. Regular contributor to Zionist Review, and author of a pamphlet on Balfour Declaration. Her Diaries published in London, 1973.

EBAN, AUBREY (ABBA) SOLOMON. B. Cape Town, 1915. Israeli statesman. Brought up in England, he was Research Fellow and lecturer in Arabic at Cambridge 1938-40. Served with rank of major as Liaison Officer of Allied H.Q. with the Jewish population in Jerusalem 1942-44; Chief Instructor at Middle East Arab Centre in Jerusalem 1944-46; entered J.A. service 1946; Liaison Officer with UN Special Commission on Palestine 1947; Israel representative at U.N. 1948; permanent representative 1949-59; Ambassador to U.S. 1950-59; elected to Knesset for Mapai 1959; Minister without Portfolio 1959-60; Minister of Education and Culture 1960-63; deputy Prime Minister 1963-66; Foreign Minister 1966-1974; President, Weizmann Institute of Science 1959-66. Author, works on Israel and Jewish people.

EBERLIN, ELIYAHU (ELIE) ZE’EV (1875-1951). B. Mohilev, White Russia. Lawyer, author, and journalist. Lived in Paris, where student 1897-1902, until 1940. Engaged in Russian student Zionist activities, and in Mebassereth Sion and Ivria Societies. Member D.F. Among founders P.Z. in Paris 1903. Contributed to periodicals, chiefly L’Echo Sioniste. Delegate P.Z. World Conference, Vienna 1920. Took refuge in Switzerland 1940, emigrated to Palestine 1945, and contributed to Al Hamishmar and Davar.

EDER, Montague David (1866-1936). B. London. Physician, psychoanalyst. M.D. London Univ. 1895, practising for many years in Colombia and London slums. Pupil of Sigmund Freud and among founders of Psychoanalytical Association in England, 1913. Founding-editor School Hygiene, 1910-15. A Fabian socialist. Influenced by Israel Zangwill, he joined I.T.O. in 1905 with membership in its Council, visiting Cyrenaica on its behalf in 1908. Active in recruitment for Jewish Legion in World War I. Joined Zionist Commission in 1918 as I.T.O. nominee and Medical Adviser, remaining in Palestine until 1922 as W.’s representative in all fields, with membership of Zionist Executive. Participated in XII, XIV-XV, XVII, XIX Z.C., 1921, 1925-27, 1931,1935. Undertook mission to Russia, 1923, to press for legalization of Zionist institutions there. Returned to Zionist Executive 192528. Chairman of Hebrew University Committee in London, on Editorial Board of W.Z.O. organ New Judea, founded 1924. President E.Z.F. 1930-32, Hon. vice-president 1932-36. Active in negotiations for expansion of Jewish Agency. Campaigned against Jabotinsky at XVII Z.C., 1931, and led ‘Eder Group’ in General Zionist split, opposing removal of W. from leadership. Author of works on medicine and psychoanalysis.

EHRLICH, PAUL (1854-1915). B. Strehlen, Upper Silesia, then Germany. Pioneer in medicine. From 1890 at Institute for Contagious Diseases in Berlin, where he was associated with discovery of cure for diphtheria. From 1896 he was director of Royal Institute for Serum Research in Berlin, and from 1899 of Institute of Experimental Medicine in Frankfurt. Nobel Prize 1908 for achievements in field of immunology. Discovered Salvarsan cure for syphilis, 1910. Although a non-Zionist, he displayed interest in settlement work in Palestine, heading Scientific Commission of German Society for Combatting Malaria. A member of Le-Wan Zwn Society and active in a group of Jewish physicians and scientists formed to establish an International (`Pasteur’) Health Institute in Jerusalem, 1913. Collaborated with W. in early planning stages of Hebrew University.

EINSTEIN, ALBERT (1879-195.5). B. Ulm. Creator of theory of relativity. His family migrated to Milan. Studied 1896-1900 at Zurich Technical School. Naturalized Swiss citizen 1901. Employed in Patent Office, Berne, 1901-08. D.Phil. 1905. Professor Extraordinary in Theoretical Physics, Zurich, 1909; Professor Extraordinary at German University, Prague, 1911; Director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics, Berlin, from 1914. In 1916 published his paper on general theory of relativity. Nobel Prize for Physics 1921. In the Zionist cause, he accompanied W. to America 1921, delivered the first lecture at Hebrew University in Jerusalem 1923, and joined Board of Governors of the University. Left Germany 1933 and became professor at Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Became American citizen 1940. Upon W.’s death, Einstein declined David Ben-Gurion’s invitation to stand for election as President of Israel, in succession.

ELAZARI-VOLCANI (Wilkansky), Itzhak Avigdor (1880-1955). B. Aishishok, Lithuania. Agronomist. Among leaders of Hapoel Hatzair party. A leading figure in agricultural development in Palestine, active also in political life. As student, in Luria Society and Zionei Zion group, Berne. Settled in Palestine in 1908. Participated in XII-XIV, XVI, XVIII-XX Z.C., 1921-25, 1929, 1933-37. Taught agriculture and botany at Belkind School at Ben-Shemen, 1908-09. Director, BenShemen Training Farm at Hulda, 1910-18. He contended that Jewish settlement should be based on Jewish labour alone, with workers’ villages, and concentrating on mixed farming. Agricultural Adviser to the Palestine Office (at Jaffa) during World War I, directing its Agricultural Department. As a gesture to the Arabs, and to supplement the Jewish labour force, he opposed the continued service of the Jewish Legion in the British Army. Member, Palestinian delegation to the Peace Conference in Paris, participating in London Zionist Conference of 1919. Member of the First and Second Jewish Elected Assembly (Assefat Hanivharim), 1920-31, and K.K.L. Directorate, 1921-46. A director of the Zionist Agricultural Experiment Station when founded in Tel Aviv, 1921, moving with it to Rehovoth in 1932. Took part in establishing Institute of Agricultural Research at Rehovoth and later the Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University there, being its Chairman and Professor of Agriculture 1940-47. Author of works on general and scientific subjects.

ELIAS, ALFRED (1866-1940). Physician in Mulhouse and active in Regional Zionist Bureau in Alsace-Lorraine. Delegate III-VII Z.C., 1899-1905. Actively engaged in K.H. from its inauguration. Member, from 1906, of Central Committee of German Z.O.

ELIASBERG, AARON (1879-1937). B. Pinsk. Studied Leipzig and Heidelberg. Member of D.F. Delegate to V Z.C., 1901. Helped in preparatory work for Jewish University project (1902). Director Jiidischer Verlag, 1911-20. Settled in Palestine, 1933 and joined staff of K.H.

ELIASH, MORDECHAI (1892-1950). B. ‘Uman, Ukraine. Lawyer and diplomat. Settled in Palestine 1919, serving as Secretary of Zionist Commission 1919-21. Later in independent law practice, but continued as legal adviser to various Zionist institutions. Represented interests of Jewish community of Jerusalem at U.N. 1948. Appointed first Israel Minister in London 1949.

ELIASHEV, IsIDORE (ISRAEL) (1873-1924). Physician and writer. Pioneer in field of Yiddish literary criticism. B. Kovno. Studied Berlin and Heidelberg. Member of Berlin Russian-Jewish Academic Society. Interested in ‘Jargon Committees’ movement for dissemination of Yiddish literature. Took part in I.Z.C., 1897. Moved to Warsaw, 1901. Addressed Z.Y.C., 1901, and in same year member of D.F. group of delegates at V Z.C. Joined Syrkin’s Cheirus movement, 1902. In later life resided in Petrograd, Berlin, and Kovno.

ELIOT, SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGECUMBE (1862-1931). B. Sibford Gower, Oxfordshire. Entered British Foreign Service 1887. Consul-General Zanzibar, and Commissioner for East African Protectorate, 1901-04. An Orientalist, he was Vice-Chancellor Sheffield University 1905-1 University of Hong Kong 1912-18. Ambassador to Japan 1920-6, remaining there till death. Author of works on Far East and travel.

ELLIOT, WALTER (1888-1958). British politician and Zionist sympathiser; Conservative M.P. from 1918; educated Glasgow; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of Health for Scotland 1923-26; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Scotland 1926-29; Financial Secretary to Treasury 1931-32; Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries 1932-36; Secretary of State for Scotland 1936-38; Minister of Health 1938-40; Director of Public Relations, War Office 1941-42; Rector of Aberdeen University 1933-36 and of Glasgow University 1947-50; Privy Councillor 1932; F.R.S. 1935.

EPSTEIN, ALBERT K. (1890-1948). B. Odessa, in U.S. from 1905, settling in Chicago. After some years as chemist in American Government employ, he became a pioneer of food chemistry, with revolutionary discoveries that were the basis of a successful business career. President of American Palestine Trading Corporation, and active in Z.O.A., K.H. and J.N.F. Strongly supporting scientific institutions in Palestine, he was connected with the Weizmann Institute from its inception.

EPSTEIN, ISAAC (1862-1943). B. Lyuban, Bessarabia. Hebrew education pioneer in Palestine, having emigrated as agricultural labourer in 1886. Headed schools in Palestine, introducing up-to-date methods, 1891. In Lausanne from 1902, active in student Zionist circles and Ivria Society. Delegate VI Z.C., 1903, opposing East Africa project. Headed religious school of Alliance Israelite Universelle in Salonica 1909-14, fostering Hebrew language study there. On outbreak of war returned to Lausanne, obtained Doctorate and worked for creation of Jewish Legion. Headed Levinsky Teachers Training College, Tel Aviv 1920-3, and except for a year as supervisor of Zionist Executive’s educational system continued teaching. An early protagonist of Arab–Jewish understanding, he served in 1923 on Political Committee of Va’ad Leumi (Jewish National Council) directed to this purpose, and on settling in Jerusalem 1929 he joined Brith Shalom (Covenant of Peace) with like objective. Author of works on Hebrew education and philology, introducing many words in revived Hebrew language.

ERAMSON, JACOUES (?1864-1936). B. Kovno. Resident in Paris from 1883. Art dealer, theatre critic and editor of a periodical on art. Associated with Joseph Spanien (q.v.) in Zionist activities. Was influential on W.’s behalf through his connections with Baron Edmond de Rothschild and other French personalities.

ERLEIGH, VISCOUNT, see READING, MARQUESS OF.

ERLEIGH, VISCOUNTESS, see READING, MARCHIONESS OF.

ESTERMAN, LEO (YEHUDA LEIS) (1869-1940). B. Telsiai Province, Lithuania. Studied Berlin and Heidelberg, 1890-5. Active member of Russian-Jewish Academic Society (Berlin), of Jewish nationalist society ‘Young Israel’ (Berlin) and of Bnei Moshe, and, later, founder-member of Berlin Zionist students society Kadimah, 1898. Manager of pharmaceutical business, Hamburg, 1898-1920. One of the founders of the German Zionist Federation. Settled in Palestine, 1920. Manager, General Mortgage Bank, 1922-35.

ETTINGER (Oettinger), Akiva Yaakov (1872-1945). B. Vitebsk. Agronomist. Worked for I.C.A. in S. Russia and Bessarabia 1898-1911, in Argentina 1911-13. Agricultural adviser and director of K.K.L. projects in Palestine, 1914. Active in Alexandria in World War I in formation of Zion Mule Corps. At K.K.L. Head Office, The Hague, 1916. In 1917 joined Zionist Political Committee in London and participated in work leading to B.D. Director of Agricultural Settlement Dept. of Zionist Office in Palestine, 1918-24. Member Palestine Committee, K.K.L., 1919, and director of its Lands and Forestry Dept. until 1932. On Executive of Jewish Provisional Committee in Palestine, 1918-20. Member of Jewish National Council (l’a’ad Leumi), 1920-31, on its Executive, 1920-22. Agricultural adviser to Yachin Cooperative Agricultural Contracting Society, 1932-36. Directed much swamp reclamation and development in Emek Jezreel, and large afforestation projects. Published works on agricultural settlement.

FARBSTEIN, DAVID Zvi (1868-1953). Lawyer. B. Warsaw. Early adherent of Hovevei Zion. In early 1890s member of Berlin Russian-Jewish Academic Society. From 1894 lived in Switzerland. Joined Social-Democratic party, 1897, and served as a representative of the party on various Swiss public bodies, including the Federal Council. Took part in I Z.C., 1897, and was one of founders of Swiss Zionist Federation. Though a Social-Democrat, opposed to separate organization of Zionist-Socialists. Founder-member of Jewish Statistical Society, 1902. Favoured Jewish University project. At VI Z.C., 1903, sided with the `Ugandists’. After Herzl’s death (1904) withdrew for a time from active part in Zionist affairs, but later became president of the Swiss branch of K.H. Prominently associated with the organization of the Jewish communities in Switzerland.

FEISAL I IBN HUSSEIN (1885-1933). B. Taif, Hedjaz. jThird son of Hussein, Sherif of Mecca and King of the Hedjaz. A leader of the Arab nationalist movement, commanding the tribes fighting the Turks in Arabia. Reached an understanding, but without binding agreement, with W. at a meeting near Ma’an, Transjordan, in June 1918. A document, the Feisal-Weizmann Agreement, for cooperation between the Arab and Jewish people in the development of the Arab state and of Palestine was signed in London, January 1919. Feisal was head of the Military Administration in Damascus, 1918-20, the acknowledged spokesman of the Arab world, and its representative at the Peace Conference, 1919. He expressed anti-Zionist views in an interview with Le Matin, March 1919, but retracted in a letter to Felix Frankfurter. Enthroned as King of United Syria in 1920, he was expelled by the French and reigned as King of Iraq 1921-33.

FEIWEL, BERTHOLD (1875-1937). B. Pohorlits, Moravia. M. 1906 Esther Shneerson (q.v.). Delegate from Brno to I Z.C., 1897. Editor, Die Welt, 1900-1. Elected to G.A.C. at IV Z.C., 1900. Among founders of D.F. group of delegates at V and VI Z.C., 1901 and 1903. One of the founders, and from 1902-7, a director of the Jiidischer Verlag. Principal author of brochure (Eine Jiidische Hochschule) arguing the case for a Jewish University (1902), and W.’s most intimate collaborator in activities connected with the project. Joined Z.O. secretariat at Cologne, 1906. In banking business in Strasbourg, 1909-12. In 1919-20 served on G.A.C. and as member of Z.O. Administrative Committee and, later, of Z.E., at Zionist headquarters in London. Member of Zionist Financial and Economic Council, with voting rights in Z.E., 1921-7. Managing Director of K.H. from its establishment in 1920, and a Director (1929-31, Managing-Director) of J.C.T., 1920-33. From 1929 member of Administrative Committee of Jewish Agency for Palestine. Settled in Palestine, 1933.

FEKETE, MICHAEL (1886-1957). Mathematician. B. Hungary, studied at Budapest and Goettingen, Ph.D. in 1909. Taught at secular Jewish schools at Budapest 191028, assistant at Budapest University 1912-19; lecturer at H.U. from 1928, professor from 1929, Rector 1946-48; Israel Prize for Exact Sciences 1955.

FERNBACH, AUGUSTE (1860-1939). B. Paris. Biochemist. Director of Fermentation Laboratory at Pasteur Institute, 1900-35. Lecturer at Sorbonne from 1905. W. undertook specialized study under him and co-operated with him in research into production of alcohols 1910-12. Brought unsuccessful action against W. in 1926 for infringement of his processes for the manufacture of acetone.

FIALKOV, CHAIM (`?1874-1920). B. Serniky, White Russia. Uncle of W. (his father’s brother). Educationalist. Studied at Hebrew Teachers Seminary, Vilna. In 1897 taught at Hebrew School in Nikolayev, where active in Zionism and among founders of reformed heder (religious elementary school). Delegate VI Z.C., 1903. From 1905 he was in St. Petersburg as supervisor of the schools within the Pale that belonged to Society for Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia, serving as its representative on Committee for Popular Education advising Education Ministry of Kerensky regime. He was influential in raising standards of Hebrew schools and contributed to pedagogic monthlies The Hebrew School and The Harbinger of Hebrew Enlightenment.

FISCHER, JEAN YONAH (1871-1929). B. Cracow. Diamond merchant. Arriving in Antwerp in his youth, he was on Executive of Belgian Zionist Federation from 1906, having founded its organ Hatikvah in 1905. Supporter of Herzl and ‘political’ Zionism. Participated in VII-XVI Z.C., 1905-29, on G.A.C. 1907-20, and J.C.T. Board 1913-28. During War he lived at The Hague, where he was a member of Zionist Committee 1915-20, and K.K.L. Executive 1914-19. He made extensive investment in Palestine land purchase from 1910, and in establishing an agricultural company in Rehovoth, 1912. President of Belgian Zionist Federation after War, and on Central Committee of Jewish Communities in Belgium. A founder of Belgium-Palestine Friendship League, 1929.

FISHMAN (later, MAIMON), – JUDAH LEIB HACOHEN (1875-1962). B. Bessarabia, where he was ordained rabbi. Participated in founding conference of Mizrachi (religious Zionist movement) in 1902. Delegate of this group to all Z.C.s from 1898. Settled in Palestine 1913. Deported by Turks in 1915, he went to U.S., returning to Palestine in 1919. Mizrachi representative on J.A. Executive from 1935. Minister of Religious Affairs in Provisional and subsequent Israel Government 1948-51. In 1935 he established Mosad ha-Rao Kook (publishing house for religious literature and Judaica) and wrote prolifically under its imprint.

FITZGERALD, LADY (LILY) AMELIA (1858-1947). Communal worker, daughter of banker Henry Louis Bischoffsheim (1828-1907), and wife of Sir Maurice Fitzgerald (1844-1916). Active in J.N.F., and a Vice-President of Federation of Women Zionists. In 1939 she headed the Lady Fitzgerald Jewellery Fund, for settling child victims of Nazi persecution in Palestine. Shechunat Havazelet (near Rehovot) was named in her memory.

FLEXNER, BERNARD (1865-1945). B. Louisville, Kentucky. Practised law in Chicago and New York. Became active in Z.O.A. and was Counsel to Zionist delegation at Paris Peace Conference 1919. First President of Palestine Economic Corporation, 1925, serving as its Board Chairman until 1944. On J.D.C. Executive. As a supporter of Brandeis, he was appointed a non-Zionist member of the Jewish Agency, 1929.

FLEXNER, Stmo (1863-1946). B. Louisville, Kentucky. Pathologist and bacteriologist. Professor at Johns Hopkins University, 1892-99. Director Rockefeller Institute laboratories 1903-35, head of the Institute 1920-35. Known particularly for his serum treatment of cerebrospinal meningitis, and for his research into poliomyelitis.

FODOR, ANDOR (1884-1968). B. Budapest. Professor of Biochemistry at University of Halle, 1922-3. At W.’s invitation, he went to Jerusalem in 1923 to become first Professor of Chemistry at Hebrew University, holding the Chair for 28 years.

for Agriculture by President Roosevelt. A highly regarded leader who epitomized the ‘common man’ philosophy of the New Deal, he was in 1940 elected Vice-President, serving until 1944. Appointed Secretary for Commerce 1945, but openly opposed the foreign policy of the Administration and was forced to resign 1946, becoming editor of New Republic 1946-48. In 1948 he helped to form the Progressive Party, was its Presidential candidate. Later he broke with the Progressives. He wrote numerous books on agricultural problems and on politics, among them The Century of the Common Man (1943).

FRANKEL, LEE KAUFER (1867-1931). Social worker, appointed manager of United Hebrew Charities in New York City 1899. Joining Metropolitan Life Insurance Company in 1909, he inaugurated a health and education program for policyholders; from 1924 second vice-president of the company. Member of A.J.C., and on J.D.C. Executive. In 1922 he headed a J.D.C. investigation in Eastern Europe. Member of 1927 Joint Palestine Survey Commission, whose report on possibilities for the upbuilding of Palestine was an important step in establishing the enlarged J.A. In 1929 he was appointed a non-Zionist member of J.A. Council.

FRANKFURTER, Felix (1882-1965). B. Vienna. Educated City College, N.Y., and Harvard Law School. Asst. U.S. Attorney for South New York, 1906-09, 1910-11, legal adviser to U.S. War Dept., 1911-14, Professor of Law, Harvard, 1914-39. Associate Justice of Supreme Court, 1939-62. Member of liberal intellectual circle that influenced political life in the United States. Founder of New Republic, adviser to Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson, and F.D. Roosevelt. Confidential assistant to Secretary of War, 1917-19, chairman of War Labour Polick Board 1918. Joined F.A.Z. (later, Z.O.A.) 1915, and Advisory Committee Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs. Resigned member ship of American Jewish Committee 1916 in protest against its opposition t, assembly of American Jewish Congress. Represented Zionist interest in mission Henry Morgenthau (q.v.) sent 1917 by Pres. Wilson (q.v.) to detach Turkey from Central Powers. Legal adviser to Zionist delegation to Peace Conference, 1919 participated in drafting Zionist proposals for Palestine Mandate; active in negotiations with Emir Feisal. On Z.O.A. Executive 1918-21, participating in Londor Conference 1920. Resigned his Zionist offices with ‘Brandeis Group’, 1921, though retaining interest in Palestine activities. On Jewish Agency mission in London, 1936, to use his influence with Foreign Office. Hon. president, American Friends of Hebrew University. Author works on law and politics.

FREIMAN, ARCHIBALD JACOB (1880-1944). B. Lithuania. In Canada from childhood, he settled in Ottawa in 1902 and established a department’ store, becoming active in Zionist affairs. President of Adath Jeshurun Congregation, 1901,-29, President of Canadian Zionist Federation from 1920 until death.

FRIEDEMANN, ADOLF (1871-1932). B. Berlin. Lawyer, practicing in Wiesbaden and Berlin, and author. Active in national student group Judische Humanitatsgesellschaft, 1893. Delegate II–XI Z.C., 1898-1913. Accompanied Herzl on his visit to Egypt 1903. Supported East Africa project. On Central Committee of German Z.O. 1904-18, and of GA.C. 1905-20. Among founders, 1914, of Komitifiir den Osten working on behalf of Russian Jews in German-occupied territories. After the war employed at German Consulate in Amsterdam and thereafter lived in Holland, directing K.H. activities there. Author of works on Zionism, including a biography of Herzl.

FRIEDENWALD, HARRY (1864-1950). B. Baltimore. Ophthalmologist. Lecturer, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, from 1894, professor 190229. President, American Ophthalmological Society, 1936. A ‘spiritual’ Zionist, he participated in VI, VII Z.C., 1903,1905. President, F.A.Z. (Since 1918: Z.O.A.) 1904-18, vice-president 1918-21. On Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs of First World War. Acting chairman of Zionist Commission is Palestine, 1919. Left active Zionism in 1921 together with Brandeis Group. On Advisory Commission of Hebrew University, 1925. An active communal worker in Baltimore, he participated in founding conference of World Jewish Congress, Geneva 1936. Author of works on history of medicine, including The syezes and Medicine.

FRIEDLAENDER, ISRAEL (1876-1920). B. Kovel, Ukraine. M. Lilian Ruth Bentwich. Orientalist and American Jewish leader prominent in Conservative religious movement. Studied at Rabbinical Seminary and University, Berlin. Obtained Doctorate in 1901 at University of Strasbourg and in 1902 appointed lecturer in Department of Semitic Languages there. Professor at Jewish Theological Seminary, New York, 1903. Favoured establishment of Centre in Palestine for advancement of Jewish ethical ideals together with continued survival of Judaism in Diaspora. Executive member of Federation of American Zionists (since 1918: Zionist Organization of America) 1905-06, 1907-11, 1917-20, and chairman of its Education Committee 1906-7. Delegate III-VII, X Z.C., 1899-1905, 1911, and first president Young Judea, Zionist youth movement founded 1908. Chairman, Board of Trustees of Bureau of Jewish Education when this was established in New York in 1910. Literary critic and translator, he was author of works on linguistics, Islam, and Judaism. Killed by bandits while on mission for Amer. Joint Distribution Committee in Ukraine.

FRIEDLAND, BEN-ZION (BENYA) ( ?1880-1919). Early in century member of Kadimah and Young Israel Student Zionist Societies in Kiev. Delegate VI Z.C., 1903. A leader of Zionist Socialist group Vozrozhdenye (Itenaissance’) of which main centre was in Kiev. Briefly on Central Committee of Zionist Socialist Workers Party (Territorialist), and subsequently prominent in Jewish Socialist Workers Party (Autonomist, Sejmist).

GASPARRI, PIETRO (1852-1934). Italian prelate, Professor of Canon Law at Institut Catholique in Paris 1880-98. Apostolic Delegate to South America 1898- 1901. Vatican Secretary of State 1914-30. Signed the 1929 Lateran Treaty with Italy on behalf of the Vatican.

GASTER, MOSES (1856-1939). B. Bucharest. Graduated Bucharest University, 1874. Rabbinical diploma, Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary, 1881. Lecturer in Rumanian history and literature, Bucharest University, 1881-5. Early adherent of Hovevei Zion and helped to establish two of the first Jewish settlements in Palestine-Ziklu’on Ya’akov and Rosh Pinah. Because of prominent participation in protests against Jewish disabilities, expelled from Rumania, in 1885, and settled in England. Haham (Chief Rabbi) of Sephardic Jewish congregations in England, 1887-1918. One time President, English Folklore Society and Vice-President, Royal Asiatic Society. Presided over first public meeting addressed by Herzl, London, 1898. A Vice-President of I, II, IV, and VII Z.C., 1897,1898,1900,1905. On `Uganda’ issue, 1904-5, an antiUgandist. President of English Zionist Federation, 1907-09. Prominent in early stages of discussions leading to Balfour Declaration but subsequently at variance with the Zionist leadership and withdrew from Zionist activity.

GEDDES, SIR AUCKLAND CAMPBELL, later Lord Geddes (1879-1954). Academic and politician. Professor of Anatomy at Edinburgh, Dublin, and McGill Universities. Director of Recruitment, War Office, 1916-17. Minister of National Service 1917-19. President of Board of Trade 1919-20. British Ambassador to U.S.A. 1920-24.

GEDDES, SIR PATRICK (1854-1932), biologist and sociologist. Professor of Botany at Univ. College, Dundee 1883-1919, Professor of Sociology and Civics, Univ. of Bombay 1919-24, director of the Scots College at Montpellier Univ. In. 1919 he prepared a plan for the site of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and in 1925 proposed a plan for northern Tel Aviv (Town Planning Report of Jaffa-Tel Aviv, 1925).

GESTETNER, SIGMUND (1897-1956 Chairman and managing direct or of Gestetner office equipment concern from 1920. His friendship with W. brought him to chairmanship of K.H. in England, and to J.N.T. as treasurer 1949, President from 1950. Active in Joint Palestine Appeal and hon. President Weizmann Institute Foundation. He lent his farm to Zionist movement for training agricultural pioneers.

GETZOVA, SOPHIA (or SoNIA) (1874-1946). Physician. B. Svisloch, near Minsk. W.’s first fiancee–engagement broken off, 1901. An active Zionist in student days at Berne. Delegate to II Z.C., 1898, and member of D.F. group of delegates at V Z.C., 1901. After completing her studies, engaged in research in Berne, Basle, and Paris. Settled in Palestine, 1925. Appointed, 1927, Professor of Pathological Anatomy at Hebrew University.

GINIS, SAMUEL (1867-1932). B. Kishinev. Chemical engineer. Among founders of H.Z. in Kishinev and Odessa. Towards end of century settled in Baku, becoming manager of Rothschild oil refinery and petroleum works. On Baku Zionist Committee and founder Hebrew Gymnasium there. With 1917 Revolution he was appointed commercial consultant for petroleum to Soviet Government in Constantinople and London. Settled in Palestine 1928.

GINSBURG, CHARLES DAVID (b. 1912). Attorney in Washington. Graduating from Harvard Law School 1935, he was attorney to Securities and Exchange Commission 1935-39; legal adviser to Government commissions 1939-46; in U.S. Army 1943-46; Deputy Director, Economic Division, Military Government Germany 1945-46; Deputy Commander, U.S. delegation, Austrian Treaty Commission 1947; adviser, U.S. delegation, Council of Foreign Ministers, London 1947; Adjunct Professor of International Law, Georgetown University from 1959. Author: The Future of German Reparations 1950.

GINZBERG (later Ginossar), SHLOMO (1889-1969). B. Odessa. Son of Ahad Ha’am. Studied at Universities of Paris, Manchester, Geneva, Zurich. Secretary of Department of Education and Culture at Central Zionist Office, London 1919-20, and Secretary of Department for Hebrew University Affairs 1920-21. Settling in Palestine, he was on the Preparatory Committee of Hebrew University and a Government Inspector of Education 1922-25. Chief Secretary (later Administrator) of Hebrew University from its establishment in 1925 until 1937, Adviser to the Administration 1937-49, 1951-53, on Board of Governors from 1953. Israeli Minister in Rome 1949-51.

GINZBERG, Asnxa—see s.n. AHAD HA’AM.

GINZBURG (HERMON* AARON (1882-1960). B. Swieciany, Lithuania. Journalist. Attended Mikveh Israel School, Palestine, from 1898, later teaching at Gederah. Engaged in Zionist and journalistic activities from 1902, while student in Switzerland and Nancy. Correspondent of Hatzofe at VI Z.C., 1903, and of Hazman at VII Z.C., 1905. Assisted Nahum Sokolow in editing Ha’olam 1907-8, then edited Hamevasser in Constantinople 1910. Following First World War he managed Hebrew Cultural Centre in Berlin, subsequently going to France where he contributed to French and Hebrew papers. Returned to Palestine 1934 and engaged in literary work. During latter part of his life employed in Knesset archives.

GINZBURG, H Rxis (? 1860-1910). B. Grodno, then Lithuania. Journalist, publisher and printer. Settling in London 1896, he was for some years Editor of Der lidrhylier Express. On E.Z.F. Executive 1900-07, 1909-10, delegate V-IX Z.C., 1901-09. Member of .11iral movement, he was active in London communal life.

GLIKIN, MOSHE. B. Moscow, 1874. A Hovey Zion from his youth. Agricultural labourer in Palestine, 1892-4. Entered Leipzig University, 1899. Secretary of Leipzig Ziona society. Took part in Munich preparatory conference for Z.Y.C. and in Z.Y.C., 1901. Joined D.F. Delegate to V and VI Z.C., 1901 and 1903. Took charge, 1902, of D.F. Berlin Information Office. After working for a time in Berlin for Jewish University project, accepted, early 1903, appointment to J.U. Bureau at Zurich. After return to Russia in 1903, employed in management of St. Petersburg Yiddish daily, Der Fraind and, subsequently, of the Russian-language Jewish weekly, Raszviet. Settled in Palestine, 1908 and for some twenty-five years managed the Migdal agricultural settlement. A member of the Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Haniveharim) set up in 1920. One of the founders of the Hadar Hacarmel quarter of Haifa.

GLNZBURG, Simox (1871-1950). Chemical engineer. B. Shuya, Russia. Connected with Baku oil industry. Delegate to Minsk Conference, 1902. Supported Jewish University project. Member (and, in 1917, Chairman) of Baku Zionist Committee. Left Russia, 1920, and, after living in England, France, Germany and Egypt, settled in 1932 in Palestine, where engaged in bibliographical work at Weizmann Institute, Rehovoth.

GLUSKIN, WOLF (ZE’EV) (1859-1949). B. Slutsk, White Russia. A founder (1906) of Palestine Vintners Association, which he headed until 1923. Among leaders of H.Z. Society and Bnei-Moshe in Warsaw, where he lived from 1880. Delegate II, III, V, VII Z.C., 1898, 1899, 1901, 1905. Prominently associated with establishment in Warsaw of Ahiasaf Publishing House, 1892, and newspaper Hatzofe, 1903. He helped form Menuhah-Venahlah Society that founded Rehovot (1890), and Warsaw branch of Geulah Society (1904), to acquire land in Palestine. As a founder of Carmel-Mizrahi Co., he engaged in marketing Palestinian wines in Europe, 1896-1906, then settled in RishonLelion. During First World War was in Alexandria, where active in relief of Palestine exiles and war-victims, and in formation of Zion Mule Corps, returning to Palestine in 1918 as a financial adviser to the Zionist Commission. From 1924 lived in Tel Aviv, where he headed office of Geulah Society from 1926, and served as its president 1935-46. Board chairman of Kupat-Ain Bank 1936. He helped establish cultural institutions in Tel Aviv. Hon. citizen Rishon-Lelion 1937, Tel Aviv 1939.

GOLDBERG, Boris (Dov) Alexandrovich (1866-1922). B. Shaki (Sakiai), Lithuania. Chemical Engineer. In H.Z. from youth, participated in V-XII Z.C., 1901-21. On G.A.C., 1907-21. Founder, Central Office of Russian Zionists, VIna 1905, and its Central Committee 1906; founding chairman of its Palestine Committee, 1907. On W.Z.O. Finance Committee. On P.L.D.C. Board 1910-22. Active in League for Attainment of Equal Rights for Jewish People in Russia, founded 1905. Supported W.’s pro-British Palestine policy during War. Came to England 1916, Treasurer of Zionist political fund 1917. Headed Palestine Dept. of Russian Zionist Centre 1917-19, when elected representative of Provisional National Jewish Council and Russian Zionist Centre on Committee of Jewish Delegations in Paris. Directed Department for the Promotion of Trade and Industry of Zionist Executive in London, 1919-20, and on K.K.L. Board. Immigrating to Palestine 1921, he was among founders of Haboneh and Silicate brick-works in Tel Aviv. Fatally wounded in Jaffa riots, May 1921. Wrote prolifically on Zionist and general Jewish subjects, and actively connected with various periodicals.

GOLDBERG, Isaac Leib (1860-1935). B. Sakiai, Lithuania. Merchant, active in Russian Zionist movement. Among founders of H.Z. in Vilna, 1882. Participated in I-X111 Z.C., 1897-1923. Member, G.A.C. 1901-11, opposing Uganda Project. Member, Russian Central Zionist Committee and head of its Finance Office, 1906-11. A founding director of Geulah Company, 1904-34. His philanthropy supported such enterprises as Hebrew schools in Palestine, the Ahiasaf Publishing House, Nesher Cement Works, Silicate brick-works, J.C.T. and other undertakings. Editor of Hebrew weekly Ha’olam, 1909-10, and its publisher in Vilna, 1909-12. Editor and publisher of Hayom (from 1904) and among founders of Tel Aviv Hebrew daily Haaretz and its supporter for many years. He acquired large areas in Palestine which he gave to the K.K.L., including a plot on Mount Scopus for the Hebrew University, 1916. On P.L.D.C. Board, 1912-35. Left Russia in 1918 and settled in Palestine, 1920. Vice-Chairman of K.K.L. Directorate, 1933-35. He established Tel Benjamin (now part of Ramat Gan) in memory of his son killed in the 1929 Arab disturbances. He bequeathed a large part of his estate to the K.K.L.. and to establishing a foundation to further Hebrew literature.

GOLDBLOOM, JACOB KOPPEL (1872-1961). B. Kletzk, White Russia. Rabbi, educator. Settling at an early age in London, he established a religious elementary school (Talmud Torah) in 1901 on. the Ivrit bIvrit system, directing it throughout his life. Prominently associated with the beginnings of Zionism in East London, he was on E.Z.F. Executive from 1903, Chairman 1923-24, 1930-40, then an Hon. Vice-President. Delegate V-VII, Z.C., 1901-05, 1909-51. On A.G. 1920-56. Chairman World Confederation of General Zionist 1936-39. Directed K.K.L. activities in Canada 1940-45. President of British branch of World Hebrew Union.

GOLDE, PAUL (?-1925). B. Plotsk, Poland, of well-to-do family active in public affairs and tending toward assimilation. Settled in Wloclawek early in century, occupying prominent position in public life. Prior to First World War member of Jewish Community Council. Published weekly newspaper in Polish, headed credit and savings bank and philanthropic institutions. After War became manager of Bank of Commerce and Industry in Wloclawek and president of its Municipal Council from 1919 until his death. Briefly supported Zionism and was delegate V, VI Z.C., 1901, 1903.

GOLDFLAMM, SAMUEL (1852-1932). B. Warsaw. Neurologist. Notable figure active in public affairs. On Warsaw Committee for Jewish University 1903. After First World War among founders of Friends of Hebrew University, participating at opening, Jerusalem 1925. In 1929 elected a non-Zionist representative to Jewish Agency Council, subsequently to its Administrative Committee. On Directorate K.H. Member, Warsaw Jewish Community Council and prominent in various Jewish organizations in Poland concerned with public health.

GOLDMANN, NAHUM. B. 1895, Visznevo, Lithuania (later Belorussia). Jewish statesman. Raised in Germany, Goldmann studied law at Heidelberg, receiving his doctorate 1920. Attended all Zionist Congresses from 1921 onwards. In 1922 founded Eshkol publishing house, which issued the first Encyclopaedia Judaica (ten volumes in German, two in Hebrew). Joined the Radical Zionist faction 1923, opposed enlargement of Jewish Agency, 1929, but participated in its work. Succeeded Leo Motzkin (died 1933) as President of Comiti des Delegations juives, and served as political representative of W.Z.O. at League of Nations in Geneva 1935-39. Early in World War II he left Europe to become Jewish Agency representative in Washington. Participated in formulation of Biltmore Program 1942. Active in establishment of World Jewish Congress, 1936, its Acting President 1949, President 1953. Chairman of American Section of Jewish Agency, 1949, President of W.Z.O. 1956-68. As President of Claims Conference from 1951 he largely initiated, and led negotiations, in German reparations agreement. Chairman of Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, 1954-59, and President of Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture from 1965. His autobiography publ. 1969.

GOLDREICH, SAMUEL (1861-1921) . B. Bischofstein (Bisztynek), then Germany. Merchant. Spent youth in England, settled Johannesburg 1896. Served in various public offices. On Executive of South African Zionist Federation, its president 1901-06, then hon. president. Delegate VI, VIII Z.C., 1903,1907. Member G.A.C. 1903-11. Supported East Africa project, offering (on conditions that were not acceptable) to help finance the Survey Commission there. Returning London 1907, he served for a time as treasurer E.Z.F., and in 1917 was a member of Finance Committee of London Zionist Bureau.

GOLDSMID, ALBERT EDWARD WILLIAMSON (1846-1904) . B. Bombay, of converted Christian parentage. Returned to Judaism, and a founder (1893 onward ‘Chief’) H.Z. in England. Professional soldier 1866-1903. Colonel 1894. Member Maccabeans, society of Anglo-Jewish intellectuals and professional men, of which becomes president in 1903. Developed interest in Palestine colonization in 1880s. Administered I.C.A. colonies in Argentina 1892-3. Among founders E.Z.F., 1899, member El-Arish Survey Commission 1903. On Council A. J.A.

GOLDSTEIN, ISRAEL. B. 1896 Philadelphia, ordained in 1918 at Jewish Theological Seminary. Rabbi of Congregation B’nai Jeshurun in New York 1918-40. President of Young Judea 1930-33; of J.N.F. of America 1933-43; Vice-President of Z.O.A. 1934-43, President 1943-45. Prominent in inter-faith activities, and a founder of Brandeis University 1946. First President of World Confederation of General Zionists 1946, chairman of U.J.A. and U.P.A. 1947-48, treasurer of J.A. 1948-49. Chairman of Western Hemisphere Executive of World Jewish Congress 1949-60, President of American Jewish Congress 1951-58. In 1961 he moved to Jerusalem as world chairman of Keren Hayesod–United Israel Appeal. Author, works of Jewish history and religion.

GOLOMB, ELIYAHU (1893-1945). Main architect of Haganah. B. Belorussia, settled in Palestine 1909, in first graduating class Herzlia Gymnasium 1913. Joined Jewish Legion 1918, and on demobilization became member of Haganah organizing committee. He brought Haganah under auspices of Jewish national institutions, opposed dissident armed organizations and worked 1939-40 to form a unified defense command. Among initiators of ‘field units’ for active defense during Arab riots 1936-39, recruited volunteers into British Army during W.W.II. A founder of Palmach force, he proposed parachuting of Jews into occupied Europe. Golomb was a leader of Ahdut Haavodah (later of Mapai), of Histadrut and member of Va’ad Leumi. His home in Tel Aviv became the Haganah Museum. Brother-in-law of Moshe Sharett (q.v.) and of Dov Hos.

GOODMAN, Paul (1875-1949). B. Tartu (Dorpat), Estonia. Author and AngloJewish communal leader. Settling in Britain 1891, he was Asst. Secretary of Spanish and Portuguese Congregation of London, 1895-1910, Secretary 1910-45. Among founders of E.Z.F. 1899, its hon. Secretary 1910-18, vice-president 1918-27, hon. treasurer 1928-49. Hon. Secretary of Joint E.Z.F./O.A.M. Council established 1912, and of Zionist Political Committee, 1916. Member, London Zionist Bureau of 1917. Editor zonzst Review, 1920-26,1934-38, later chairman of Editorial Board. Founding Editor, 1946, Gates of Zion. Participated in XI-XIII, XIX, XXI Z.C., 1913-23, 1935, 1939. On Jewish Agency Council from 1935. Hon. treasurer, European Executive of Confederation of General Zionists (Faction A), a body he helped to found in 1935. Participated in St. James’s Conference, 1939. Active in Bnez Brzth and World Sephardi Union. Author and Editor of works on Zionism and Jewish history.

GORT, VISCOUNT, (John Standish Vereker, 1886-1946). Field-marshal, entered army 1905; Director of Military Training India 1932-36; Commandant Staff College Camberley 1936-37; Chief of Imperial General Staff 1937-39. Led British Expeditionary Force in France Sept. 1939. Inspector-General to Forces 1940-41. Governor and Commander-in-Chief Gibraltar 1941-42; Malta 1942-44. Sixth High Commissioner for Palestine, 1944-45; retired because of ill-health.

GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO (1862-1936). B. Manchester. Linguist and Orientalist. A founder and first president (1898-1904) of Federation of American Zionists, and on its Executive 1908-9. Emigrated 1873 to U.S.A. with his father, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil, himself a pioneer Zionist. Following studies at American and European universities and the Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, obtained Doctorate at Leipzig in 1886 and was appointed lecturer in Assyriology and Rabbinical Literature at Columbia. Professor and head of Department of Semitic Languages at Columbia 1892. Headed Oriental Department of New York Public Library 1896. In 1922, together with Stephen Wise, he established Jewish Institute of Religion, serving on its Board of Trustees. Member of various scientific societies and author of books and articles in his own field of scholarship as well as on contemporary affairs. Delegate II, III, IV, VI, X, XV Z.C., 1898, 1899, 1900, 1903, 1911, 1927. Member G.A.C. 1898-1905, 1907-11. His wife, Emma (they married 1891), among founders of Hadassah and delegate to several Z.C.s.

GOURLAND, AARON (1881-?). Writer. B. Vilna. As Heidelberg student, helped to organize, and took part in, Z.Y.C., 1901. Joined D.F. Visited Palestine, 1902. Engaged in literary work in St. Petersburg, 1909-15. From 1915-17 in England and U.S.A. Joined one of the Jewish Battalions of the British Army and went with it to Palestine in 1918. Left Palestine 1920, after which nothing known of him except that he lived for a time in Vilna and Berlin.

GRAHAM, Sir Ronald William (1870-1949). B. London. Diplomat. Consul-General in Egypt, 1907-09, Adviser to Egyptian Ministry of Interior, 1910-16, Minister Plenipotentiary 1916. Assistant Under-Secretary of State at Foreign Office 1916-19, Acting Permanent Under-Secretary, 1919. Minister to Holland, 1919-21, Ambassador to Italy, 1921-23. British Government Director of Suez Canal Company, 1939-45.

GREENBERG, LEOPOLD JACOB (1861-1931). Pseudonym: Mentor. B. Birmingham. Journalist. Entered Jewish public life with initiation of Jewish Tear Book, 1896. Joined Z.O. shortly after its establishment. Delegate II–IX Z.C., 1898-1909. Hon. secretary E.Z.F. 1899-1906, its vice-president 1909. On G.A.C. 1901-05, 1907-11, S.A.C. 1905-7. Board member J.C.T. 1901-09. A Herzl intimate and his representative in England. Conducted negotiations with British government relating El-Arish and East Africa projects, 1903-5. From 1907 part-owner, life-director, and editor Jewish Chronicle, which he converted into a Zionist platform, and from 1913 also edited Jewish World. Withdrew from active Zionism on victory of ‘practical’ Zionists 1911, but retained considerable influence as Jewish Chronicle editor, particularly in activities culminating in Balfour Declaration and creation of Jewish Legion. After the war opposed official Zionist policy, and called for stronger line towards British government.

GREENBERG, LeoPoto (1885-1964). Jurist. B. Cape Province, appointed K.C. 1924, Presiding Judge of Transvaal 1938, in Appellate Division of South African Supreme Court 1943, Acting Chief Justice of Union 1953. For many years K.H. and Israel United Appeal President in South Africa, and of Friends of H.U. there. The first South African Governor on Board of H.U., which conferred an Honorary Doctorate on him, and named its Institute of Forensic Medicine in Abu Kabir near Tel Aviv after him.

GRIBBON, WALTER HAROLD (1881-1944). Soldier, rising to rank of Brigadier. Served in the  W.O. and in Constantinople 1914-21, with active service in W.W. I.

GRINBLATT, (later ABERSON), ROSA (1877 ?-1943). Orig. Vitebsk. M. 1905 Zvi Aberson (q.v.). Delegate to founding conference of Bund, 1897. Later, became a Zionist while a student at Berne and Geneva. General Secretary of Geneva League of Jewish Women, 1921-42.

GROSSMAN, MEIR (1888-1964). B. Russia. Journalist. Began career in Russian and Yiddish Press. Edited Die Tribune, a Yiddish bi-weekly, in Copenhagen and London during W.W.I. Briefly returning to Russia after the 1917 Revolution, he edited Yiddish newspapers in Ukraine. Founding editor, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1919-28. Founded Palestine Bulletin, an English daily, in 1925 in Jerusalem, where he lived intermittently. Joined Vladimir Jabotinsky’s Zionist-Revisionist movement, but seceded 1933 to form Jewish State Party. Chairman until 1948, when it united with Revisionists. Elected to Jewish Agency Executive 1948. Joined General Zionist Party 1953, representing it on Jewish Agency Executive 1954-60.

GRUENBAUM, Isaac (1879-1970). B. Warsaw. Lawyer and journalist. A leading figure in Polish Jewry and Zionist movement. While student in Warsaw member of Student Zionist Society Kadimah, and prominent in Hatehiya, a radical youth organization. Connected with D.F. 1902-03. From 1905 secretary to Nahum Sokolow, then Zionist representative in Poland, participating all Z.C.s from Seventh (1905). Editor and contributor Zionist publications in Hebrew, Yiddish, Polish, and Russian, among them the weekly Glos Zydowski (`Jewish Voice’), of which editor 1906-07. Participated in Russian Jewish Press Convention and third Russian Zionist Conference, Helsingfors (1906), where he was among formulators of `Helsingfors Programme’ committing Russian Z.O. in struggle for civic and national rights of Russian Jewry. Edited Ha’olam (Vilna), Hebrew organ of Z.O., 1908-10, and Dos Yiddishe Folk, 1914. During First World War he joined editorial staff in Petrograd of Raszviet and Evreiskaya Zhizn, simultaneously editing Petrograder Tageblatt. At seventh Russian Zionist Conference in Petrograd (1917) he championed recognition of Yiddish as the Jewish language of Diaspora and secularization of the Jewish community. Returned to Warsaw 1918 and appointed general secretary Zionist Central Committee in Poland. Edited Dos Yiddishe Folk again and Hatzefirah. Elected Actions Committee 1921. Chairman Provisional National Jewish Council in Poland, member of Sejm 1919-32 and chairman of its Jewish group. Established National Minority Bloc in Sejm 1922. Member of Warsaw City Council 1924. During this period a consistent opponent of the Zionist leadership, contesting expansion of Jewish Agency. He established Al Hamishmar (`On Guard’) group and edited its publication Zionistishe Bletter. Following victory of Et-Livnot (`Time to Build’) group in 1925, he resigned from Polish Zionist Central Committee. Chairman J.N.F. in Poland 1930-2. Elected to Jewish Agency Executive and emigrated to Palestine 1933. Held these offices in Agency : Head of Labour Department 1933-48; Head of Immigration Department 1933-5 ; Head of Mossad Bialik 1935-48 ; Treasurer 1949-50 ; Investigating Judge 1950-1. In Second World War engaged in Istanbul in establishing contact with Jews in Occupied Europe. Among Jewish leaders detained in Latrun 1946. Minister of Interior in Provisional Government of Israel. Campaigned, with own independent party list, for separation of religion and state in first Knesset elections, but failed to be elected.

GRUSENBERG, OSCAR ISRAEL (1866-1940). B. Ekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk), Attorney. Known in St. Petersburg as the ‘Jewish Defender’ for his appearances in political trials and actions of Jewish significance (blood libels and pogroms) A Constitutional Democrat (Cadet) Party candidate for Second Duma on behalf of Vilna Jewish community, and on Advisory Council to Jewish delegates in Third and Fourth Duma. Joined Russian Bureau for Hebrew University Affairs, 1914, and drew closer to Zionism. A Senator, and Zionist delegate to the Constituent Assembly, he left Russia for Berlin at inception of Soviet regime, and was a representative of Russian Jewry on the Committee of Jewish Delegations at Versailles, 1919. Later settled in Riga, and participated in foundation meeting of enlarged Jewish Agency, 1929. On Jewish Agency Council 1929-33. Spent his last years in Nice.

GRUSENBERG, SAMUEL (1854-1909). Pseudonym: Letopisets. B. Kherson district, Ukraine. Physician and journalist. Studied at St. Petersburg University and Military Medical Academy. From 1884 to 1899 on editorial staff, and sometime acting-editor, Jewish periodical Voskhod (`Sunrise’), responsible for foreign news. Influenced paper’s moderately assimilationist policy opposing emigration from Russia and calls for national renaissance in Palestine. Editor-publisher 1899-1904, Jewish weekly Budushchnost (`Future’) that allocated extensive space to Zionism. Later abandoned journalistic and Jewish activities, returning to medicine. Frequent contributor to medical journals, writing also in Hebrew.

GUEDALLA, PHILIP (1889-1944). British biographer, historian, essayist. Educated at Oxford, called to Bar, but retired in 1923 to devote himself to literature and politics. His five attempts to secure election to Parliament as a Liberal M.P. failed, but his books were an outstanding success. He was E.Z.F. President 1924-28, and president of Jewish learned societies in England.

GUREVICH, BORIS (CHAIM Dov) (1865-1927). Journalist. B. Gorki, Byelorussia. Studied in Berlin, where interested in ‘Jargon Committees’ movement for dissemination of Yiddish literature and was member of Zionist students society, Kadimah. Actively concerned in preparations for and took part in, Z.Y.C., 1901. Joined D.F. At Minsk Conference, 1902, made his mark by address on place of economic questions in Zionist program. From 1903 to 1911 a leading contributor to St. Petersburg Yiddish daily, Der Fraind. Later, became editor (1919) of a Zionist periodical in Minsk. Under Soviet regime, worked in State economic institutions and wrote for the Russian press.

HAINING, SIR ROBERT HADDEN (1882-1959) Professional soldier, served European War 1914-18; barrister-at-law Lincoln’s Inn 1919-27, at Imperial Defence College, then Aldershot and Colchester Commands, 1927-31; at W.0.1931-34, 1936-38; commander British forces in Palestine and Transjordan 1938-39; G.O.C. Western Command 1939-40; Vice-Chief Imperial General Staff 1940-41; Intendant-General, Middle East 1941-42.

HAAS, JACOB DE (1872-1937). B. London. Journalist and Zionist leader. Active H.Z. Associate-editor Anglo-Zionist organ Jewish World 1892-1900. Among founders of English Zionist Federation in 1898, close associate of Herzl and devotee of ‘political’ Zionism. Delegate first six Z.C.s, 1897-19037 XVI, XVII, 1929, 1931. On G.A.C. 1898-9, 1901-5. At Herzl’s request, settled in United States 1902 to help organize American Zionism. Secretary, 1902-5, of Federation of American Zionists and editor of its official organ The Maccabean. On Executive, Federation of American Zionists 1905-7, but withdrew to become owner-editor Boston Jewish Advocate 1908-18. Helped form American Jewish Congress and one of its representatives at Peace Conference 1919. His return to Zionist movement began in 1916, when appointed secretary of Provisional Zionist Executive Committee in America, and he was executive secretary of Zionist Organization of America 1918-21. Withdrew from Z.O. in 1921 together with Brandeis group, concentrating instead on economic development of Palestine through Palestine Development League. Again on Executive of Zionist Organization of America 1930-4. A General Zionist with views similar to Vladimir Jabotinsky’s, he joined Revisionist movement in 1935 and was among founders of New Zionist Organization.

HABER, FRITZ (1868-1934). Chemist. B. Breslau, professor at Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, 1906. Director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Berlin 1911-33. Although he had left the Jewish faith, he was dismissed by the Nazis, moving to Switzerland 1933. Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1918. Developed Haber process for production of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen, a process which supplied Germany with nitrates for explosives during W.W.I. Also worked in gas warfare. Intending to visit the Sieff Institute, he died on his way to Palestine.

HACOHEN, Mordecai Ben-Hillel (1856-1936). (Pseudonyms: Avi’a D’Shmuel, Ish Yehudi, M’ Hashmona’i, Markus Cohen among others.) B. Mohilev. Author and public figure. Contributed extensively from 1874 to the Hebrew, Russian-Jewish and Yiddish press. One of the earliest H.Z., and among founders of its student society, Ahvat Zion, in St. Petersburg, to which he moved in 1878. Moved to Hamel, 1888, and joined local Bnei Moshe lodge. Participated in I, VIII Z.C. 1897,1907, delivering the only Hebrew address at the former. Settled in Palestine, 1907. Among founders and active figures: of Tel Aviv, with service to Herzlia Gymnasium and Hebrew Authors Association. He coordinated relief for refugees from Tel Aviv during World War I in Haifa. A founding member of Provisional Committee of Palestine Jews, 1918. Directed the Palestine Office in Jerusalem, 1918-19. Founder and president of Jewish Arbitration Court in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Member, Second Jewish Elected Assembly (Assefat Hanivharim) 1925-31, on Presidium of Jerusalem Jewish Community Council, and charged with economic, cultural and educational enterprises. Published, inter alia, his diaries War of the Nations and My World, a book of memoirs.

HAHN-WARBURG, LOLA. B. Hamburg, 1901. daughter of Max M. Warburg. She moved to Berlin 1921, working for Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland. In 1927 she met W., who influenced her into an abiding interest in Palestine and Zionism. With the rise of the Nazis she worked for Youth Aliyah, emigrated to England in 1938 and became Hon. Vice-President of Children and Youth Aliyah in Great Britain.

HALL, GEORGE HENRY (First Viscount Hall, 1881-1965). Labour M.P. 1922-46. Began work as miner at 12 years of age, he was Civil Lord of Admiralty 1929-31; Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Colonial Office 1940-42; Financial Secretary to Admiralty 1942-43; Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Foreign Affairs 1943-45. Secretary of State for Colonies 1945-46; First Lord of Admiralty 1946-51; Deputy Leader House of Lords 1947-51.

HALPERN, GEORGE GAD (GI:m.1-A) (1878-1962). B. Pinsk. Economist. Studied in Vienna, Berlin, and Munich, obtaining Doctorate 1903. Chairman Zionist Society in Munich and among organizers of Jewish Student Union there. Member D.F. and assisted Jewish University project. Delegate all Z.C.s from Seventh (1905), and from 1906 member Central Committee German Z.O. On G.A.C. 1911-13, when also in management of large petroleum concern in Vienna and Lvov. After First World War worked in Zionist financial institutions. At London Zionist Conference (1920) re-elected G.A.C. and to Finance Committee, and at XII Z.C. (1921) to Financial and Economic Council. From 1921 to 1928 in London as member, Board of Directors of J.C.T. (1922-28 its Managing Director). Among founders, and a Director, K.H. Left London 1928 to engage in marine insurance in Hamburg. Emigrated to Palestine 1933, when he joined Board of Directors of J.N.F. and Palestine Development Company. Among founders in 1934 of Migdal Insurance Company, and for over a decade its chairman. A Board member of Palestine Electric Corporation for many years and its chairman 1954-6. Hon. Chairman Bank Leumi.

HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA (1897-1978). B. New York. Attended Jewish Theological Seminary, Hunter College and Columbia University. President of Hadassah 1932-34, 1947-51. She lived in Palestine 1934-39 as Hadassah representative. On Zionist General Council 1939-46; on J.A. Executive 1946-68, at various times chairman of its American section. She had active role in American Jewish Conference 1943-   46; Governor of U.J.A. and H.U., and co-chairman of World Confederation of General Zionists.

HANKIN, YEHOSHUA (1864-1945). Early Zionist pioneer, most prominent purchaser of land for Jewish settlement in Palestine. B. Ukraine, he settled in Palestine 1882 and established friendly relations with Arab landowners. Acted on behalf of Hovevei Zion, later for I.C.A., P.L.D.C. (of which director from 1932), and private purchasers. Among his acquisitions were lands of Rehovot 1890, Hadera 1891, and greater part of Jezreel Valley 1909-20, opposite which he is buried, on Mount Gilboa. The village Kfar Yehoshua is named after him.

HANTKE, ARTHUR MENAHEM (1874-1955). B. Berlin. Lawyer. Studied Berlin and Freiburg, obtaining Doctorate. Joined Z.O. on inception. Delegate V–XIV, XVI, XVII, XIX–XXIII Z.C., 1901-25, 1929, 1931, 1935-51. Head, Berlin Bureau of German Z.O. 1904, chairman of Executive 1910-20. G.A.C. 1905-11, S.A.C. 1911-20. On Board J.N.F. 1907-28, and Palestine Land Development Company 1911-13, 1936-55. During First World War directed Z.O. political work in Central Europe, and among founders Copenhagen Zionist Bureau. Advocating Z.O. neutrality, he endeavoured to secure a statement similar to Balfour Declaration from Germany. In London 1919 to supervise organizational activities S.A.C. Upon establishment of K.H., 1920, headed its Central European Division in Berlin, with simultaneous responsibility for Z.O. Berlin Bureau. In 1926 appointed, jointly with Leib Jaffe, head of K.H. Central Bureau in Jerusalem, serving until death. Elected 1951 one of three chairmen K.H. Board of Directors.

HARARI (BLUMBERG), CHAIM (1883-1940). Pseudonyms: Hash-Baz, Ben Bag-Bag, Chaim Yahir, etc. B. Dvinsk (Duenaburg, Daugavpils), then Vitebsk Province, Russia. Pioneer of Hebrew education and culture in Palestine. Student at Mikveh Israel Agricultural School from 1898. As Geneva student from 1903 a member Hashahar Society. On completion studies 1906 he taught at Hebrew Gymnasium in Jaffa (afterwards Herzlia Gymnasium). Among founders Tel Aviv, 1909. Student in Paris 1913, then again in Geneva where obtained Doctorate and worked for creation of Jewish Legion. Returning to Palestine 1919, he edited Hahinuch and Moledet, headed Habimah Hebrew Theatre Circle, and active on behalf Tel Aviv Museum. A Freemason, he edited their organ Haboneh Hahofshi from 1933. Active League of Nations Union. Author and translator articles on education and literary subjects.

HARTOG, SIR PHILIP JOSEPH (1864-1947). Asst. chemistry lecturer Owens College, Manchester, 1891-1903; lecturer Manchester University 1898-1903; Academic Registrar, London University 1903-20; member Viceroy’s Commission on Calcutta University 1917-19; first Vice-Chancellor Dacca University, Bengal, 1920-25; on Indian Public Service Commission 1926-30. In 1933 led the Survey Commission in Jerusalem investigating the organization of H.U., and that year became chairman of the Jewish Academic Council to assist refugees from Germany. Active in Anglo-Jewish Association and Board of Deputies of British Jews. Author of works on education and literature.

HAUSMANN, ALEXANDER (1878-1931). B. Lemberg. Lawyer. Studied Vienna, obtaining Doctorate. Delegate I, IV, IX–XI Z.C., 1897, 1900, 1909-13. Among organizers Student Zionist Societies Emuna and Ivria in Lemberg. On Austrian Zionist Council from 1901. Member D.F. Among founders Jewish Statistical Association, 1902. Helped edit youth monthly Moriya, 1903. On Central Committee Galician Zionists from 1907 and chairman its Palestine sub-committee, paying several visits to that country. Member G.A.C. 1911-13, Lemberg Community Council 1913. Delegate Polish Sejm 1922.

HENDERSON, ARTHUR (1863-1935). Labour M.P. from 1903; Secretary, Labour Party 1911-34; adviser on employment in Cabinet 1915-17; President Board of Education 1915; Paymaster-General 1916; Minister without Portfolio 1916; Chief Labour Whip 1914, 1921-23, 1925-27; Home Secretary 1924; Foreign Secretary 1929-31; led Labour Party opposition to MacDonald’s National Government and lost his seat 1931; presided over World Disarmament Conference 1932-34; Nobel Peace Prize 1934. Henderson supported the Jewish National Home in Palestine.

HERRMANN, Leo (1888-1951). B. Lanszkron, Bohemia. Journalist and Zionist official. Studying law, he was active in Bar Kochba Zionist Student Society in Prague, and its president 1908-09. Edited Zionist periodical Selbstwehr. Prague, from 1910. Secretary, C.Z.O. in Berlin, 1913-19. Editor ,Pidische Runclschou 1915-19, and on editorial staff of Der Jude, founded 1916. Secretary of Zionist Executive, London 1919-20. Secretary of K.H. Executive and its organization department on its establishment in 1920, with special responsibility for education and propaganda. Participated in XII Z.C., 1921. Continued with K.H. Head Office on its removal to Jerusalem in 1926. Active in rescue efforts on behalf of Jews in Czechoslovakia and salvage of their property on eve of Second World War, and a founder of Palestine Fund for Relief of European Jewry.

HERTZ, Joseph Herman (1872-1946). B. Rebrin, then Hungary. Chief Rabbi of United Kingdom and British Empire. Emigrated 1884 to New York, where educated and ordained. Rabbi of Adath Reshurun congregation, Syracuse, 1894-98, then rabbi in Johannesburg, 1898-1911. Expelled from Transvaal by Boer government for protesting against religious disabilities there, 1899-1901. Vice-president, South African Zionist Federation. Rabbi of Orah Hayyurt congregation, New York, 1911. As British Chief Rabbi (from 1913) supported W.’s efforts leading to B.D. President, U.K. Mizrahi Organization from 1918, on Board of Governors of Hebrew University, and chairman, Council of Institute of Jewish Studies. Vice-president, A.J.A. and League of Nations Union; president, Jews’ College, Jewish Historical Society (1922-23). Author works on Judaism.

HERTZOG, JAMES BARRY MUNNIK (1866-1942). B. Cape Province, he studied law and sat on Bench of Orange Free State 1895-99; commanded Boer southern forces, 1899-1902, rising to General. South African Minister of Justice 1910-12. Formed Nationalist Party 1913, and became Prime Minister 1924-39; Minister of Native Affairs 1924-29; External Affairs 1929-39; leader of re-united South African National Party 1933-39; defeated on proposal of neutrality Sept. 1939.

HERZL, HANS (1891-193o). B. Vienna. Son of Theodor Herzl. Following father’s death in 1904 brought to England under guardianship of  Joseph Cowen (q.v.). At school in Brighton and Bristol, then Cambridge student 1909-13. War service in France. Taught languages, practised journalism, and was translator, inter alia, of his father’s works into English. Converted to Christianity, Vienna 1924. Committed suicide in Bordeaux.

HERZL, THEODOR (BENJAMIN ZEEV) (1860-1904). Journalist and playwright. Founder of political Zionism. B. Budapest, but lived mainly in Vienna. Publ . 1896, his brochure Der Judenstaat. The First Zionist Congress (1897), over which he presided, resulted in the formation, under his leadership, of the Zionist Organization, which he headed until his death in 1904, commanding throughout that period an unchallengeable ascendancy as the dominant figure in the Movement. Full-scale biography by Alex Bein: English translation, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1945.

HERZOG, ISAAC HALEVI (1888-1959). Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Palestine from 1937. B. Lomza, Poland, he immigrated with his family in 1897 to Leeds, England. Ordained rabbi 1908. Received doctorate from London University. Rabbi in Belfast 1916-19; Dublin, 1919-36, with title of Chief Rabbi of Irish Free State from 1921. Participated in ‘Round Table’ talks in London 1939. President of Va’ad Hayeshivot (Committee of Talmudic Colleges) from 1940. During World War II he travelled to various countries on missions of Jewish rescue, and was subsequently engaged on reclaiming Jewish children hidden in monasteries and convents during the Nazi persecution. Author, works of responsa and Jewish law.

HEXTER, MAURICE. B. 1891 America. Director of Jewish charities in Milwaukee, Cincinnati and Boston 1914-29; tutor in Social Ethics Department of Harvard University 1919-29. A non-Zionist member of J.A. Executive in Jerusalem 1929-38, he then returned to U.S. and in 1941 became Executive Vice-President, Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York.

HEYMANN, HANS GIDEON (1882-1918). B. Berlin. M. daughter of Johann Kremenetzky (q.v.). Banker and industrialist. Joined Zionist movement while student in Munich. Chairman, Berlin Zionist Association 1911-14. From 1910 responsible for financial affairs of German Zionist Central Committee. Delegate VII, VIII, X, XI Z.C., 1905, 1907, 1911, 1913. On G.A.C. from 1913. As ‘practical’ Zionist, worked actively for economic projects in Palestine, and from 1909 he was a Director of Palestine Development Company.

HICKEL, MAX (1873-1924). Publisher. B. Moravia, where he was one of the earliest adherents of the Z.O. Founded in Brno, 1900, a German-language Zionist fornightly, Die Jiidische Volkstimme.

HILDESHEIMER, HIRSCH NAFTALI ZVI (1855-191o). B. Eisenstadt (Kismarton), then Hungary. A leader of Orthodox Jewry in Germany, he obtained Doctorate 1879 and was lecturer in Jewish history at Berlin Rabbinical Seminary from 1881. Editor, jadische Presse, Berlin, from 1883. Among founders Society for Jewish History and Literature 1892, and Hilfsverein der Deutschen juden 1901. Successfully opposed prohibition of ritual slaughter in Germany. While favouring Jewish settlement in Palestine he opposed political Zionist movement. Author of Beitrage zur Geographie Paltistinas, 1886.

HILL, SIR CLEMENT LLOYD (1845-1913). B. Shropshire. Entered British Foreign Service 1867. Superintendent African Protectorates 1900-5. From 1906 Unionist Member of Parliament.

HOOFIEN, Eliezer Siegfried (1881-1957). B. Utrecht. Banker and public figure. Secretary, Dutch Zionist Federation, 1907, he entered service at Cologne Zionist headquarters and K.K.L. as director of Finance Department, 1909-10, and Zionist Bureau, 1910-12. In Palestine served as Assistant General Manager of Anglo-Palestine Bank, 1912-19, Joint General Manager 1919-24, General Manager 1924-47, Chairman of its Board 1947-57 (its name changed to Bank Leumi Lelsrael in 1949). During World War I he was active in yishuv relief, being in 1918 representative of J.D.C. On Provisional Committee of Palestine Jews, 1918. Prominent in establishment of Tel Aviv Jaffa Chamber of Commerce, 1923, and its president (later hon. president). Consul-General of Netherlands in Tel Aviv-Jaffa, 1923-47. Headed the Economic Commission which planned the campaign against the British White Paper of 1939. On Israel’s independence he served as Economic Coordinator in the Prime Minister’s Office, 1948-49. Chairman, Advisory Committee of the Bank of Israel, 1954-57.

HOOVER, HERBERT CLARK (1874-1964). Republican President of U.S.A. 1929-33. Mining engineer. At outbreak of W.W. I appointed chairman of Commission for Relief of Belgium; later member of War Trade Council, and after Armistice directed American relief in Europe. Secretary of Commerce 1920-28. Active in international relief work during and after W.W. II.

HOROWITZ, SHALOM (1880-1930) Lawyer. B. Manchester he practised law until 1922. Joined Harry Sacher’s law offices in Jerusalem in 1923, establishing his own practice 1931. He was a Jewish legal representative before the Shaw Commission. Active on behalf of Hebrew University, Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra, Szold Institute. Served as legal adviser to Sieff Institute.

HOUSE, COLONEL EDWARD MANDELL (1858-1938). Adviser to President Wilson, and his personal representative to European Governments 1914-16; member of Allied War Council 1917-18; U.S. Peace Commissioner in Paris, 1918-19. Prominent in drafting of League of Nations Covenant; member of the Commission on Mandates, London, 1919.

HULL, CORDELL (1871-1955). U.S. Secretary of State, 1933-44. Lawyer, member Tennessee House of Representatives 1893-97; judge in Tennessee 1903-07; Congressional Representative 1907-21, 1923-31; Senator for Tennessee 1931-33. He belonged to the international school of thought in American diplomacy as opposed to isolationists.

HUSSEINI, HAjj (MUHAMMAD) AMIN AL- (1893-1974). B. Jerusalem, active in Arab nationalist movement from about 1919; imprisoned for his leading role in the Apr. 1920 anti-Jewish riots in Jerusalem, but amnestied 1921 and appointed Mufti (expounder of Muslim law) of Jerusalem. From 1922 chairman of Supreme Muslim Council, adopting an extremist anti-Jewish and anti-British attitude with involvement in riots of 1929, and headed Arab Higher Committee which directed the 1936 rebellion. He was dismissed in Oct. 1937, his Higher Committee was outlawed, and his Supreme Council dissolved. He escaped to head the rebellion from exile in Damascus and Beirut. In 1940 he moved to Iraq and took part in the pro-German coup of 1941, then escaped to Europe. Collaborated with Nazi Germany throughout war, and settled in Cairo after escaping from French detention in 1946. Following the Arab defeat of 1948 he remained in exile with little influence.

HYAMSON, Albert Montefiore (1875-1954). B. London. Historian and civil servant. Directed Jewish Affairs section in Ministry of Information, 1917-18, and member of London Zionist Bureau, 1917. Joint Editor Zionist Review, 1917-19. Appointed Asst. Director of Immigration Department in Palestine of Mandatory Government, 1921, Director 1926-34. On return to England he became protagonist of bi-national state. Editor Jewish Tear Book 1940-50, president, Jewish Historical Society 1945-47. Author numerous works on history of Anglo-Jewry and Palestine.

IDELSON, ABRAHAM (1865-1921). B. Kovno. As Moscow student, joined Bnei Zion society. Member of Bnei Moshe. After I Z.C., 1897, founded Zionist students society, Kadimah, in Moscow. Took part in Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. and of its Russian Central Committee. Elected to Cultural Commission set up by Minsk Conference, 1902. Editor of Russian-Jewish periodicals Yevreiskaya Zhizn and Raszviet. Took part in formulation (Dec. 1905) of the `Helsingfors Programme’, committing Zionists to campaign for national autonomy for Russian Jewry. Elected to G.A.C. at XI Z.C., 1913. After Russian Revolution of March 1917, took a leading part in Zionist activities in Russia. After First World War, worked in Paris with the Committee of Jewish Delegations. In 1920 co-opted to Z.E. and came to London to edit its Hebrew weekly organ, Ha’olam.

IDELSON, VLADIMIR ROBERT (1881-1954). B. Rostov-on-Don. Lawyer. While student in Kharkov joined Student Zionist Society Kadimah, and Committee for a Jewish University. D.F. delegate to VI Z.C., 1903. Member J.N.F. Committee in Berlin, where he obtained Doctorate. Law practice in Russia from 1906. On Board of Directors Anglo-Russian Bank 1914-17 and Committee-member Russian Association of Banks. Consultant to Russian Ministry of Finance 1917. Moving to London in 1918 he worked as expert in Russian and International Law. Called to Bar 1926 and became British subject 1930. On Law Advisory Committee of British Council. Publications on Banking, Insurance, and International Law. Worked to advance Anglo-Israel scientific cooperation and higher education in Israel.

ISH-KISHOR, EPHRAIM (1863-1945). B. Panemune (Ponemon), Province of Kovno, Lithuania. Journalist, teacher. Resided London from 1884, New York from 1907. Pounded Order of Ancient Maccabeans 1894, its Grand Commander 1896-1906. Delegate I, IV, VII Z.C., 1897, 1900, 1905. Actively campaigned against Territorialists. Emigrated Palestine 1933. Author of poetry and drama in Hebrew and Yiddish.

ITZKOVITZ, SAMUEL (1881-1934). B. Baku, South Russia. M. Leah Lev. Engineer, among founders modern Haifa. Studied at Technological Institute in Kharkov, member Student Zionist Society Kadimah. Graduated Munich 1905. Member D.F. Delegate V–VII Z.C., 1901-5. Opposed East Africa project. Arrived Palestine 1906, participated in establishment machinery factory in Haifa, became its European agent, then its Haifa manager 1910. Managed his father’s refineries in Baku from 1914. Participated in Conference of Russian Zionists, Petrograd 1917, and Conference of Caucasian Zionists in Baku. After war returned Haifa, where a Governor Hebrew Secondary School and Technion. On local council of Hadar-Hacarmel from 1931, its chairman 1931-2.

JABOTINSKY, ZE’EV VLADIMIR (1880-1940). Pseudonym: Altalena. B. Odessa. Journalist, author, founder of Zionist Revisionism. Delegate VI-IX, XII, XIVXVIII Z.C., 1903-09, 1921, 1925-33. Active in zonez-Zion. Among formulators Helsingfors Programme 1906, providing for Zionist participation in struggle for equal Jewish rights in Russia. In Constantinople on behalf of Z.O. 1909-10. Member Greater Preparatory Commission for Hebrew University 1914. Joined committee for welfare of Jewish refugees from Palestine, Alexandria 1915, where in early negotiations leading to creation of Zion Mule Corps. Predominant role in formation of Jewish Legion, London 1917, in which commissioned and proceeded to Palestine 1918. Directed political department of Zionist Commission to Palestine 1918-19. Opposed Legion’s disbandment, demanding creation of recognized Jewish military force in Palestine. Member First, Second, Third Jewish Elected Assembly (Aselat Hanwhaorn) 1920-40, and Jewish National Council (f’a’ad Leumz) 1920- 31. After Arab rioting, Easter 1920, received 15 years prison sentence for organizing Jewish self-defence in Jerusalem, but shortly afterwards unconditionally released. Head of Press and Propaganda, K.H. Directorate, London 1920-23. Member Zionist Executive 1921-23. His 1921 negotiations with a representative of Ukrainian leader Petliura for Jewish police force in Ukraine incurred opposition within Zionist movement. Founding-president World Union of Zionist Revisionists 1925, advocating firmer stand towards Mandatory govt., and its youth organization Briar (Both Trumpador). In 1930 was refused residence in Palestine. His Revisionist Union seceded from W.Z.O. 1935, establishing New Zionist Organization. In 1936 he proposed mass evacuation of Polish Jews, and with outbreak of Second World War the creation of a Jewish army. Gifted linguist, translator and orator, he was an enthusiastic protagonist of the Hebrew language and presidium member Turbot Association.

JACOBS, ROSE GEL. (1888-1975). A founding member of Hadassah, 1912; editor of Hadassah Newsletter 1920-25; Acting-President, Vice-President and President of Hadassah 1930-32, 1934-37, whereupon elected Life Vice-President. On J.A. Executive 1937-46, she was the only woman delegate at St. James’s Conference in London, 1939.

JACOBSON, EDWARD (1891-1955). Merchant. Comrade-in-arms during W.W. I of Harry S. Truman, they engaged in business together for a period in Oklahoma and Kansas City, Missouri, and remained lifelong friends. After Truman became President, Jacobson discussed with him the Jewish refugee problem and Palestine partition issues. In March 1948, at a critical moment in the period preceding the establishment of the State of Israel, he persuaded Truman to receive Weizmann.

JACOBSON, VICTOR (AviGnoa) (1869-1934). B. Simferopol, Crimea. As Berlin student, member from 1891, and in 1894 secretary, of Russian-Jewish Academic Society. Returned 1895 to Simferopol, which he represented at II Z.C., 1898. Member of G.A.C., 1899-1900 and 1901-07. Zionist regional leader for Simferopol area, and from end of 1901 director of the Russian Zionist Information Centre at Simferopol. Member of Council (Aufsichtsrat) of J.C.T., 1902. Manager from 1906 of Beirut branch of Anglo-Palestine Company. From 1908 to 1915 in Constantinople as Manager of another J.C.T. subsidiary, the Anglo-Levantine Banking Co., and, in effect, as political representative of the Z.O. Member of S.A.C., 1911 to end of First World War. From early 1916 directed Zionist Bureau at Copenhagen. Appointed by Z.O., 1925, as its political representative at League of Nations headquarters in Geneva.

JAFFE, Bezalel (1868-1925). B. Grodno, then Lithuania. Zionei-Zion leader in Russia and public figure in Palestine, where he settled in 1909. Participated in IV, VII-VIII, X-XI Z.C., 1900, 1905-07, 1911-13. Member, G.A.C., 1905-21, and Central Zionist Office in Vilna, 1905-06. Directed Geulah Co. in Jaffa, 1911-25. Among founders of Tel Aviv, and president of Tel Aviv-Jaffa Jewish com munity. He directed the Palestine Office at Petach Tikvah and was active on Refugee Committee in coordinating relief measures for Jews expelled from Tel Aviv-Jaffa, 1917. On executive of Provisional Committee of Palestine Jews, 1918-20, and helped to formulate national demands submitted by Palestinian Jewish delegation to the Peace Conference, 1919. Member, First Jewish Elected Assembly (Assefat Hanivharim) 1920-25, and Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) 1920-25. On P.L.D.C. Board 1921-25.

JAFFE, LEIB (1875-1948). B. Grodno. Hovey Zion from his youth. Studied Heidelberg, Leipzig, Freiburg. Attended I Z.C., 1897, and Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. group of delegates at V and VI Z.C., 1901 and 1903, and member of D.F. Programme Committee, 1902. Elected 1906 member of Russian Zionist Centre. Elected to G.A.C. at VIII Z.C., 1907. Settled in Palestine, 1919, and associated with the Zionist Commission. Later, Chairman of Board of Directors of K.H. Killed by Arab bomb in Jerusalem, 1948:

JARBLUM, MARC (1887-1972). B. Warsaw, a founder of Poalei Zion in Poland. A leader of that movement in Paris, where he settled 1907. Responsible for winning prominent French statesmen and public figures to Zionist cause. His offices in France, as head of Socialist Zionism, included representation on J.A., President of French Zionist Federation, and chairman of Federation of Jewish Organizations. Went to Israel 1955, and employed in political department of Histadrut.

JOCHELMAN, DAVID S. (1868-1941). B. Postavy, Lithuania. Chairman of Zionist Academic Society and D.F. in Berne, where he obtained Doctorate. Enthusiastic supporter of East Africa project. Delegate VII Z.C., 1905, and among founders that year of Jewish Territorial Organization (I.T.O.). Head of I.T.O. Emigration Department and for some years editor of its publication Wohin. From 1913 lived in England, where managed insurance and transport companies dealing with Russia. In 1917 elected to Board of Deputies of British Jews and Executive of Russo-British Chamber of Commerce. Among founders of Jewish War Victims Fund and Jewish War Prisoners Fund (chairman of latter). Driving force behind ‘Russian Committee for Matters of Military Service’ established 1917 for welfare of Jewish servicemen and their families. Organized mass protests against pogroms in Russia and Poland 1918-19. Chairman, 1920, of Federation of Ukrainian Jews (later incorporated in Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations of Great Britain). Also chairman after First World War of Palestine Workers Fund, and active in O.R.T.

JOHNSON, WILLIAM JOSEPH (1892-1971). In British Colonial Service 1914-49. Treasurer, Palestine Government 1932-40, and chairman of various committees relating to. finance, commerce and industry. Financial adviser to British Ambassador at Cairo 1940-49; Director of United Dominions Trust 1949-61.

JOHNSTON, SIR HARRY HAMILTON (1858-1927). B. Kennington, London. Scholar and African expert. In British Foreign Service 1885-1902, serving in Africa. Special Commissioner in Uganda 1899-1901. Supported Zionist aspirations in Palestine. Author of works on Africa.

KADOORIE, SIR ELLY SILAS (1867-1944). B. Baghdad. Merchant and philan-thropist. Scion of one of leading Jewish merchant families of the East. Resided in Shanghai. Active Zionist from 1900. President of K.H. in Shanghai. Contributed to establishment of Hebrew University and to many other institutions in Palestine and elsewhere.

KAHN, BERNHARD (1876-1955). B. Oskarshamn, Sweden. Jewish emigration expert. Studied at Fulda, Wuerzburg, and Munich, obtaining Doctorate Committee-member Zionist Society in Munich while student there (1899-1903). Delegate VI, VII Z.C., 1903, 1905. Secretary, 1904-21, of Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden in Berlin and director of Central Bureau for Jewish Emigration. From 1921 with American Joint Distribution Committee in administrative capacity, and director of its European office 1924-38. Non-Zionist representative on Jewish Agency Executive 1931-33. In 1939 moved to New York where hon. chairman Joint European Executive Council. On Executive of K.H. and other bodies engaged in economic development of Palestine, including Palestine Economic Corporation. Active in range of social and economic institutions, Jewish and general.

KAHN, ZADOC (1839-1905). B. Mommenheim, Alsace. Chief Rabbi of Paris 1869, of France 1890. Hon. president Alliance Israelite Universelle from 1892, and from 1903 member of I.C.A. Council. Among founders Societe des Etudes juices. Though not a member of the Zionist movement he supported its aims. Author of works in field of Jewish studies and translated the Bible into French.

KALVARISKY, CHAIM MARGALIT (1868-1947). Jewish land agent in Palestine. Employed from 1895 as an administrator of Rothschild colonies. Member of Advisory Council to Government of Palestine 1920-21, and of Va’ad Leumi 1920-29. Intermittently employed 1920-31 by Palestine Zionist Executive and other bodies as propagandist for Zionism among Arabs of Palestine. His methods resulted in his accumulating vast debts, from which he had to be extricated by the Rothschilds and Z.O. In his later years he continued unauthorized activities as mediator between Z.O. and Palestinian Arab nationalists.

KANN, JACOBUS HENRICUS (1872-1944). B. The Hague. Banker. At I Z.C., 1897, and among initiators of J.C.T. A founder Dutch Z.O. Friend and coworker of David Wolffsolm, of whose estate he was Executor. On G.A.C. 1901-05. Very active in administration of Z.O. during Wolffsohn’s presidency, on S.A.C. 1905-11 and delegate all Z.C.s from 1905 to 1913. He was mainly concerned with finance, and was on Board of Directors J.C.T. 1904-22, frequently its vice-chairman. Dedicated to ‘political’ Zionism, and sustained activities following Wolffsohn’s withdrawal from leadership 1911, retaining association with J.C.T. and resuming membership G.A.C. till 1921. During First World War on J.N.F. Executive in The Hague and member of political committee established there in 1917. Hon. Dutch Consul in Palestine, where immigrated 1923. Returning to Holland after some years, deported to Theresienstadt 1942 where he died.

KAPLAN, ELIEZER (1891-1952). B. Russia, he settled in Palestine 1920, entering trade union and political life. On Tel Aviv municipality, member of Hapoel Hatzair Central Committee (later Mapai Central Committee), member of Va’ad Leumi, and on Histadrut Executive; on J.A. Executive from 1933, becoming treasurer. Upon establishment of State, was elected to Knesset and appointed Minister of Finance, in which capacity he served almost until his death. Latterly Deputy Prime Minister.

KAPLANSKY, SHLOMO (1884-1950). B. Russia. Labour leader. Studied engineering in Vienna. Among founders World Union of Poalei Zion. Emigrated to Palestine in 1912. Secretary of J.N.F. head office at The Hague 1913-19. Member of Z.O. Financial and Economic Council 1919-24. Head of Settlement Dept. of P.Z.E. 1924-27. On Jewish Agency Executive 1929-31. Head of Haifa Technion 1932-50.

KARPF, MAURICE JOSEPH (1891-1964). Psychologist and social worker active in American Jewish affairs. Non-Zionist member of J.A. Executive, 1930-45.

KASTELIANSKY, ABRAHAM (1877-1934). Economist. B. Slonim, Byelorussia. Studied at Heidelberg and, later, in Berlin, where, in 1902, he joined the Zionist students society, Kadimah. Secretary of Central Committee of Berlin Jewish Statistical Society, 1902. On ‘Uganda’ issue seceded, about 1905, from Z.O., and joined the Zionist Socialist Workers Party (Territorialists). Immediately before First World War moved to England, where employed in Government service during the War as an inspector of supplies. In 1926 took part in Conference on economic and financial problems concerning Zionist work in Palestine. Later, settled in Palestine, where engaged in citrus export trade.

KATZENELSON, NISSAN (1863–1923). B. Bobruysk, White Russia. Banker. After studies Berlin entered banking in Libau, Lithuania. Among founders of J.C.T. 1899, he was on its Board (chairman 1905-21) until death. President, Anglo-Levantine Banking Company (Constantinople), from 1908. Delegate VI–XII Z.C., 1903-21. Initiated and organized Herzl’s 1903 visit to Russia and meetings with Minister of Interior Plehve, subsequently Herzl’s personal representative to Russian authorities. Delegate first Duma, 1906. On A.C. 1920-1. President, Libau committee to assist Jewish emigrants.

KATZNELSON, BERL (Be’eri; 1887-1944). Educator, writer and Socialist Zionist ideologist. B. Bobruisk, Belorussia. In 1909 he settled in Palestine, as agricultural labourer. He helped establish the Council of Farm Workers in Galilee and Judaea, of which its secretary. Among founders of consumers’ co-operative Hamashbir (later, Hamashbir Hamerkazi), and workers’ sick fund Kupat Holim. Served in Jewish Legion 1918-20, and helped establish Ahdut ha-Avodah (Zionist Socialist Party) 1919, editing its weekly Kuntress. Among founders of Histadrut (General Federation of Jewish Labour) 1920, and was founding-editor, 1925, of first Hebrew daily of Palestinian workers, Dewar, remaining editor-in-chief until death. A leader on its foundation of Mapai (Eretz Israel Labour Party), 1930. A Board member of J.N.F., he refused to join the Zionist Executive or the executive of Va’ad Leumi. In his last years established the Histadrut publishing house, Am Oved, and was its editor-in-chief. His collected works appeared in 12 volumes.

KELLNER, LEON (1859-1928). Pseudonym: Leo Raphaels. B. Tarnow, Galicia. Author, educationalist and specialist in English literature. Close friend and early supporter Herzl, and was his Literary Executor. Obtained Doctorate in Vienna, after which he taught at Realgymnasium, Troppau, 1891-94. Lecturer till 1900, and professor till 1904, University of Vienna. Contributor literary subjects to Neue Freie Presse and joined Herzl on appearance of Judenstaat in 1896. Delegate IV, IX, X Z.C., 1900, 1909, 1911. Contributed, mostly pseudonymously, to Die Welt throughout periodical’s existence, and served briefly as its editor. Professor at Czernowitz 1904-14 and a Zionist member of Bukovina Legislative Assembly. Returned 1914 to Vienna, and was professor at Polytechnic there. Austrian Presidential Adviser on British affairs. His literary work included an edition of Herzl’s Zionist writings in 1910, and in 1922 he published Herzl’s diaries and a biography of the leader.

KENWORTHY, JOSEPH MONTAGUE (from 1934, Lord Strabolgi; 1886-1953). Entered Royal Navy 1902, retiring as Lt. Comm. 1920. M.P. (Lib. 1919-26, Lab. 926-31). Strong Zionist sympathiser. Chairman British branch of Inter-Parliamenry Union 1929-31; and of Advisory Committee on Sea Fisheries 1926-32; Opposition Chief Whip, House of Lords, 1938-42. His autobiography, Sailors, Statesmen end, publ. 1933.

KESSLER, LEOPOLD (1864-1944). B. Tarnowitz (Tarnowskie Gory), then Germany. Mining engineer. On completion his studies in 1890 worked in Matabeleland (Rhodesia), and in 1893 in Transvaal where among founders Zionist Association, and its president 1899. Delegate III–XII Z.C., 1899-1921, on G.A.C. 1899-1920. Settled in London 1902, led El-Arish expedition 1903 and elected to East Africa Commission at VI Z.C. From 1904 on Council J.C.T., Board member from 1912. Member J.N.F. Board 1907-21, Palestine Land Development Company Board 1909-12, 1921-23. On E.Z.F. Executive 1910-20 (president 1912-13), and U.K. Zionist Political Committee 1917. Headed Freeland League, founded 1935 to secure a refuge for Nazi-persecuted Jews. On Jewish Chronicle Board from 1907, chairman from 1932. Author of works on mining engineering.

KHATZMAN (later WEIZMANN), VERA (1881-1966). B. Rostov-on-Don. M. 1906, Chaim Weizmann. Sixth of the seven children of Isaiah Khatzman and his wife Theodosia (née Fluxman). Medical student, 1900-06, at Geneva, where she met W. and under his influence joined Zionist students society, Hashahar. After marriage to W. in 1906, lived with him in Manchester, where from 1913 to early in 1916 she served as a Medical Officer under the Manchester Corporation. Actively interested in social welfare work in England and, later, in Palestine. One of the founders of the Women’s International Zionist Organization (1918) and of Magen David Adorn (1930), and from the early days of the Youth Aliyah Movement (established 1934) prominently associated with its activities. From 1943 a member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute of Science.

KHISSIN, CHAIM (1865-1932). Physician. B. Mir, Byelorussia. Went to Palestine with group of Russian Jewish students (Bilu) in 1882, but returned to Russia in 1888. In late 1890s became medical student at Berne, where served as Chairman of the Zionist Academic Society. Took part in Munich preparatory conference for Z.Y.C. (Apr. 1901) and in Z.Y.C. (Dec. 1901). Member of D.F. group of delegates at V and VI Z.C., 1901 and 1903. Visited Palestine in 1902 and settled there in 1905. Representative in Palestine of Odessa Committee of Hovevei Zion. A leading figure in colonization activities of Z.O. and one of the founders of Tel Aviv.

KIRSCHNER, NICOLAI (1885-1965). B. Courland, immigrated to South Africa 1902. Merchant and communal leader, chairman of South African Zionist Federation 1934-47. Settled in Israel 1960.

KIRSCHROT, JACOB JAN (1879-1912). B. Lodz. Engineer. Studied in Warsaw, where lived until 1907. Among founders, 1900, of Student Zionist Society Kadimah in Warsaw, and its chairman. A founder of socialist Zionist society Hatehiya 1903 and on its Central Committee. Member D.F. Delegate VI, VII Z.C., 1903, 1905. Campaigned against East Africa project. Edited Polish Zionist weeklies Safrut, 1905, and Glos Zydowski, 1906. Elected to Russian Central Zionist Committee, Helsingfors Conference 1906. Directed Yarochinsky Vocational School for Jewish Youth in Lodz from 1907, and head of Jewish Craftsmen’s Club founded there 1910

KLEE, ALFRED (1875-1943). B. Berlin. Lawyer. Obtained Doctorate Heidelberg, 1902. Among founders national Jewish society Young Israel 1892, and active German Z.O. from its beginning, serving on its Central Committee from 1902 and president 1920. Delegate III–VII, IX–XI, XIII, XIV, XVI Z.C., 1899-1905,1909-13, 1923, 1925, 1929. On G.A.C. 903-5,1911-20. Supported East Africa project. From 1907 on Central Committee I.T.O. Among founders, 1914, of Komiteffir den Osten on behalf Russian Jews in German-occupied territories. After First World War headed jiidische Volkspartei and worked for Zionist representation on Jewish communal bodies. Member, representative Assembly of Berlin Jewish Community 1920-36, vice-president Federation of Jewish Communities of Prussia 5925. On I.C.A. Board from 1927. On Executive of Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden from 1933, its vice-president from 1937• Gave legal aid to Jews in Nazi Germany, and continued public Zionist activity there, till compelled to depart 1938. Arrested in Holland 1940, he died in Westerbork internment.

KISCH, FREDERICK HERMANN (1888-1943). B. India. Educated at Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Commissioned in Royal Engineers 1909. On British Delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919-21. Director of Political Dept. of P.Z.E. 1922-23, Chairman of P.Z.E. 1923-31. Rejoined British army in 1939 and promoted to Brigadier. Killed in action North Africa. Author of Palestine Diary.

KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAIIU (1874-1958). B. Olkiniki, Lithuania. While studying at Heidelberg, was an active member of Zionist students groups, came to I Z.C., 1897. A disciple of Ahad Ha’am (q.v.), he strongly advocated the recognition of ‘cultural work’ as an indispensable part of the Zionist programme. Began contributing to the Hebrew press in 1893 and in 1903 succeeded Ahad Ha’am as editor of Hashiloah. Took part in Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. group of delegates at V Z.C., 1901 and served on D.F. Programme Committee. Elected member of Cultural Commission set up by Minsk Conference, 1902. On ‘Uganda’ issue (1904-5) sided with anti-Ugandists. From 1906 worked actively for Zionism and the Hebrew language movement in Odessa. Settled in Palestine, 1919. Appointed in 1925 Professor of Hebrew Literature at the Hebrew University and in 1944 Professor of the History of the Second Temple period.

KLEINMAN, MOSES (1871-1948). B. Ukraine. Delegate to II Z.C., 1898 and to all succeeding Congresses up to and including the Twelfth (1921). Delegate to Minsk Conference, 1902. Member of Odessa Committee of Hovevei Zion, 1906-16. Editor of Jewish periodicals in Lvov and Odessa, 1908-16, and of Moscow Jewish daily Ha’am, 1917-18. Moved to London in 1923 and, after living there until 1935, settled in Palestine. Editor for many years of Ha’olam, the Hebrew weekly organ of the Z.E.

KLETZ, Louts (1868-1945). Furniture manufacturer and Jewish communal leader in Manchester. President Higher Broughton Synagogue. Member B.O.D. For some years vice-president Council of Manchester and Salford Jews. Active in E.Z.F., of which Executive member 1903-04.

KOHAN-BERNSTEIN, JACOB-see BERNSTEIN-KORAN.

KOHN, JULIAN (1861-1932). B. Warsaw. Lawyer. In his youth took part in H.Z. movement but subsequently withdrew. Founded Wiedza (`Knowledge’) Society, which had assimilationist connections. Member of Jewish Community Council and other public bodies.

KOHN, LEO (1894-1961). B. Germany. Lawyer, employed at London Zionist Bureau after W.W.1, concentrating on affairs of Hebrew University. Settled in Palestine 1934, serving as Political Secretary of Jewish Agency 1935-48. He was Political Adviser to the Israeli Foreign Office from 1948, Professor of International Relations at Hebrew University from 1953.

KOKESCH, OZER (1855-1905). B. Brody, Galicia. Lawyer. Studied in Vienna (where he later settled), obtaining Doctorate. Among founders Jewish national society Kadimah, 1882. Secretary Admath reshurun Colonisation Society 1890, and on Executive of Zion Society 1894. A Herzl intimate, he joined Z.O. on its foundation. On S.A.C., of which hon. secretary, 1897-1905. Delegate II–VII Z.C., 1898-1905. Active in formation of J.C.T. and establishment of J.N.F. Opposed East Africa project. Elected G.A.C. 1905.

KOLLEK, THEODOR (TEDDY). B. Vienna 1911. Israel public figure. A student Zionist and youth leader in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany and England, he settled in Palestine 1934; founding-member of Kibbutz Ein Gev 1937. In J.A. Political Department 1940-47; representative of Haganah in U.S. 1947-48; Israel’s Minister Plenipotentiary in Washington 1951-52; director-general, Prime Minister’s Office 1952-64; chairman Israel Government Tourist Corporation 1956-65; Mayor of Jerusalem from 1965. Founder of Israel Museum, Jerusalem, and its chairman from 1964.

KRAUSE, Eliahu (1876-1962). B. Berdyansk, Russia. Agronomist and pioneer of agricultural education in Palestine. Studied at Mikveh Israel Agricultural School near Jaffa, 1892-97. Graduating in France, he became director of an I.C.A. agricultural school near Smyrna, 1899-1901, when settled in Palestine. Manager of the training farm at Sejera until 1913. Helped in formation of Hashomer guards organization. As Director of Mikveh Israel School, 1914-54, he introduced Hebrew as language of instruction and established the policy of Jewish labour. The Turkish governor, Djemal Pasha, appointed him together with Aaron Aaronsohn with responsibility for the campaign against the locust plague, 1915. Later, with British rule, Mikveh Israel under his management served as a recruiting centre for the Palmach and Haganah.

KREMENETZKY, JOHANN (JONAH, JOHANAN) (1850-1934). Also known as JOHANN MEYER. B. Odessa. Engineer and industrialist. One of earliest followers and among closest associates of Herzl, and first head of J.N.F. Educated in Berlin and Paris, he settled in Vienna 1880 and won wide reputation as electrical engineer, with many inventions patented. In 1899 established electric lamp factory, then among world’s largest, in Vienna. Delegate III–VII Z.C.s, 1899-1905, IX Z.C. 1909, with membership S.A.C. 1897-8, 1901-5, and of G.A.C. 1905-20. A Trustee of Herzl’s estate. He helped to found J.N.F. at V Z.C. 1901, and was actively associated with this body till 1921, having been its director until 1907, when J.N.F. headquarters transferred from Vienna to Cologne. Contributed funds and expertise for industrial development of Palestine, and financed W.’s first visit there 1907. Established Silicat brick-works in Palestine 1920 and on his final visit there, 1932, was made hon. citizen of Tel Aviv.

KRINKIN, Bolus (MEIR) (1867-1931). Physician. B. Druya, Lithuania. Became a Zionist while a student at Kazan University, threw himself into Zionist propaganda in the Volga region, and continued his Zionist activities while engaged in post-graduate studies in Vienna, Zurich, and Berlin. Settled in Palestine, 1911. Vice-President of Palestine Jewish Medical Association and founder of Oculists Association.

KRINSKY (later LEvrrE), SALOMEA (LuNIA). B. 1884 Warsaw. Active in Zionist student circles while at Berne University 1903-7. M. Dr. Leon Levite, prominent Polish Zionist, 1909. Polish correspondent of Berliner Tageblatt, 1910-14. Was active in Z.O. and W.I.Z.O. (of which she was among founders) in Poland. Emigrated to Palestine 1940.

KROLL, MICHAEL MOSES (?- ?). B. 1880s. Neuropathologist active in public affairs. Member, Kadimah Zionist Society in Moscow. Attended second Russian Zionist Conference in Minsk 1902. Among leaders Moscow D.F. Bureau 1902-04, and active in Jewish University project. Subsequently member Jewish Socialist Workers Party (Autonomist). In First World War active in O.R.T. and Society for Promotion of Culture among Jews of Russia. Lecturer at Moscow University in twenties, later Dean of Medical School, University of Minsk. Joined Communist Party. Professor of Neurology, Moscow Health Institute, during thirties, and died in early forties.

KUNIN, LAZARE (1875-?). B. Krucha, Byelorussia. Joined Russian-Jewish Academic Society while a student in Berlin. Attended I Z.C., 1897. Member of Berlin group of D.F.

LAMPSON, SIR MILES (1st Lord Killearn, 1880-1964). Entered F.O. 1903; served Tokyo 1908-10, Sofia 1911, Peking 1916; Acting British High Commissioner in Siberia 1920; Minister to China 1926-33; High Commissioner for Egypt and Sudan 1934-36; Ambassador to Egypt and High Commissioner for Sudan 1936-46; Special Commissioner in South-East Asia 1946-48.

LANDAU, LEOPOLD (1848-1920). Gynecologist. B. Warsaw. Privat-Docent, 1893-1902, and from 1902, Extraordinary Professor at Berlin University. Joined the Berlin Hovevei Zion society Ezra, 1896. Served on Berlin Committee for Jewish University, 1903, and supported University project on its revival in 1913.

LANDAUER, GEORG (1895-1954). B. Cologne. Student Zionist activist in Germany; directed Berlin Palestine Office 1925-29, and Managing Director of Palestine Office and of German Z.O. 1929-33. Settling in Palestine 1934, he directed J.A. Central Bureau for Settlement of German Jews 1934-54; a founder of Aliyah Hadashah, on Va’ad Leumi 1941-48 and chairman of Central European Immigrants Association 1948-54.

LANDMAN, SAMUEL (1884-1967). B. Zhvanets, Ukraine. Lawyer. After studying in Leeds and Paris he settled in London 1911. Hon. Secretary E.Z,F.-0.A.M. Joint Council and an Editor of The Zionist. Delegate IX-XII Z.C., 1909-21. Close to W., he participated in political work leading to Balfour Declaration, serving as Secretary of Political Committee established in London 1917. Secretary of Political Department at Central Zionist Office in London, 1918-22 (with brief intermission). On E.Z.F. Executive 1918, 1928-31. Sympathising with the Revisionists, he joined them in forming the N.Z.O., of which body he was Legal Adviser and Chairman of the Political Committee. In World War II returned to W.Z.O. Among founders of General Zionist Organization of Gt. Britain in 1955 and its Chairman until death. On B.O.D. Executive.

LANDSBERG, ALFRED ABRAHAM (1887-1964). B. Wiesbaden, Germany. Lawyer, active in German Z.O. from 1920, its President 1923-25. He and his wife Leonie (b. 1900) were among Weizmann’s closest friends from 1924. Landsberg emigrated to Palestine 1932 and was a founder of Kfar Shmaryahu and of Rassco housing association.

LANSING, ROBERT (1846-1924). U.S. Secretary of State 1915-20; chief of U.S. delegation to P.C. He opposed Wilson’s idea of League of Nations, and called Cabinet meetings during Wilson’s incapacity. Wilson secured his resignation Feb. 1920. Practised law in Washington, specialising in international law, until death.

LAPWORTH, ARTHUR (1872-1941). B. Scotland. Chemist. Taught in Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry at Manchester University from 1909. Professor of Organic Chemistry 1913-22, Head of Chemistry Department 1922-35. Fellow of Royal Society, author of publications on chemistry.

LASKI, HAROLD JOSEPH (1893-1950). B. Manchester. A left-wing political theorist, he taught at McGill University 1914-16, Harvard 1916-20, London School of Economics from 1920 (Professor of Political Science from 1926). He had a profound influence on development of Socialist movement in Britain. On Fabian Society Executive 1922-36; Executive Committee of Labour Party 1936-49, chairman 1945-46. While playing no part in Jewish life, he helped change the provisions of the Passfield White Paper (1930), and later took increased interest in the Zionist struggle. Son of Nathan Laski (Biog. Index, Vol. IV) and brother of Neville Laski (Biog. Index, Vol. XVI).

LASKI, NATHAN (1863-1941). B. Middlesbrough, England. Merchant and Jewish communal leader in Manchester. President Great Synagogue in Manchester, member B.O.D. and A.J.A. Chairman Manchester Jewish Hospital, president Council of Manchester and Salford Jews from 1930 and local Jewish Board of Guardians from 1931. Justice of Peace from 1906. A sometime member I.T.O. Non-Zionist member Jewish Agency Administrative Committee 1931-33. Espousing Zionism late in life he was hon. president Zionist Central Council for Manchester and Salford in 1930s, also serving J.N.F. and K.H. On E.Z.F. Executive 1939-40.

LASKI, NEVILLE JONAS (1890-1969). B. Manchester, son of Nathan Laski and brother of Harold J. Laski. Lawyer. K.C. 1930; Bencher, Inner Temple, 1938; Recorder and sessional judge 1935-63. President of B.O.D. 1933-40; Vice-President Anglo-Jewish Association; a non-Zionist chairman of J.A. Administrative Committee from 1934; President of British Sephardi community 1964-67. He married a daughter of Moses Gaster.

LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD, LT.-COL. (1888-1935), ‘Lawrence of Arabia’. Archaeologist, Orientalist and author. Participated in Carchemish excavations 1911-14, and in W.O. survey of Negev and Sinai 1913-14. In Jan. 1916 he joined the Arab Bureau in Cairo, later appointed liaison officer to Emir Faisal, leader of Arab revolt. Directed Arab military operations leading to capture of Akaba (1917) and entry into Damascus (1918). Adviser to Faisal while the latter represented Arab interests at P.C., and arranged meetings between Faisal and W. 1918-19. He participated in 1921 Cairo Conference which recommended that Faisal be king of Iraq, and his brother Abdullah ruler of Transjordan. Left government service in 1922, adopted different pseudonyms, and joined R.A.F. in 1925. Died in road accident. Lawrence regarded Zionism and Arab nationalism as complementary forces in the Middle East. Author of Seven Pillars of Wisdom.

LAZARE, BERNARD (sometimes known as Bernard-Lazare) (1865-1903). B. Nimes (France). Publ. book of poems, 1892, and works on anti-semitism (1894) and on Jewish nationalism (1898). Immediately after first Dreyfus trial (1894) threw himself into campaign for rehabilitation of Dreyfus. On establishment of Z.O. in 1897 immediately joined it and was elected member of G.A.C., but because of differences of opinion on questions of policy withdrew in 1899. Declined invitation to address Z.Y.C., 1901, but helped in activities of Jiidischer Verlag after its establishment in 1902. Visited Rumania in 1902 to investigate the position of the Jews.

LEHMAN, HERBERT HENRY (1878-1963). Partner in banking firm Lehman Brothers from 1908. Member of War Claims Board with rank of colonel during W.W.I. Among founders American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1914. Lieut.-Governor of New York 1928-31, Governor 1932-42. Director-General of UNRRA 1942-46. U.S. Senator (Democrat) for New York 1949-56. Helped organize Palestine Economic Corporation, and expanded Jewish Agency in 1929.

LESSER, ERNST (1879-1928). B. Stettin (Szczecin), then Germany. Physician. Engaged in research which led to discovery of insulin. Director of Municipal Hospital Laboratories at Mannheim, 1910-28. An active Zionist, he visited Palestine in 1914, producing a report on its medical services.

LEVEN, NAactssE (1833-1915). B. Urdingen (now Krefeld), Germany. Advocate, Franco-Jewish communal leader. Secretary to Franco-Jewish statesman Adolphe Cremieux, an intimate friend, 1858-63. Founded Alliance Israelite Universelle with Charles Netter 1860, its secretary 1876-83, vice-president 1883-98, thereafter president. Closely associated with foundation of I.C.A. and its sometime president. Member of Paris Municipal Council 1879-87, of which vice-president 1885. Though opposed to political Zionism, he supported colonization and educational activities in Palestine.

LEVI-BIANCHINI, Angelo (1877-1920). B. Venice. Italian naval officer. Served in halo-Turkish War (1911-12) and in World War I held various naval commands. In 1917 joined research department of the Italian Ministry of the Navy. Member, Zionist Commission in Palestine as representative of the Union of Italian-Jewish Communities and of Italian interests, 1918-19. While in the country he encouraged Italian Jews to enlist in the Jewish Legion, founded organizations to protect the Jewish community and obtain information on hostile Arab movements. He undertook a mission for the Italian Foreign Ministry in 1919-20 to unify Sephardi Jewish communities in the Mediterranean basin under Italy’s auspices, and to investigate the Arab nationalist and Zionist movements in Syria, Palestine and-Egypt. At the San Remo Conference (April 1920) he persuaded the Italian Prime’. Minister, Francesco Niti, to agree to a British Mandate over Palestine in the spirit of the Balfour Declaration. Appointed Head of the Immigration Department of the Zionist Commission but never assumed the post as he was murdered by Beduin. who attacked the train in which he was traveling.

LEVIN (HALEVY), SHMARYA (1867-1935). B. Svislovitz, White Russia. Studied at Berlin and Koenigsberg Universities, and Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft des Judentums, obtaining Doctorate. Among founders Russian Jewish Academic Society, Berlin 1889. On completion studies employed in Ahiasaf publishing house, Warsaw, and secretary Bnei-Moshe Society there. State Rabbi in Grodno 1896-97, Ekaterino-slav 1898-1904, Vilna 1904-06. Delegate IV–XVII Z.C., 1900-31. Opposed East Africa project. Among directors Russian Zionist Central Bureau 1905. On G.A.C. 1905-11. Delegate first Duma 1906, then till 1908 in U.S.A. on Zionist propaganda mission. From 1909 a Governor of Haifa Technical College (`Technion’), in charge of preparations prior to its establishment, but resigned 1913 as consequence of ‘language struggle’ in which he was protagonist of Hebrew. On S.A.C. 1911-20, of which war years in U.S.A. where he participated in establishment American Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs. Among founders Histadrut Ivrit (to promote Hebrew culture) and its president. Directed Z.O. Education Department from 1920. On A.C. 1921-31, and K.H. Board 1921-23, engaging on propaganda tours. A founding director Dvir publishing house 1922. Settled in Palestine 1924. Noted orator and frequent contributor to Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Press.

LEVINSON, SAMUEL (?-?). Chemist. Orig. Romny, Ukraine. At end of 1890s student in Berlin and leading member of Bildung Society for dissemination of Yiddish literature. Lived in Geneva from c. 1900 to 1903. Secretary, Jewish University Bureau, Geneva, 1902-03. Settled in U.S.A., 1903.

LEVINTHAL, Louts EDWARD (1892-1976). Judge, on Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas, 1937-59. President, Jewish Publication Society of America 1949-54, chairman of its Publication Committee 1939-49, 1954-62. President Z.O.A. 1941-43; Special Adviser on Jewish Affairs to Gen. Lucius D. Clay and U.S. European Command 1947-48. Settling in Israel, he was chairman of Board of Governors of Hebrew University 1962-66. His Credo of an American Zionist publ. 1942.

LEVONTIN, ZALMAN DAVID (1856-1940). 13. Orsha, White Russia. Member H.Z. in Kremenchug and Odessa, emigrating to Palestine 1882, where among founders Rishon-Lelion and chairman of its village council. Returned to Russia 1883 and was manager Bank of Commerce in Minsk. Delegate H.Z. conference in Kattowitz 1884. Specialized in problems of colonization and development in Palestine, publishing many articles in this field. In 1901 invited by Herzl to manage J.C.T., and attended V Z.C. that year. In Palestine again 1903, he organized Anglo-Palestine Bank in Jaffa and was its manager until 1924. Played major role in country’s settlement and development efforts, insisting these be based on economic rather than philanthropic considerations, and among originators of co-operative credit. In 1909 among first Tel Aviv settlers, and as manager Anglo-Palestine Bank greatly helped in its development. During First World War in Alexandria, where he established branch Anglo-Palestine Bank to help Palestinian exiles, participating also in committees for their welfare. Among initiators of Jewish Legion. A financial adviser to Zionist Commission 1918. Opposed establishment of Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) as usurping functions of Zionist institutions. Following his retirement from Anglo-Palestine Bank in 1924 he continued public activities. Made hon. citizen Tel Aviv 1936.

LEWIN-EPSTEIN, Eliahu Ze’ev Halevi (1863-1932). B. Vilkaviskis, Lithuania. Manager of Lewin-Epstein Hebrew Publishing House, Warsaw 1885-88. A founder there of H.Z. 1888, Bnei Moshe 1889, and Menuhah Venahlah Society, 1890, which founded Rehovoth. Headed Colony Committee of Rehovoth, 1891-1900, and on Central Committee of Bnei Moshe in Jaffa. With Ze’ev Gluskin he founded Carmel Company for marketing Palestinian wines overseas, 1896, settling in New York as Director of Carmel America 1900. Active in F.A.Z. Participated in VII-IX. XII Z.C., 1905-09,1921. On G.A.C. 1905-11. Treasurer of Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, 1914-18. On mission of Henry Morgenthau (q.v.) sent by Pres. Wilson (q.v.) to detach Turkey from Central Powers, 1917. In Palestine again 1918, he headed American Zionist Medical Unit, represented Provisional Executive Committee on Zionist Commission, 1918-20, and was the Commission’s acting chairman in 1919. Died in Rehovoth.

LEWIS, HARRY Reginald (1865-1934). Lawyer. Partner in firm of solicitors which represented J.C.T. (until 1908) and P.L.D.C. Active in London Jewish public life, he was an A.J.A. representative on the Joint Foreign Committee (which replaced the A.J.A.-B.O.D. Conjoint Foreign Committee in 1918). A Council member of the Jewish Peace Society and National Political League.

LIBMAN, EMANUEL (1872-1946). B. New York, studied medicine at Columbia University. Physician at Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York, from 1894 until death (consultant from 1925). His fields of research were bacteriology, pathology and clinical medicine. Founding-chairman, American Jewish Physicians Committee, to support H.U. medical department.

LICHTENSTEIN, ABRAHAM (1869-1926). Teacher. B. Courland. M. W.’s sister, Haya Weizmann (q.v.). Secretary and later Chairman of Berne Academic Zionist Society. Teacher and bookseller in Pinsk, and later, teacher in Warsaw. Appointed, 1909, teacher of German and Vice-Principal, Pavel Cohen Secondary School, Vilna. Settled in Palestine, 1921. Employed as bookkeeper in a building firm and later in General Mortgage Bank.

LICHTHEIM, RICHARD (1885-1963). B. Berlin. Editor Die Welt 1911-13. Representative of Z.O. in Constantinople 1913-17. Member of Zionist Executive 192123. Joined Zionist Revisionist movement 1925. Settled in Palestine 1934 and founded Migdal Insurance Company. During World War II he was employed by Z.O. in Geneva.

LIEME, NEHEMIAH DE (1882-1940). B. The Hague. Joined Zionist movement 1907. Secretary 1909, and Chairman 1912, of Netherlands Zionist Federation. Managing Director of J.N.F. 1918-19. Member of Zionist Executive 1920-21 and on its Reorganization Commission visiting Palestine 1920-21. Resigned from Executive 1921 in protest against rejection of Commission’s report. Resigned from Z.O. 1938 because of its decision to negotiate with British on partition of Palestine.

LILIEN, EPHRAIM MOSES (1874-1925). Artist and lithographer. B. Orohbycz, Galicia. Settled in Berlin but lived at intervals in Palestine, 1906-14, and for some time connected with Bezalel School of Art, Jerusalem. Member of D.P. group of delegates at V Z.C., 1901, and delegate to VI Z.C., 1902. One of the founders of the Berlin Jiidischer Verlag, 1902.

LINTON, IVOR JOSEPH. B. Poland, 1900. Israeli diplomat. Staff member of London Central Office of W.Z.O. 1919-48, its financial and administrative secretary 1936-40, then political secretary. In this capacity worked closely with W. The first diplomatic representative of the State of Israel in Great Britain, 1948-49; he was adviser to Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs 1949-50; Minister to Australia and New Zealand 1950-52; Japan 1952-57; Thailand 1954-57. Ambassador to Switzerland 1958-61. Consultant on international affairs to World Jewish Congress from 1961.

LIPMAN, JACOB GOODALE (1874-1939). B. Russia, immigrated to U.S. 1898, where from 1911 he was director of New Jersey State Agricultural Experimental Station. Professor of Soil Fertility at Rutgers University 1910-13; Professor of Agriculture 1913-39. Director of Jewish Agricultural Society. With commission of experts investigating Palestine’s potential for agricultural research, led by Sir John Russell (q.v.) in 1927, and from 1929 a non-Zionist member of J.A.

LIPSKY, Louis (1876-1963). B. Rochester, N.Y. Joint-Editor, American Hebrew 1899-1914. Founding editor, American Zionist organ The Maccabean 1901-02, and on its editorial board until 1920. Chairman of F.A.Z. Executive (since 1918: Z.O.A.) 1911-18, Secretary 1918-21, chairman of its Administrative Committee, then president, 1921-30. On G.A.C. 1907-11, and Z.G.C. 1920-23,1931-33,1946-63, participated in all Z.C.’s from XI, 1913, till death. Founding member of Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, 1914-18. He supported W. in conflict with Brandeis Group, 1920-21, and in creation of K.H., heading its U.S.A. Board for many years. Supported enlargement of Jewish Agency and, as member of W.Z.O. Executive 1923-31, was associated with this development in 1929. On Jewish Agency Executive 1929-30, and its representative in U.S.A. 1933-46. Bodies in whose foundation and leadership he was prominent included: American Jewish Congress 1922, U.P.A. 1925, World Jewish Congress 1936, U.J.A. 1939, Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs 1939. Chairman, American Jewish Conference, 1944-49, American Zionist Council 1949-54. On American Committee for Weizmann Institute of Science. President of Eastern Life Insurance Co., New York, 1930-59.

LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID, EARL (1863-1945). Admitted Solicitor, 1884; Liberal M.P. 1890-1945. President of Board of Trade 1905-08, Chancellor of Exchequer 1908-15, Minister of Munitions 1915-16, Secretary of State for War 1916, P.M. Dec. 1916 to 1922. Under his government, the B.D. was approved in 1917 and ratified at San Remo Conference, 1920. He appointed Sir Herbert Samuel as the first High Commissioner for Palestine, fought against the Passfield White Paper of 1930, and Macdonald White Paper of 1939.

LLOYD, GEORGE AMBROSE, later LORD LLOYD (1879-1941). Conservative M.P. 1910-18, 1924-25; attached to Arab Bureau 1916-17; Governor of Bombay 1918-23; High Commissioner of Egypt and Sudan 1925-29, when he resigned due to divergence of views with the Government; chairman British Council 1937-40; Secretary of State for Colonies 1940-41. His Egypt since Cromer (2 vols.) publ. 1933-34.

LOCKER, BERL (1887-1972). B. Galicia, was active in Socialist Zionism as editor of Der riddischer Arbeiter. Organized Poalei Zion party in Austrian Empire before W.W.I, when transferred to The Hague and Stockholm. With split in Poalei Zion (1920) he headed its ‘right wing.’ On Zionist and J.A. Executives in London 1931-36, maintaining close ties with British Labour leaders. On Histadrut Executive in Palestine 1936-38; head of J.A. Political Bureau in London 1938-43; chairman of J.A. Executive, Jerusalem, 1948-56. Member of Knesset 1955-61, and for a period served as Deputy Speaker.

LOEWE, HEINRICH (ELYAKIM) (1869-1951). Librarian. B. Gross-Wanzleben, near Magdeburg, Germany. One of the earliest Zionists in Germany. The only German Jew belonging to the Berlin Russian-Jewish Academic Society. Founded the Berlin Jewish nationalist society, ‘Young Israel’, 1892. Editor of Jewish nationalist monthly Zion, 1895-6. Visited Palestine three times between 1895 and 1898. Attended I Z.C., 1897. Editor German Zionist Federation organ, Jiidische Rundschau. Elected at XI Z.C., 1913, member of Preparatory Committee for establishment of Hebrew University. Co-operated in the building up of the Jewish National Library in Jerusalem. Settled in Palestine, 1933, becoming Director of the Tel Aviv Municipal Library.

LOEWY, Jumus (1881-1953). B. Lostice, Moravia. Journalist. Studied in Vienna and Prague, contributing also to newspapers in these cities. Zionist from early youth, member D.F. and assisted Jewish University project. After some years Zionist activity in Bohemia and Austria, became, 1910-11, one of editors Die Welt, then official Z.O. weekly being published in Cologne. Later editor Selbstwehr, Prague Zionist publication. From 1919 to 1927 edited Wiener Morgenzeitung and from 1928 Die Stimme, both of them Zionist newspapers in Vienna. In approximately 1936 he emigrated to Palestine where he contributed to Labour daily Davar.

LOPUKHIN, ALEXEI ALEXANDROVICH (1864-1928). After graduation Moscow University, employed in various legal institutions. Headed Police Department in Russian Ministry of Interior 1902-05. In 1906, during trial in St. Petersburg following 1905 Revolution, he sent two letters to Oscar Grusenberg, lawyer for the defence, in which he exposed the role of the government and its institutions in organizing the anti-Jewish pogroms. Exiled to Siberia 1909 for revealing the treachery of the Tzarist double agent Azev during 1905 Revolution, but pardoned 1911. From 1913 he was assistant manager of Moscow branch of St. Petersburg International Bank of Commerce.

LOTHIAN, 11th MARQUIS OF, PHILIP HENRY KERR (1882-1940). Public life began with mission in South Africa 1905, where he edited The State, 1908-09; founding-editor of The Round Table 1910-16; Private Secretary to Lloyd George 1916-21; director United Newspapers Ltd. 1921-22; secretary of Rhodes Trustees, 1925-39; succeeded to title 1930; Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1931; Under-Secretary of State for India 1931-32; Ambassador to U.S. 1939-40. Strongly sympathetic to Zionism.

LOURIE, ARTHUR. B. 1903 Johannesburg. A barrister, he lectured in Roman-Dutch Law at Witwatersrand 1927-32. Political Secretary of J.A. London 1933-40; Executive Secretary American Zionist Emergency Council 1940-46; on J.A.- delegation to San Francisco U.N. Conference 1945; liaison officer to Anglo-American Committee of Enquiry 1946. Accredited by J.A. to U.N. 1946-48, he became Israel Consul-General New York and Deputy to the Permanent U.N. Representative of Israel 1948-53. Asst. Director-General Israel Foreign Ministry, 1954-57, 1965-73; Ambassador to Canada 1957-59; Ambassador to United Kingdom 1960-65. Periodically on Israel delegation to U.N. General Assembly.

LtVI, Sylvain (1863-1935). B. Paris. French Orientalist and authority on Far Eastern civilisations. In 1883 he completed his studies at Ecole des Hautes Etudes, and in 1894 was appointed Professor of Sanskrit, College de France. President, Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1920-35. Co-opted onto the Zionist Commission to Palestine, 1918, on the recommendation of Baron Edmond de Rothschild. He visited the U.S.A. late 1918 for the Alliance Israelite Universelle, with the official backing of the French Foreign Ministry and Baron de Rothschild, in order to coordinate activities of Jewish organizations interested in Palestine. Appeared with the Zionist delegation before the Supreme Allied Council at the Peace Conference, when he questioned the Zionist solution for the Jewish problem, proposing instead that Jewish development in Palestine be handed over to a body representing all trends. He published works on Hinduism and Buddhism, and, a study on Jews in South India.

LUBARSKY, ABRAHAM ELIYAHU (1856-1920). B. Balta, Ukraine. Active H.Z. in Odessa, close friend of Ahad Ha’am and among founders B’nei-Moshe Society 1889. Among founders publishing houses Ahiasaf (1892) and Moriah (1901). Delegate I, II, VI-VIII Z.C., 1897, 1898, 1903-07. Represented Wissotzky Tea Co. in New York from 1903. Member Executive F.A.Z. 1906, 1909-11. A founder Order Sons of Zion 1907, Histadrut Ivrit (organization for promoting Hebrew culture) and Hebrew periodical Hatoren, 1913. Participant various’ projects for upbuilding of Palestine.

LUBZHINSKY (later HELLER), VERA (1893-1946). B. Pinsk, White Russia. Daughter of Miriam, W.’s sister. Married Joseph Heller and settled in London.

LUBZHINSKY (later LUBIN), MOSES FREDERICK (1871-1932). B. Motele, White Russia. Brother of Chaim Lubzhinsky, W.’s brother-in-law. Studied Pinsk Technical High School, emigrating 1887 to United States. Employed as engraver in New York. In later nineties learned metal etching in Germany and founded first U.S. metal etching factory, Chicago, 1905. Friend of W. from student days in Pinsk and was W.’s host during his visits to United States. He was president Etching Company of America.

LUBZHINSKY (later LUTYENS), EVA (1891-1963). B. Motol, White Russia. Daughter of Miriam, W.’s sister. Student in Switzerland from 1905, Manchester 1909-12. Settling in London, she married architect Robert Lutyens.

LUBZHINSKY, CHAIM (1864-1919). B. near Lomza, Poland. M. 1888 W.’s sister Miriam (q.v.). From 1886 associated with W.’s father, Ozer Weizmann (q.v.) in his business as a timber-transporter. Moved, c. 1896, to Warsaw, where engaged in timber-trade on his own account and built up prosperous business, in which his father-in-law had an interest. Helped members of W. family in their education. Left Warsaw at outbreak of First World War and went to Russia. Died in Petrograd.

LUGARD, FREDERICK JOHN, LORD (1858-1945). Soldier and colonial expert. Served in Afghan war 1879-80, Sudan Campaign 1885, Burma Campaign 1886-87. High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria 1900-06; Governor of Hong-Kong 190712; of Northern & Southern Nigeria 1912-13; Governor-General of Nigeria 1914-19; British member of Permanent Mandates Commission of League of Nations 1922-36; chairman of International Institute of African Languages and Cultures from 1926; director of Barclays Bank (D.C. and O.). Author of The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (1922).

LUKE, SIR HARRY CHARLES (1884-1969). B. London. Following war service he was Political Officer to Admiral of Fleet, Constantinople and Black Sea, 1919-20; Asst. Governor of Jerusalem 1920-24; on commission enquiring into Jaffa riots 1921 and into affairs of Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem 1921; Colonial Secretary of Sierra Leone 1924-28; Chief Secretary of Palestine 1928-30; Governor of Malta 1930-38; Governor of Fiji and High Commissioner for the Western Pacific 1938-42; chief representative of British Council in Caribbean 1943-46. Among his publications: Cities and Men (an autobiography, 3 vols., 1953-56). Joint editor (together with Edward Keith-Roach) of Handbook of Palestine and Transjordan (1922).

LURIE, GREGORY (1861-1917). A member of the well-to-do Pinsk family of that name mentioned in head-note to letter No. 8 (4 Sept., 1890). Studied at Karlsruhe Polytechnic. After living for several years in Paris, returned to Pinsk. A Hovey Zion from his youth and later active in Zionist work in Russia. Delegate to first five Zionist Congresses, 1897-1901. Member of first Board of Directors of J.C.T. At V Z.C., 1901, supported demand for greater emphasis on cultural work.

LURIE, JOSEPH (1871-1937). Educationalist and journalist. B. Pompyani, Lithuania. As Berlin student a leading member of Russian-Jewish Academic Society. Member of Bnei Moshe. Headmaster from 1896 of ‘reformed’ (i.e. modernized) Heder. Delegate to I, III, IV and VIII Z.C., 1897, 1899, 1900, 1907. Editor Warsaw Yiddish journal Der Yud, 1899-1902. Active supporter in Warsaw of D.F. and of Jewish University project, 1901-3. Joined editorial board of St. Petersburg Yiddish journal Der Fraind, 1903. Member Vilna Russian-Zionist Centre, 1906-07 and Editor of Yiddish Zionist weekly Dos Yiddishe Volk. Settled in Palestine, 1907 and became Chairman of Teachers Organization (Merkaz Hamorim). During mandatory period served at various times as Director of Z.E. Education Department, Inspector of Jewish secondary schools, and Director of Education Department of National Council of Jews in Palestine (Va’ad Leumi).

LURIE, OVSEY (HOSEA) (1875-1941). B. Pinsk. As to his family, and W.’s association with them, see head-note to letter No. 3 (4 Sept. 1890). Educated at Mitava (Mitau) and Riga. Worked until 1914 in his father’s business. In 1920 settled in London, becoming associated in business with his brother Saul (q.v.).

LURIE, SACA. B. Pinsk 1879. Younger brother of Ovsey L., (q.v.). Coached by W. while pupil, with him, at Pinsk Secondary School from c. 1888. Student at Darmstadt Polytechnic, 1897. Attended I Z.C., 1897. In 1901 went to Geneva and worked in W.’s laboratory. Returned to Darmstadt, where among founders of Zionist students’ society, Maccabea. Engaged in business in London, 1905-39. Later settled in. U.S.A.

LVOVITCH, DAVID (1882-1950). Also known as DAVA and DAVIDOVICH. B. Lugansk (Voroshilovgrad), Ukraine. Studied engineering at Munich Polytechnic, where joined Student Zionist Society Kadimah. Delegate VII Z.C., 1905. On returning to Russia he was among most active members of Socialist Zionist Party (Territorialist). He concentrated on drawing up a programme for the world-wide emigration of Jews from Eastern Europe linked to a co-operative economic system. During First World War he was engaged in United States on a scheme for Jewish immigration there subsequent to hostilities. After Feb. 1917 Revolution he returned to Russia, where he organized Jewish Farmers Council. He represented this body at first convention of Russian farmers in Petrograd, and was elected to Constituent Assembly. In Poland from 1919 as a leading official of O.R.T., and transferred to Berlin as member of its Executive in 1923, and to Paris in 1933. Joint chairman with Aron Singalowsky of O.R.T. Executive from 1945, undertaking several missions to U.S.A., where he helped negotiate collaboration between O.R.T. and Amer. Joint Distribution Committee. He initiated O.R.T. operations in Palestine.

MACDONALD, JAMES RAMSAY (1866-1937). B. Lossiemouth, Scotland. Secretary of Labour Representation Committee (which later developed into Labour Party) 1900-12. Labour M.P. from 1906. Leader of Labour Party 1911-14. Opposed W.W.I. Visited Palestine 1922, publishing a pro-Zionist pamphlet. First Labour Prime Minister of Britain, 1924, 1929-35 (from 1931 as head of National Government, which the Labour Party, now without MacDonald, opposed).

MACDONALD, M ALCOLM JOHN. B. 1901. Son of James Ramsay MacDonald (Biog. Index, Vol. XI). M.P. (National Labour) 1931-45; Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Dominions Office, 1931-35; Dominions Secretary 1935-38, 1938-39; Colonial Secretary 1935, 1938-40; Minister of Health 1940-41; High Commissioner of Canada 1941-46. Between 1946 and 1969 he held various posts in Asia and Africa. His early favourable attitude to Zionism changed while Colonial Secretary in Neville Chamberlain’s Government, and the White Paper of 1939, ascribed to him, was regarded as the final abandonment of the Balfour Declaration.

MACDONOGH, Sir George Mark Weston (1865-1942). Director of British Military Intelligence with rank of Major-General, 1916-18. Supported pro-Zionist policies that would favour British trusteeship over Palestine.

MACK, JULIAN WILLIAM (1866-1943). Jurist. Professor of Law at Northwestern Univ. (1895-1902) and the Univ. of Chicago (1902-11), and in 1913 was appointed U.S. Circuit Court Judge, retiring 1941. Among founders of American Jewish Committee, 1906, and on its executive until 1918. Influenced by Brandeis, Mack became an ardent Zionist. President of first American Jewish Congress, 1918, first chairman of Comite des Delegations Juives at P.C., 1919, Z.O.A. President 1918-21, when he resigned with Brandeis. He later held prominent positions in Palestine Endowment Fund, World Jewish Congress, Jewish Agency for Palestine, United Palestine Appeal, and Hebrew University.

MACMILLAN, HAROLD. B. 1894. British Prime Minister 1957-63. Following war service, he was A.D.C. to Governor- General of Canada 1919-20; M.P. (Cons.) 1924-29, 1931-45, 1945-64; Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Supply 1940-42; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Colonies 1942; Minister Resident in North-West Africa 1942-45; Air Minister 1945; Minister of Housing and Local Government 1951-54; Minister of Defence 1954-55; Foreign Secretary 1955; Chancellor of Exchequer, 1955-57; Chairman, Macmillan publ. house from 1963; Chancellor, University of Oxford from 1969.

MAGNES, JUDAH LEON (1877-1948). B. Oakland, California. American communal and Zionist leader, among founders of Hebrew University Jerusalem, After ordainment in Cincinnati completed his studies in Germany. Rabbi, Temple Israel 1904-06, Temple Emanu-El 1906-10, Congregation B’nei Teshurun 1911-12, all New York. Member Executive F.A.Z. 1904-14, and its hon. secretary 1905-08. Delegate VII, VIII Z.C., 1905, 1907. G.A.C. 1905-11. Among founders American Jewish Committee 1906, and Executive member until 1918. His initiatives led to establishment New York Jewish Community (Kehilla) in 1909 (of which chairman until 1922), and its Bureau of Jewish Education 1910. With outbreak of First World War he was among founders and vice-chairman of U.S. Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, but being against additional privileges for Jews of Palestine he resigned in 1915. He devoted himself to welfare work, helping to establish American Jewish Relief Committee, a J.D.C. constituent. Participated in creation of American Jewish Congress. Settling in Palestine 1922, he resumed his pre-war association with Hebrew University project, as member of its Preparatory Commission. Chairman of Board, Institute of Jewish Studies 1924. With inauguration Hebrew University 1925 its Chancellor until 1935, then President till death. Representative in Palestine of various American organizations, among them Hadassah and J.D.C. His belief in Jewish-Arab rapprochement and a bi-national state allied him to Both Shalom (`Covenant of Peace’) Society, and he was on ‘Committee of Five’ negotiating with Arab leaders 1936. Founded periodical Ba’Ayot Hayom (`Problems of the Day’) 1941, and among initiators 1942 of Ichud Association aiming at federative state in Palestine. The Second World War changed his attitudes to pacifism and on Zionist political questions. Died while on Arab Jewish peace-seeking mission in New York following proclamation of State of Israel.

MAGNUS, SIR PHILIP (1842-1933). B. London. Educationalist and communal leader. Rabbi West London Synagogue, 1866-80, and its onetime president. Director, City and Guilds Institute for Advancement of Technical Education, 1880-8, head of its technical department 1888-1915. Fellow, and Member of Senate, University of London, 1898-1931, Unionist Member of Parliament 1906-22. A vice-president, A.J.A. and B.O.D., and on their Conjoint Foreign Committee. Vice-president, Jews’ College. Though anti-Zionist, he favoured foundation Hebrew University. Among eight Jewish personalities asked by British government to comment on a provisional draft (subsequently amended) of what became Balfour Declaration, replying with a refutation of the principle of a Jewish nationality. Among founders anti-Zionist League of British Jews, 1918. Published works on education and physical sciences.

MAKHLIN, DAVID (?-?). Orig. Ukraine. As Berlin student in mid-1890s actively interested in Bildung Society for dissemination of Yiddish literature. In 1900 joined the Bund, for which he worked in Berlin, from 1904 in Berne, and from 1906 in Russia.

MALCOLM, James Aratoon (1868-1952). B. Bushire, Persia. Merchant, educated at Oxford. Belonged to Armenian Patriots Association in London, and founded Anglo-Armenian Committee. London representative of International Armenian Committee and responsible for Armenian enlistment in British Army. Among founders, 1915, of Pro-Russia Society (which included Zionists), for improving Russo-British relations. He regarded national aspirations of Armenians and Jews in Middle East as interconnected, to be achieved under British protection with downfall of Turkey. Worked for Arab-Armenian-Jewish cooperation. Early in 1917 created contact between Zionist leaders and Mark Sykes (q.v.). In 1930’s published articles critical of British Palestine policy in London Times. Proposed a partition plan for Palestine in 1936, offering his mediation to Zionists, Arabs and British.

MALLET, SIR Louis (1864-1936). Entered F.O. 1888, serving in Brazil, Cairo, Rome. Private Secretary to Sir Edward Grey 1905-07, Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1907-13, Ambassador to Turkey 1913-14; retired 1920.

MAMLOCK, ISIDORE ISAAC. B. 1877 Podwitz, East Prussia. Chemist and pharmacist. Studied Rostock and Strasbourg (where research student), joining Zionist movement while at University. He was active in Regional Zionist office in Strasbourg. On completing studies 1904 became pharmacist in Berlin, and 1908 emigrated to Palestine as representative Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden, but returned to Berlin shortly after. Emigrated to Palestine again 1920, engaging pharmacy Petah-Tikva, Jaffa, and Tel Aviv, and prominent in efforts for Jewish—Arab understanding. Delegate VI, VIII, IX Z.C., 1903, 1907, 1909.

MANDELSTAMM, MAX (EmANuEL) (1838-1912). Ophthalmologist. B. Zhagory, Lithuania. An early Hovey Zion. Attended I Z.C., 1897, at which elected as one of the four Russian representatives on G.A.C. Director of Russian Zionist Finance Office, regional leader for the Kiev area, and member of Board of Directors of J.C.T. Supported Jewish University project, 1902-03. A fervent `Ugandist’, he seceded from Z.O. after split on that issue in 1905 and became one of the leaders of the Jewish Territorial Organization (I.T.O.).

MAREK, PESAII PETER (1862-1920). B. Shadov (Seduva), Lithuania. Yiddish and Russian author and scholar. As law student in Moscow among founders Bnei-Zion Society there 1884. Later joined Z.O., attended Russian Zionist Conference, Minsk 1902, where elected deputy member of its Cultural Committee. Among leaders Moscow D.F. Bureau, and its delegate VI Z.C., 1903. A book-keeper, he was devoted to literary research, publishing works in field of Jewish studies.

MARKS, SIMON (Lord Marks of Broughton) (1888-1964). B. Leeds. Merchant and philanthropist. Educated at Manchester Grammar School. Chairman from 1916 of Marks and Spencer Ltd., the family business he entered on his father’s death in 1907 and which, with his brother-in-law Israel Sieff (q.v.), he built up into one of the largest chain-store organizations in the world. With Sieff and another brother-in-law, Harry Sacher, together with others, constituted the `Manchester Circle’ that from 1914 became closely identified with W.’s activities. Among founders of British Palestine Committee 1916, and its organ Palestine, 1917, to influence British opinion in favour of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine under British aegis. Responsible for management of London Zionist Bureau from 1917, and on U.K. Zionist Political Committee that advised W. in negotiations leading to Balfour Declaration. E.Z.F. hon. Secretary 1918, treasurer 1922-23, vice-president 1927-39, 1943-45, and an hon. vice-president 1946-50. Administered Paris Bureau of Zionist Delegation to Peace Conference, 1918. K.H. leader and its foremost contributor from 1927 till death, and president of Joint Palestine Appeal from its inception. Among his many benefactions both before and after the establishment of Israel was support of the Daniel Sieff Research institute (nucleus of Weizmann Institute of Science) at Rehovoth. Attended XII, \ VI, XVII Z.C., 1921,1929,1931. Alternate-member of Z.G.C. 1929-31, on Administrative Committee of Jewish Agency 1929-35. Among initiators of, and principal contributor to, C.B.F. from 1933, and Council for German Jewry from 1936. His philanthropic activities benefited many institutions within Britain, and during World War II he served on U.K. Scientific Coordination Committee. Knighted in 1944, he was created Baron in 1961.

MARMOR, KALMAN ZEVI (1876-1956). B. Meiszagola, near Vilna. Left-wing Yiddish journalist and author. Joined illegal Jewish Socialist movement while youth in Vilna. Student in Berne and Fribourg 1899-1902. Member Student Zionist Society Kadimah, Berne, and among founders of Thud Ivri, for development of Hebrew language. Delegate V Z.C. (and Zionist Youth Conference preceding it), 1901, VI, VII, VIII Z.C., 1903, 1905, 1907. Although not D.F. member he supported its demand for educational work among Jewish masses. Taught chemistry London 1902, establishing radical nationalist group Maaravi there and editing its publication Der Kotel Maaravi. Among organizers Poalei-Zion London late 1903, and editor of its publication Die Yiddishe Fraiheit. Moved to United States and established and edited (1906-07) Poalei-Zion periodical Der Yiddisher Kempfer. Among founders of World Union of Poalei-Zion 1907, then visited Palestine for extended stay. Active educational and cultural affairs of Jewish Labour movement through Workmen’s Circle, New York and Chicago. Resigned Poalei-Zion 1916 to join American Labour Alliance. Editorial work for Yiddish Socialist papers Die Welt and Vorwaerts 1917-19. In 1920 joined Workers (Jewish Communist) Party, editing its publication Neien Welt Emes, which he converted in 1922 into daily Fraiheit. On establishment International Workers Order appointed to its cultural committee, becoming editor its publication Der Funk and secretary of its schools. In Kiev 1933-36 at invitation of Institute for Jewish Cultural Research, and subsequently director of Arbeiter Universitet, New York. Spent last years in Los Angeles.

MARMOREK, ALEXANDER (1865-1923). B. Mielnica, Galicia. Brother of Oskar Marmorek (q.v.). Gynaecologist and bacteriologist. Close associate of Herzl. Studied medicine in Vienna, where obtained Doctorate 1889. In practice in Vienna till 1894, then entered Pasteur Institute, Paris, where appointed a laboratory director. In 1896 he discovered and produced streptococcus serum against puerperal fever, and an anti-tuberculosis vaccine in 1903. Legion d’Honneur 1900. An Austrian subject, he served in Austrian Army Medical Service during First World War, returning Paris 1920 to concentrate on typhus research. Among founders of Student Zionist Society Kadimah in Vienna, and was in Zionist leadership of France, where helped establish L’Echo Sioniste. One of Herzl’s main supporters in controversy over East Africa project, later joining David Wolffsohn and Max Nordau in leading ‘political’ Zionists. Delegate II—X Z.C., 1898-1911. Member G.A.C. 1898-1905, 1907-21, S.A.C. 1905-7. After `practical’ Zionists assumed Z.O. leadership in 1911, and following Nordau’s withdrawal, he remained chief spokesman for ‘political’ Zionism. After First World War he continued his advocacy of political maximalism in opposition to policy of W. and Zionist Executive. Ceased Zionist activities during his last years.

MARMOREK, OSKAR (1863-1909). B. Skala, Galicia. Brother of Alexander Marmorek (q.v.). Architect, and friend of Herzl. Member Student Zionist Society Kadimah, Vienna, he won a reputation as contributor to professional journals in Austria, France, and Germany, and was awarded the title ‘Imperial Architect’. Helped Herzl establish Z.O. in 1897, delegate I-VIII Z.C., 1897-1907. Managed financial affairs of Zionist Bureau in Vienna and of Die Welt, of which among founders and part-editor. Member S.A.C. 1898-1905, and on El-Arish Mission 1903. After Herzl died he remained in movement and was member G.A.C. 1905

MARSHALL, GEORGE CATLETT (1880-1959). Soldier and statesman. Served in France in W.W. I as Chief of Operations. Chief of Staff of U.S. Army 1939-45; Ambassador to China 1945-47. As Secretary of State, 1947-49, he introduced the European Recovery Programme, which became known as the Marshall Plan. Secretary of Defense 1950-51. Nobel Peace Prize 1953.

MARSHALL, Louis (1856-1929). B. Syracuse, N.Y. Lawyer and leading Jewish communal figure in U.S.A. President of American Jewish Committee from 1912. Member of American Jewish delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919. Among founders of J.D.C. Co-operated with W. in expansion of Jewish Agency for Palestine to include non-Zionists. Died in Zurich 1929 at opening meeting of expanded Jewish Agency.

MASARYK, JAN GARRIGUE (1886-1948). Son of first President of Czechoslovakia, Thomas Masaryk. In 1918 he entered Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Czechoslovakia, serving in Washington and London 1919-22; Secretary to Foreign Ministry 1922- 25 ; Czech Minister in London 1925-38, resigning after Munich. Foreign Minister of Czech Government-in-Exile from July 1940, and again after liberation of his country, May 1945-48. Following Communist coup d’etat of 25 Feb. 1948 he apparently committed suicide by jumping from his window at the Foreign Ministry.

MASLIANSKY, Zvi HIRSCH (1856-1943). B. Slutsk, Belorussia. Maggid (popular Yiddish orator). Teacher at yeshivah in Pinsk 1882-90 (where W. first came into contact with him). In Hovevei Zion. Emigrated to New York 1895, dedicating himself to Zionist activities among Yiddish-speaking masses in U.S.A.

MASSEL, JOSEPH (1850-1912). B. Wiazyn, Lithuania. Hebrew author and printer. An early friend of W. in Manchester, where he settled in 1880s. Delegate I-VI Z.C., 1897-1903. Among founders E.Z.F. 1899. G.A.C. 1900-01. Contributor, including poetry and translations, to Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals in Russia and England.

MAY, DORIS HERMIONE CROXTON (1899-1968). Secretary to Chaim Weizmann. ewish, she was educated at Oxford and became secretary to Leonard Stein 1922-29 while he was J.A. Political Secretary in London. W.’s secretary 1929-48. Employed at Israel Embassy, London, 1948-60; collaborated with Stein on publications.

MAYER, EUGEN (1882-1967). B. Zweibruecken, Saarland. M. Hebe, daughter Herbert Bentwich. Lawyer and journalist. A student Zionist leader while at University in Munich 1900-4, and worked for Jewish University project in 1903. Employed in I.C.A. administration in Paris 1910-14, and was legal adviser to Jewish community in Frankfurt-on-Main 1919-33. Settled in Jerusalem 1933. Economic and literary editor Palestine Post (later Jerusalem Post) 1943-57.

McDONALD, JAMES GROVER (1886-1964). U.S. Ambassador to Israel 1949-51. Asst. Professor of History and Political Science, Indiana University 1914-18. Chairman of Foreign Policy Association 1919-33. He was introduced to Zionism while serving as League of Nations Commissioner for Refugees 1933-35. Head of Presidential Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (PACPR) in 1938, he clashed with officials of State Department. Member of Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine, 1945-46, and had a significant role in Truman’s rejection of the Morrison-Grady Plan, 1946. Special Envoy to Provisional Government of Israel, June 1948. He published My Mission to Israel, 1953.

MEINERTZHAGEN, COLONEL RICHARD HENRY (1876-1967). Soldier, administrator and supporter of Zionism. Joined Royal Fusiliers 1899, served in India until 1902, and in East Africa, Palestine, and France during W.W.I. On British delegation to P.C.; C.P.O., Palestine and Syria 1919-20; Military Adviser, Middle East Department, C.O. 1921-24; W.O. 1939-40.

MELAMED, SAMUEL MAX (1885-1938). B. Vilkavishkis, Lithuania. Journalist. Obtained Doctorate 1908 at Berne University, where he was active in student Zionist affairs. London correspondent of Jewish newspapers 1909-14. On E.Z.F. Executive 1911-14, delegate XI Z.C., 1913. Emigrating to U.S.A. 1914, he gave long service to Z.O.A. Executive and was its Chicago President 1921-24. Among periodicals he edited were American Jewish Chronicle, Dos riddisher Folk and Reflex. Author of works on Judaism, sociology and philosophy.

MENN, NAHUM (1894-1962). Engineer employed in Russian cement industry until 1920, and in Poland until 1933. Began work in Palestine to establish a cement industry in 1935, eventually realized as Shimshon works (now near Bet Shemesh) which began producing white cement in 1953.

METMANN-KOHAN, JUDAH LEIS (1869-1939). Also known as MATMONKORAN. B. Ukraine. Educationalist and among founders of Herzlia Gymnasium, Tel Aviv. Ordained rabbi at Mir Yeshiva. Began teaching in Bialystok 1890, and in 1891 he established Hebrew school in Kalarash, Bessarabia. While science student in Odessa from 1897 he taught in Hebrew school, and established Hebrew kindergarten there, besides founding Student Societies Sefat-Zion and Tsva-Hatehiya whose members trained themselves for educational work in Palestine. Later he studied education, Semitic languages, and science in Berne, obtaining Doctorate 1904. Spent a year in Paris as student and among founders Ivria Society there and in Berne. Delegate VI Z.C., 1903, and one of Zionei Zion opposing East Africa project. Emigrated to Palestine in 1904 to become a school Principal in Bishop -Lelion. In 1905 he founded, and was Principal during first year of, Jaffa Hebrew Gymnasium (subsequently Herzlia Gymnasium), with 17 students. Was a director till 1910, continuing teaching there until 1936. Active in organizations devoted to entrenchment of Hebrew language. He was among founders of Tel Aviv in 1909. With inauguration of Hebrew Gymnasium in Jerusalem he was its provisional Principal. During First World War had sole responsibility for Herzlia Gymnasium, and with evacuation of Jews from Jaffa (1917), he transferred it to Shefeya, then until war’s end to Haifa. Among founders of Ramat-Gan, where he established the High School and became its Principal. Active in Poalei-Zion and Le’andut-Haavoda. Delegate first Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Hanivharim) 1920. Active in Tel Aviv Workers Council and Tel Aviv branch of Teachers Union. In latter years joined Federation of General Zionists. Author, principally of textbooks.

MEYER, ANDRE BENOIT MATHIEU (b. 1898). French banker, joining Paris headquarters of Lazard Freres as senior partner in 1926. Fled to U.S. in 1940 and became a senior partner of New York branch. His interests included chemicals, metal and television industries, and automobile manufacture. Grand Officier, Legion d’Honneur.

MEYER, Jumus (1881-1918). B. Freiburg, Germany. Merchant. Lived larger part of his life in Basle. Contributor on Zionist affairs to Basler National Zeitung and Basler Nachrichten. Settled in Paris 1911.

MILLS, ERIC (1892-1961). Colonial administrator serving in Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (O.E.T.A.) Palestine 1918. Military Governor of Samaria 1920-21; Asst. Governor Northern District and Acting District Governor 1922-25; Asst. Chief Secretary and Acting Chief Secretary 1925-31; Supt. Census Office 1931-32; resumed duties of Asst. Chief Secretary 1932-34; Commissioner of Migration and Statistics 1934-48. Thereafter undertook missions throughout British Colonial Empire.

MILNER, ALFRED, VISCOUNT (1854-1925). Private Secretary to Lord Goschen (then Chancellor of the Exchequer) 1887-89. Under-Secretary for Finance in Egypt 1889-92. Chairman of Board of Inland Revenue 1892-97. Governor of Cape Colony 1897-1901. Governor of Transvaal 1901-05. High Commissioner for South Africa 1897-1905. Member of War Cabinet (as Minister without Portfolio) 1916-18. Secretary of State for War 1918-19. Colonial Secretary 1919-21. Knight of the Garter 1921.

MINKOVSKY, AUGUST (1849-1942). B. Minsk. Jewish public figure in Warsaw. Studied at a Minsk yeshiva, but self-educated in secular subjects. In seventies of last century was works supervisor railway construction in Rybinsk and Nizhni. Novgorod. Later was a broker on St. Petersburg stock exchange. Founded a bank in Warsaw 1893, and active in Jewish and general public affairs there. Joined Committee for Jewish University project in 1903. For some time after First World War member of Warsaw Municipal Council. On Nazi occupation Poland died in Otwock ghetto.

MOND, ALFRED MORITZ, LORD MELCHETT (1868-1930). Industrialist and public figure. After practising law, he entered his father’s chemical firm, becoming chairman of its board. He organized and headed International Nickel Co., Mond Gas Co., and Imperial Chemical Industries (I.C.I.). Liberal M.P. 1906-28, serving in Lloyd George’s government as First Commissioner of Works (1916-21), Minister of Health (1921-22). In 1928 he organized the Mond-Turner conference of reconciliation between workers and leaders of industry. Though raised as a Christian, Mond became a Zionist sympathizer after the B.D., joining Samuel’s advisory committee for the economic development of Palestine, 1918. In 1921 he visited Palestine with W. and initiated establishment of Economic Board for Palestine. In 1927 he participated in an economic investigation of Palestine. K.H. President in England, and of E.Z.F. 1928-30. Jt. chairman of enlarged Jewish Agency on its foundation, 1929. He resigned from all these offices in 1930 in protest against Passfield White Paper.

MOND, HENRY (SECOND LORD MELcHETT) (1898-1949). Industrialist and economist, son of Sir Alfred Mond (first Lord Melchett—see Biog. Index, Vol. IX). Liberal M.P. 1923-24, Conservative 1929-30; succeeded his father as chairman of industrial trusts. Brought up in Christian faith, he returned to Judaism after rise of Hitler and became an ardent Zionist. He was Chairman of J.A. Council 1942; Honorary President of British Maccabi and Maccabi World Union. His book Thy Neighbour expressed faith in Judaism and challenged antisemitism.

MONEY, Sir Arthur Wigram (1866-1951). British army commander. Major-General. Served in India and South Africa until World War I. With B.E.F. in Iraq, 1915-17. Chief Administrator, O.E.T.A. South, 1918-19, maintaining the status quo in Palestine pending a civil administration. Retired 1920.

MONTEFIORE, CLAUDE JOSEPH GoLDsmin (1858-1938). B. London. Scholar, philanthropist, and Anglo-Jewish communal leader. Studied at Oxford and Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, then engaged in Jewish and general educational activities in London. In 1888 he established, and was one of editors, Jewish Quarterly Review. Among founders and first president of Jewish Religious Union, organization of Liberal Judaism in Britain, 1902. President London Liberal Jewish Synagogue from 1910, and World Union for Progressive Judaism from 1926. President Anglo-Jewish Association, one of the two central organizations of British Jewry, 1895-1921, with simultaneous co-chairmanship Conjoint Committee for Foreign Affairs concerned with rights of Jews overseas. Member I.C.A. Council 1896-1921. Against Zionism from its beginnings, on the grounds that Judaism was a religion only and its uniqueness lay in its universality, opposed Balfour Declaration 1917 and was among founders of League of British Jews.

MONTEFIORE, GEORGES LEVI (1832-1906). B. London. Grew up in Belgium. Engineer and industrialist. Liberal Party Senator 1882-1901. Founder Montefiore Electro-Technical Institute, Liege, later incorporated in University there. He endowed many scholarships for students from Russia and Romania.

MONTEFIORE, SIR FRANCIS ABRAHAM (1860-1935). B. London. Great-nephew of Moses Montefiore. An office-holder in London Sephardi community, he served on Council A.J.A. 1898-1906, and on B.O.D. from 1900. Among earliest H.Z. in England, a founder of E.Z.F., president until 1907, hon. president until 1914. Delegate HI–IX Z.C., 1899-1909. On G.A.C. 1899-1900, 1903-11. A Herzl intimate, introducing him to British governmental circles and Paris society. His position in Zionism lessened with Herzl’s death, and he retired from movement in First World War.

MONTOR, HENRY. B. 1905, Canada. Brought to U.S. as child, he was active in Zionist affairs from youth and assistant editor of New Palestine 1926-30. Directed United Palestine Appeal 1930-39, and U.J.A. 1939-50, and Israel Bonds campaign 1951-55, resigning the position to found his own brokerage firm.

MOONITZ, URIAH (1867-1907). Early in century lived in London. On E.Z.F. Executive 1901-4. Among founders radical Zionist society Maaravi 5902. Delegate VI Z.C., 1903, opposing East Africa project, thereafter an opposition propagandist in England. Among founders, 5904, of short-lived weekly Der Londoner rud. Died destitute in United States.

MORGENSTERN, HARRIS JOSEPH (1884-1954). B. Miedzyrzec, Russia. Active Zionist in London. Secretary E.Z.F. 1917-28.

MORGENTHAU, HENRY JR. (1891-1967). Secretary of Treasury 1934-45. Son of Henry Morgenthau Sr. (Biog. Index, Vol. VII). An agronomist, he was publisher of American Agriculturist 1922-23; appointed 1928 by Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt as chairman, Agricultural Advisory Commission, and in 1930 Conservation Commissioner, State of N.Y. Head of Federal Farm Board and Farm Credit Administration in Washington 1933. In 1943 he obtained State Department approval to transfer private U.S. funds to Europe to rescue French and Romanian Jews; and at his suggestion Roosevelt established War Refugee Board Jan. 1944. His `Morgenthau Plan’ proposed post-war partition of Germany and its conversion into an agrarian area. He was U.J.A. general chairman 1947-50, honorary chairman 1950-53; chairman, American Financial and Development Corporation for Israel and Israel Bonds, 1951-54.

MORGENTHAU, Henry, Sr. (1856-1946). B. Mannheim. American-Jewish diplomat. Arriving New York 1865, he engaged in real estate activities. Supporter of Woodrow Wilson (q.v.), he was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Turkey 1913-16, facilitating relief to Palestine’s Jewish community during War. Though a non-Zionist, he favoured Jewish colonisation and in 1916 proposed to Turkey the post-War sale of Palestine to the Zionists. Led mission sent by Pres. Wilson to detach Turkey from Central Powers, June 1917. Led President’s special committee in Poland, 1919, to study Jewish situation there. Chairman of League of Nations Refugee Settlement Committee, 1923. Among founders of American Red Cross.

MORRISON, HERBERT STANLEY (1888-1965). British statesman. From working class origins, had long career in Labour Party and local government of London. M.P. 1923-24, 1929-31, 1935-59; Minister of Transport 1929-31; of Supply 1940; Home Secretary and Minister of Home Security, 1940-45; Member of War Cabinet 1942-45; deputy Prime Minister 1945-51; Lord President of Council and Leader of House of Commons 1945-51; Foreign Secretary March-Oct. 1951. Deputy Leader of Opposition 1951-55. Raised to peerage 1959. Author, works on government of London and an autobiography.

MOSER, JACOB (1839-1922). B. Kappeln, Schleswig-Holstein. Merchant, communal and Zionist figure. Emigrated England 1863, settling Bradford. Justice of Peace 1895. city councillor from 1896, Lord Mayor 1910-11. President local Reform Synagogue. Among founders local Zionist society 1899. Delegate IV-XI Z.C., 1900-13. On E.Z.F. Executive 1905-09, G.A.C. 1903-11, J.C.T. Board up to 1904. Contributed extensively to undertakings in Palestine, particularly Herzlia Gymnasium, Tel Aviv, and Bezalel School for applied art, Jerusalem.

MOSES, JULIUS JACOB (1869-1945). B. Altdorf (Pfalz), Germany. Physician engaged in psychotherapy and public health research. Practised from 1896 in Mannheim, where he directed psychotherapy centre for retarded children. Lecturer from 1918, and from 1929 professor, Mannheim Business College. Joined Z.O. on its foundation, chairman Mannheim Jewish community and Zionist Society, delegate IV, V, VI, VII, IX Z.C., 1900, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1909. Supported D.F. and was chairman Mannheim Committee for Jewish University project. Member G.A.C. 1903-5. On German Zionist Central Committee from 1910. In 1934 emigrated to Palestine, where active in public health work. He published extensively in his own field of research.

MOSSERI, JACQUES (Jacob) (1884-1934). Banker and communal leader in Egypt. Educated at Cambridge. Assisted Solomon Shechter in acquisition and deciphering of Cairo Genizah manuscripts. Participated in XI Z.C., 1913. President Zionist Federation of Egypt until 1918, represented Copenhagen Zionist Office there 1917. Chairman of the ‘Special Committee for Relief of Jews in Palestine’. Helped Aaron Aaronsohn (q.v.) in his contacts with British in Egypt. Member, Zionist Commission to Palestine, 1918-20.

MOSSINSON, BEN-ZION (1878-1942). B. Andreyevka, Ukraine. Among pioneers Hebrew education in Palestine. While teaching in Berdyansk joined Young Israel Society. Protagonist of Hebrew language and participated H.Z. conferences. At Zionist Youth Conference preceding V Z.C., 1901. Studied 1902-07 in Berne, obtaining Doctorate. Sometime chairman Zionist Academic Society in Berne, and actively opposed East Africa project. Prominent in Ivria Society and member of Jewish University Bureau. Undertook many propaganda tours in Russia, Western Europe, and America. Delegate all Z.C.s 1903-39. With transfer central office Ivria from Berlin to Jaffa, emigrated (1907) to Palestine as its secretary, simultaneously teaching Bible and Jewish history in Jaffa at Hebrew (later Herzlia) Gymnasium and joining its Directorate. He was its Principal 1910-11, 1912-15, and 1919-40. Among founders Tel Aviv, but banished from Palestine by Turkish authorities 1915 and went to United States for four years as Zionist emissary. Delegate first Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Hanivharim), and executive member Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) 1925-29. From 1925 on Actions Committee. Appointed director Department of Education in National Council 1939. Prominent in Federation of General Zionists, he was chairman of Teachers Association and published works on education, the Hebrew language, and Bible teaching.

MOTZKIN, LEO (1867-1933). B. Brovari, near Kiev, Ukraine. Lived in Germany from age of 15. As Berlin student principal founder of Russian-Jewish Academic Society, 1889. Attended I Z.C., 1897. Founder and first Chairman of Berlin Zionist students’ society, Kadimah, 1898. One of the leaders of the ‘Young Zionist’ critics of Herzl at III, IV, and V Z.C., 1899, 1900, 1901. One of the founders of D.F. and principal draftsman of its programme, 1902. Attended Minsk Conference, 1902. Publ. study of Russian pogroms, 1910. Among principal promoters of Hebrew Language and Culture Conferences, Berlin, 1909 and Vienna, 1913. Director of Zionist Organization Copenhagen Bureau, 1915. After end of First World War became Secretary-General of Committee of Jewish Delegations at Peace Conference (1919) and took a leading part in organizing the campaign for minority rights for the Polish and other East European Jews and for national minorities generally. Member Z.E. 1921-3. Chairman G.A.C. 1925-33. Presided at XVII and XVIII Z.C., 1931, 1933.

MOYNE, lst LORD (Walter Edward Guinness, 1880-1944). Served in South Africa 1900-01; in W.W.I. Cons. M.P. 1907-31; Under-Secretary for War 1922-23; Financial Secretary to Treasury 1923-24, 1924-25; Minister of Agriculture 1925-29; chairman, Royal Commission on Durham Univ. 1934, on West Indies 1938-39; Colonial Secretary 1941-42; Deputy Minister of State, Cairo 1942, Minister 1944; assassinated by members of Lohamei Herut Israel (Stern Group) 6 Nov. 1944.

MUSSOLINI, BENITO AMILCARE ANDREA (1883-1945). Italian dictator. Member of Italian Socialist Party until 1914. Formed Fascist Party 1919. Prime Minister of Italy Oct. 1922, following `March on Rome’. Invaded Ethiopia 1935, intervened in Spain 1936, conquered Albania 1939. Formed ‘Axis’ with Germany 1936, enter ing war as German ally June 1940. Dismissed July 1943, taken into custody, but released by Germans. Executed by partisans Apr. 1945. Ambivalent in policy towards Jews and Zionism, introduced antisemitic measures in Italy 1938.

MUTS, FIELD-MARSHAL JAN CHRISTIAAN (1870-1950). S. African statesman, soldier, and philosopher. Fought against Britain in Boer War; Ministry of Defence 1910-20; S. African Representative Imperial War Cabinet’ 1917, 1918; Plenipotentiary (with General Botha) for S. Africa at P.C. 1919; P.M. 1919-24, 1939-48; Minister of Justice 1933-39. Participated in creation of League of Nations and United Nations. Long-standing Zionist supporter, and W.’s personal friend. He helped promulgate the B.D. and Palestine Mandate, and brought S. Africa into war against Germany, 1939. His government among first to accord State of Israel de facto recognition on its establishment in 1948.

MYERS, MAURICE (1833-1940). B. Liverpool. Son of Asher Myers, editor of London Jewish Chronicle, and long-time member of its editorial staff. Prominent• in communal affairs, he had been Secretary of Union of Jewish Literary Societies. E.Z.F. Secretary 1913-17. War service in Royal Flying Corps. Later active in K.H.

NAIDITCH, ISAAC ASHER (1868-1949). B. Pinsk. Industrialist. Engaged in alcohol industry in Moscow from 1889. Active in H.Z., member of Bnei Zion Society and patron of Hebrew writers. Participated in V, IX-XVII, XIX-XXI Z.C., 1901, 1909-31, 1935-39. On G.A.C. 1911-21, Central Committee and Cultural Committee of Russian Zionists from 1913, Central Committee for Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (embracing also Palestine Jewish community) in First World War. Among founders of Tarbut Association to promote Hebrew culture, 1917, and on its World Executive from 1923. Moved to Paris in 1919 as member of Zionist delegation to Peace Conference. Took active part in formation of Dead Sea Potash Company and Palestine Electric Corporation. On J.C.T. Board, 1920-31, founding president of K.H. 1920-29, on Z.G.C. 1929-49. Headed French Zionist Federation from 1934, among founders World Jewish Congress, Geneva 1936. In New York from 1940, where he continued his Zionist activities and contributed to, Yiddish Press.

NAMIER, SIR LEWIS B ERNSTEIN (1888-1960). B. Galicia as Namierowski; in England from 1908. After war-time service in the British army, he joined Foreign Office Intelligence Dept., attending Paris Peace Conference as adviser. Lecturer at Balliol College, Oxford, 1920-21. As political secretary to Zionist Executive 1929-31 he played a considerable role in obtaining the Ramsay MacDonald Letter (February 13, 1931). Professor of Modern History at Manchester University 1931-53. He served as deputy to W. on Anglo-Jewish Committee for Refugees from Germany, and from outbreak of W.W. II until 1945 he was on loan from Manchester University to J.A., following which he converted to Christianity for purposes of marriage. Author and editor of innumerable works of history.

NATHAN, (HARRY LOUIS), 1st Lord. (1889-1963). B. London. A solicitor, his legal practice was frequently retained by J.A. and other Zionist institutions. Liberal M.P. 1929-34, Labour 1934-35, 1937-40, when entered House of Lords. Under-Secretary of State for War 1945-46, Minister of Civil Aviation 1946-48. Chairman of Prime Minister’s Committee on Charitable Trusts, 1950, and chairman of Isaac Wolfson Foundation from 1955. Trustee, Board of Deputies of British Jews.

NATHAN, PAUL (1857-1927). B. Berlin. Journalist. German-Jewish leader. An Editor of The Nation, organ of Liberal and Progressive circles in Germany, 1885-1903. On Berlin City Council 1899-1919. Among founders of Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden 1901, its Executive Secretary and Vice-President until 1927. Prominently associated with creation of Hilfsverein’s Hebrew educational network in Palestine. Initiated the 1908 preparations for establishment of Haifa College of Technology (`Technicum’), being appointed Vice-Chairman of the Curatorium and Chairman of its Executive Committee 1909. His opposition to giving preferred status to the Hebrew language at the Technicum was a factor leading to the language struggle of 1913-14. Council member of Centralverein deutscl;r Staatsbiirger jiidischen Glaubens. In 1920 participated in establishment of Binyan Ha’aret, a non-Zionist body engaged in economic development of Palestine. 

ROBINSON, SIR ROBERT. B. 1886. Chemist. Studied at Manchester University, lecturer in its Department of Chemistry 1909-12. Professor of Organic Chemistry at University of Sydney 1912-15, Liverpool 1915, St. Andrews 1921, Manchester 1922-28, London 1928-30, Oxford 1930-55. Director of Research at British Dyestuffs Corporation from 1920. President of Chemical Society 1939-41, Royal Society 1925-50. Knighted 1939. Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1947. Legion d’Honneur, Order of Merit. Honorary Fellow, Weizmann Institute of Science. NI., first, Gertrude Nlaud Walsh (q.v.).

NATHAN, Sir Frederick Lewis (1861-1933). B. London. Commissioned Royal Artillery. An explosives expert, he was Works Manager at Nobel’s Scottish (Ardeer) factory, 1909-14. Adviser to Admiralty on cordite supply, 1914-15, Director, Dept. of Propellent Supplies at Ministry of Munitions, 1915-19. In this capacity employed W. on utilizing his process for acetone extraction. Commandant, Jewish Lads Brigade, 1906-27. Founder of Institution of Chemical Engineers, its president 1925-27.

NEMIROVSKY, ALEXANDER (?-1921). Lawyer. Chairman Kharkov Zionist Committee, 1898-1904. Joined Kharkov Committee for Jewish University, 1902. Appeared for the defence at trials of a number of Zionists charged with political offences on eve of and during First World War.

NEMSER, ALEXANDER (?-1906). Engineer. Member of earliest Zionist students’ group at Kharkov. As student at Munich Polytechnic a leading member of the Zionist students’ society, on whose behalf he helped to organize Munich Preparatory Conference leading to Z.Y.C., 1901, which he attended as a delegate. Member of D.F. Returned to Russia and was an active Zionist worker in St. Petersburg until his death about 1906.

NEUMANN, EMANUEL. B. 1893, Libau, Latvia. Brought to U.S.A. as infant. Editor Young Judean 1914-15. Z.O.A. Education Director 1918-20. K.H. Director in U.S.A. 1921-25. With Jewish Agency in Jerusalem 1931-41. Z.O.A. President 1947-49,1956-58. Denounced W. at 1946 Z.C. Headed Jewish Agency Economic Dept. 1951-53. Chairman, American section of Jewish Agency Executive from 1953. Founding President, Herzl Foundation. President, World Union of General Zionists.

NEUMARK, DAVID (1866-1924). B. Szczerzec, Galicia. Historian of Jewish philosophy. An early Galician Zionist, he was delegate I, II Z.C., 1897, 1898. From 1887 to 1892 studied at Lvov, then at University of Berlin and Hochschule fiir die Wissenschaft des Judentums there. Obtained Doctorate 1896, ordained 1897. Rabbi of Rakovnik (Rakonitz) in Bohemia 1898-1904. Served 1904-07 in Berlin as editor of section on Jewish Philosophy and Talmud of projected Hebrew Encyclopedia Otzar-Hayahadut. Professor of Philosophy at Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, from 1908. He published many works, some of them in Hebrew.

NIEYERSON, EMILE (1859-1933). B. Lublin. Franco-Jewish philosopher, best known for his studies in philosophy of science. As I.C.A. administrator 1900-23, he was actively concerned in transfer of Rothschild colonies in Palestine to I.C.A., 1900, and in negotiations leading to 1913 agreement between I.C.A. and P.L.D.C. on land acquisition in the country.

NOEL-BAKER, PHILIP JOHN, b. 1889. Statesman dedicated to international disarmament. Noted athlete, captain of British team in 1924 Olympics. On British delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919, subsequently joining League of Nations secretariat, where served until 1922. Labour M.P. 1929-31, 1936-70; Parliamentary Private Secretary to Foreign Secretary 1929-31 ; Parliamentary Secretary to Ministry of War Transport 1942-45; Minister of State 1945-1946; Secretary of State for Air 1946-47; for Commonwealth Relations 1947-50; Minister of Fuel and Power 1950-51. Nobel Peace Prize 1959, Albert Schweitzer Book Prize 1960. His publications include The Arms Race: A Programme for World Disarmament (1958). Raised to Peerage 1977.

NORDAU, MAX (1849-1923). B. Budapest. Lived from 1880 in Paris. As author of (among other works) Die conventionellen Luegen der Kulturmenschheit (`The Conventional Lies of Civilized Mankind’), 1883, and Entartung (`De-generation’), 1893, already a European celebrity when, on reading Der Judenstaat, he at once assured Herzl of his support. In tribute on 70th birthday (1919), described by W. and Sokolow as ‘the co-founder of the Zionist Organization’. Attended I Z.C., 1897, taking a leading part in formulation of Basle Programme, and was one of the principal speakers at this and all succeeding Congresses up to the Tenth (1911). Presided at VII, IX, and X Z.C. (1905, 1909, 1911). Came out in opposition to S.A.C., dominated by `Practical Zionists’, elected at X Z.C., 1911, and absented himself from XI Z.C., 1913. During First World War lived in Spain. Attended London Zionist Conference, 1920, and elected Honorary President. Did not attend XII Z.C., 1921 and, offended by rejection of Nordau Plan’, calling for immediate mass settlement of Jews in Palestine, withdrew from active participation in Zionist affairs.

NORTHCLIFFE, (ALFRED CHARLES WILLIAM HARMSWORTH), 1st Viscount (1865-1922). Newspaper proprietor, creator of modern popular journalism in Britain. Together with his brother Harold (later Viscount Rothermere) established beginnings of publishing empire 1887. Acquired Evening News 1894. Founded Daily Mail 1896, Daily Mirror 1903. Chief proprietor of The Times from 1908. Was anti-Zionist, arguing that Zionism would never fulfil its aspirations, but cause damage to British interests in Middle East.

NOSSIG, ALFRED (1864-1943). B. Lvov. Pre-Herzlian Zionist. Joined Z.O. but, contrary to the accepted Zionist policy, pressed for immediate colonizing activity. Member of first Board of Directors of Jiidischer Verlag (est. 1902) and member of editorial board of Paleistina, the organ of the Berlin Komitee zur wirtschaftlichen Erforschung Paleistina. Chairman, 1902, of Central Committee, Jewish Statistical Society and member of Berlin Committee for Jewish University. Member of D.F. Delegate to VI Z.C., 1903. Founded in Berlin, 1908, Die Allgemeine Judische Kolonisations-Organisation and, in 1911, an English subsidiary, The Orient Colonizing Company. At IX Z.C., 1909, his activities were publicly disowned by the Z.O., after which he ceased to have any part in Zionist affairs. During Second World War resident in Poland, where accused of collaboration with the Nazi authorities and executed by the `Jewish Combat Organization’ in the Warsaw Ghetto.

NOVOMEYSKY, MOSES MIKHAIL (1873-1961). B. Barguzin, Siberia. Mining engineer. Founder and managing director 1930-52 of Palestine Potash Ltd., the Dead Sea concession for which he had been preparing since 1906. On completion studies in Germany early in century, he established works for salt extraction in Siberia. Attended Siberian Zionist Convention, Tomsk 1903, active in fund raising for Jewish University Bureau, and in propaganda against East Africa project. Delegate IX Z.C., 1909. Actively involved in both 1905 and 1917 Revolutions, thereafter in organization of autonomous Jewish community in Siberia. Elected to Siberian Zionist Council, 1918. Emigrating Palestine 1920, he was among founders Information Bureau for Far East, for emigration to Palestine. Member Tel Aviv Hagana Committee, and treasurer Hagana 1921-2. Member Committee of Five that sought to negotiate co-operation with Arabs, 1936. Had meeting with King Abdulla of Jordan, 1949.

OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ (1864-1943). B. Berlin. Sociologist and economist. Originally a medical practitioner in Berlin, he abandoned medicine in 1895 for the social sciences and journalism. Edited Welt am Montag 1897-99. Obtained Doctorate 1909 and that year appointed lecturer (Privat-Docent) in economics at Berlin University. Professor of Economics at Frankfurt 1919-29. Left Germany 1938, arriving United States via Japan 1940, settling in Los Angeles. He described his theory of Liberal Socialism, first outlined in his Die Siedlungsgenossenschaft, published 1896, as ‘the third way between Capitalism and Communism’. Ascribing the shortcomings of industrial Capitalism to agrarian Capitalism, he advanced as the solution co-operative settlement on free soil. Drawn into Zionism in 1903 by Herzl, he addressed VI Z.C. on his ideas as applied to Palestine, and was nominated, with Selig Soskin and Otto Warburg (q.v.), to the Commission for Investigation of Palestine. Delegate also VII, IX, X, XI, Z.C., 1905, 1909-13. Under his direction Merhavia co-operative settlement established 1911. Opposing principle that all Zionist members should emigrate to Palestine, he withdrew from movement following German Zionist Convention, Leipzig 1914. In First World War he founded and was active force in German-Jewish Committee for the liberation of Russian Jews, later known as Komite Or den Osten, that collaborated with German Foreign Ministry on behalf of Jews in German-occupied territories. On establishment of enlarged Jewish Agency for Palestine, 1929, he was reconciled to Zionist movement. Published many works on his socio-economic theories.

ORMSBY-GORE, William George (Lord Harlech) (1885-1964). B. Wales. British diplomat and authority on Colonial affairs M.P. (Unionist and Conservative) 1910-38. Intelligence Officer, Arab Bureau, Cairo, 1916-17. Parliamentary Private Secretary to Lord Milner, Assistant Secretary, War Cabinet and Secretary of Middle East Committee, 1917-18. Was concerned with formulation of Balfour Declaration text. Political Officer to Zionist Commission, 1918, its liaison with military authorities in Palestine, often taking a pro-Zionist stance. On British delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919; Under-Secretary of State for Colonies, 1922-29, Secretary of State, 1936-38. British representative on Permanent Mandates Commission of League of Nations, 1937. High Commissioner in South Africa, 1941-44. S. father as 4th Baron Harlech, 1938. Scholar and patron of the arts.

ORNSTEIN, LEONARD SALOMON (1880-1941). B. Nijmegen, Holland. Physicist, Lecturer, Groningen University 1909-15. Professor at Utrecht from 1915. Member, Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences from 1929. In Netherlands Zionist Federation from youth, and its president 1918-22. Participated in VIII-XI Z.C., 1907-13. Assisted W. in Hebrew University project 1913-14. On Board of Governors and Academic Council from University’s opening in 1925, chairman of its Academic Council from 1931. The Einstein Institute of Physics was set up under his guidance.

PASMANIK, DANIEL (1869-1930). Physician. B. Gadyach, Ukraine. Appointed at end of 1890s privat-docent in medicine at Geneva, where he took part in Zionist activities. Served for a time on preparatory committee for Z.Y.C. but in mid-1901 came out in active opposition to the holding of the Conference. At V Z.C., 1901 opposed creation of parties in Z.O., with special reference to D.F. Contributed from 1904 to Jewish journals in Russia, Raszviet and the Zionist organ Yevreiskaya Zhizn, acquiring a reputation as a leading exponent of Zionism in Russia. During post-1917 civil war in Russia supported the ‘White’ General Denikin. Worked for a time with Committee of Jewish Delegations at Paris Peace Conference, 1919. His association with Russian monarchist emigre circles led to his disappearance from Jewish public life.

PASSFIELD, LORD (SIDNEY JAMES W EBB, 1859-1947). B. London. Served in C.O. 1881-91, called to Bar in 1885 and joined Fabian society. His marriage to Beatrice Potter, 1892, initiated their joint career in social and economic reform. Progressive member of London County Council 1891-1910. He and his wife promoted the development of London School of Economics, and in 1913 they founded Neu Statesman. Labour M.P. 1922-29; President Board of Trade 1924-28. Secretary of State for Colonies 1929-31. Responsible for Government Statement of Policy (21 October 1930) known as Passfield White Paper.

PERCY, EARL (HENRY ALGERNON GEORGE) (1871-1909). B. London. Conservative Member of Parliament from 1895. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1902-03, Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1903-05.

PERELMAN, AARON (?-?). Orig. Odessa. As Karlsruhe student member of Zionist students’ society, Kadimah. Took part in organization of Z.Y.C., 1901. Joined D.F. While studying at Zurich, 1902-3, joined Syrkin’s Cheirus group. After Russian revolution of 1905, moved away from Zionism to join the `Popular Party’ founded by Simon Dubnow, with programme of full civic rights for Jews coupled with the recognition of their separate national identity within the Russian State.

PERKIN, WILLIAM HENRY (1860-1929). B. Sudbury, Middlesex. Fellow of Royal Society. Lecturer Munich University, 1883-86. Professor of chemistry at Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, 1887-92, then at Victoria University, Manchester, until 1913, W. serving in his department. Professor at Oxford, 1913-29. President of Chemical Society 1913-15. Author of works on chemistry.

PEVSNER, SAMUEL JOSEPH (1878-1930). B. Propoisk, Byelorussia. M. Leah Ginsberg, daughter of Ahad Ha’ain (q.v.). While a student in Berlin, where he was a member of a Zionist students society, attended I Z.C., 1897. Contributor to Ahad Ha’am’s Hebrew journal Hashiloah. Attended Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. group of delegates at V Z.C., 1901 and secretary of D.F.’s Berlin group. Attended Minsk Conference, 1902. In 1905 settled in Palestine, where made important contribution to expansion and industrial development of Haifa as a director of the Atid oil factory and a promoter of the citrus trade. During First World War resided in U.S.A. After returning to Palestine, active in Jewish affairs during mandatory period as delegate to Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Hanivcharint) and member of National Council of Jews in Palestine (Va’ad Leumi).

PHILBY, HARRY ST. JOHN BRIDGER (1885-1960). Explorer and Orientalist, b. Ceylon. Indian Civil Service 1908-15; served in Mesopotamia W.W.I.; led British political mission to central Arabia 1917-18; crossed Arabian peninsula 1920; chief British representative Transjordan 1921-24; became a Muslim in 1930 and lived in Jidda as representative of Sharqieh Ltd., 1926-55. Conducted extensive exploration of Arabian peninsula 1930-40. Close adviser of King Ibn Saud. Author, works on Arabia.

PHILIPPSON, MARTIN EMANUEL (1846-1916). B. Magdeburg. Historian. Lecturer, University of Bonn, from 1871, and from 1878 professor at Brussels, where for a time in 1890 University Rector. Settling in Berlin, he devoted himself to Jewish community affairs. On Directorate of Hochschule fir die Wissensehaft des Judentums 1896-1904, 1913-16. Chairman German-Israelite Union of Communities 1896-1912. Initiator and first president Association of German Jews (Verband der Deutschen Juden) 1904. A moving spirit behind the foundation of Society for Advancement of Jewish Studies (Gesellschaft zur Ftirderung der Wissenschaft des Judentums) in 1902. Directed organization for study Jewish history and literature (Verband der Vereine fur Jiidische Geschichte and Literatur in Deutschland).

PICK, HERMANN (Cumm) (1879-1952). Orientalist and librarian. B. Schildberg, Germany. Joined Z.O., 1898. Librarian, Prussian State Library, Berlin, 1906-20. Elected to Central Committee, German Zionist Federation, 1911. Member of Central Committee of World Mizrahi Organization, 1919-25. Resided in Palestine, 1921-27; member of Palestine Z.E. and head of its Immigration Department. After returning to Germany resumed position at Prussian State Library, 1927, relinquishing it in 1933, when he settled permanently in Palestine.

PICTET, RAOUL (1842-1929). Physicist. B. Geneva. Professor of Industrial Physics at Geneva University from 1879 to 1886, when he moved to Berlin, where he set up a liquid gas factory. In contact, in Berlin, with W. during his student days at Charlottenburg and tried, though without success, to help him to market his first discovery in dyestuffs chemistry.

PILICHOWSKY, LEOPOLD (1869-1933). B. Province of Lodz. Artist. Studied in Cracow, Warsaw, Munich and Paris, settling first in Paris, then London 1914. On E.Z.F. Executive 1917-18. Chairman, Federation of Polish Jews from 1923 and active in Jewish welfare organizations in England. Won reputation for his scenes of Jewish life in Eastern Europe and as portraitist.

PINCZOWER, EPHRAIM (1873-1930). B. Nikolai, Silesia, then Germany. Physician and bibliographer. Among initiators in Berlin of Society of Jewish Physicians and Scientists for Improving Sanitary Conditions in Palestine, 1912.

PINKUS, FELIX LAZAR (1881-1947). B. Breslau. Entered Berne University, 1899 ; later studied at Breslau. At both Universities active in Zionist student circles. Joined D.F., 1902 but left it in 1903. Settled in Switzerland ; member, 1902, of Central Committee, and later President, of Swiss Zionist Federation. After First World War edited various periodicals in Switzerland, France, and Germany.

PINSKI, DAVID (1872-1959). B. Mogilev. Socialist writer, pioneer of modern Yiddish literature. Associated with H.Z. from early youth, he founded, together with Reuben Brainin, Bnei-Zion Society in Vitebsk 1890. Began publishing in Yiddish while a student in Vienna 1891-94, and later under auspices of Bond, of which he was a sometime member. His works were the first in Yiddish to have proletarian emphasis. Collaborated with J. L. Peretz in Yom Toe Blettlech (Warsaw), marking new era in Yiddish Letters. After three years in Berlin, emigrated to United States 1899 where he engaged in journalism and was among founders American Poet/el-Zion 1905, serving on its Central Committee from 1914. Appointed editor Poalei-Zion weekly Der Yiddisher Kempfer 1917-20, then in 1920 Die Zeit, a daily. For many years president Jewish National Workers Alliance of America. Emigrated to Palestine 1949 to become hon. president Yiddish Writers Union.

PLEHVE, VYACHESLAV KONSTANTINOVICH (1846-1904). B. Lithuania. Lawyer, Russian Minister of Interior. In service of Russian Department of Justice from 1867, first as assistant to State Attorney in Warsaw, then as State Attorney in St. Petersburg. Appointed Chief of Police Department in Russian Ministry of Interior 1881, and in 1884 Assistant Minister of Interior with membership of Imperial Council and title of State Secretary. Minister of Interior 1902. Implemented Russification programme of Western Provinces, thereby arousing animosity of Lithuanians, Poles, and Finns. During his tenure Kishinev pogrom took place (1903), and in same year he had meeting with Herzl. Assassinated July 1904 by a member of Revolutionary Socialist Party (S.R.).

PLUMER, HERBERT CHARLES ONSLOW, first Viscount Plumer of Messines (1857-1932). Second High Commissioner for Palestine, 1925-28, succeeding Herbert Samuel. Entering British Army, 1876, he distinguished himself during South African War in operations in Rhodesia. Gained signal victory at Messines and Ypres during war, and saved situation in Italy following the Italian defeat at Caporetto. Following the Armistice he commanded British Army of Rhine. Governor of Malta, 1919-24.

POKRASSA, JOSEPH ( ?-1926). B. sixties of last century. Head bookkeeper of Hoffman and Deuel pharmaceutical company. Early this century he was secretary Central Committee Kharkov Zionist Societies, a member Bnei-Zion in Kharkov, Kadimah Student Zionist Society, D.F. and Committee for Jewish University project. Delegate V, VII Z.C., 1901, 1905, and Russian Zionist Conference preceding V Z.C. Delegate Russian Zionist Conference, Petrograd May 1917. Following Revolution he remained in Kharkov and was active in Tarbut, an organization concerned with establishing Zionist Hebrew educational and cultural institutions in Russia and Poland.

POOL, DAVID DE Sot.”, (1885-1970). Rabbi, civic and communal leader and historian. Born London, he was appointed to pulpit of the Sephardi congregation in New York City, 1907. American member of Zionist Commission 1919-21, J.D.C. regional director for Palestine and Syria 1920-21. His public offices included presidency of American Jewish Historical Society, 1955-56, and U.S. delegate to the ATO Atlantic Congress in London 1959. Author of works on American-Jewish story, religion, education and Zionism.

PORTUGALOV, GREGORY (?-?). In early 1900s student, an active Zionist in St. Petersburg. Interested in organization of Z.Y.C., 1901, though not known to have attended it. Editor, 1909-11, of the St. Petersburg Jewish periodical (neutral on the Zionist question), Yevreisky Mir. Towards end of First World War returned to Zionist activity and by 1917 had become a leading member of the Socialist wing of the Zeirei Zion party.

POZNANSKY, SAMUEL ABRAHAM (1864-1921). B. Lubraniec, Poland. Rabbi, scholar, and educationalist. Rabbi at Central Synagogue in Warsaw from 1897. Delegate I Z.C., 1897. An active Zionist, he participated in Hebrew educational programmes of Tarbut in Poland. In 1918 he initiated Committee in support of Hebrew University that later became Society of Friends of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Appointed Warsaw Chief Rabbi just before he died. He published many works of research in Talmud and Jewish sects.

PRATO, DAVID (1882-1951). B. Leghorn, ordained rabbi and for some years director of Florence Rabbinical College. An aide to W. during San Remo Conference, 1920, he was secretary of J.N.F. and K.H. in Italy 1922-27. Chief Rabbi of Alexandria 1927-37, when he became Chief Rabbi of Rome. Following Italian anti-Semitic measures of 1938, he left for Tel Aviv, and was director of the city’s rabbinate office. Returned to Rome in 1945 and resumed his office as Chief Rabbi there until death.

PROSKAUER, JOSEPH MEYER (1877-1971). Jurist, member of New York Supreme Court 1923-30, then resumed law practice. Appointed to Charter Revision Commission of New York City 1935. A non-Zionist, he adhered firmly to the principle that the Jewish community was essentially a religious one, but he eventually favoured creation of a Jewish State. President American Jewish Committee 1943-49; consultant to U.S. delegation at San Francisco Conference of United Nations, 1945. Chairman of New York State Crime Commission 1951-53, and director of National Refugee Service.

RAFFALOVICH, ISAIAH (1870-1956), B. Bogopol, Province of Balta, Ukraine. Religious and communal figure. In Palestine from 1882, England from 1898. Rabbi New Hebrew Congregation, Liverpool 1905-23. Member B.O.D. Member E.Z.F. Executive 1909-23. Delegate XI, XII, XX Z.C., 1913, 1921, 1937. Following First World War active in welfare of Russian immigrants in England. In Brazil from 1923 as I.C.A. representative responsible for immigrant settlement and communal organization, being recognized there as Chief Rabbi. Active in creation of HICEM (umbrella organization of H.I.A.S., I.C.A. and Enugdirect) for refugee aid, 1927. Returning to Palestine 1935, he was occupied in military chaplaincy there 1940-46.

RAPPARD, WILLIAM EMMANUEL (1883-1958). B. New York of Swiss parentage. Scholar and diplomat. Director of Mandates Section of League of Nations Secretariat 1920-25, thereafter member of Permanent Mandates Commission. Swiss delegate to Assembly of League of Nations 1927-39. Friend of W. and supporter of Zionism.

RAPPOPORT, ANGELO SALOMON (1871-1950). B. Baturin, Ukraine. Author and historian. Studied Semitic languages in Paris and Basle, receiving Doctorate. Taught languages at Birkbeck College, London, 1901-06. Delegate to early Zionist Congresses, supporting East Africa project at VI Z.C., 1903, but subsequently retracting. Among founders London Zionist League, 1904. Published research on history and folklore 

SCHILLER, SOLOMON (1862-1925). B. Bialystok, White Russia. Hebrew educationist. Moving to Lemberg as youth, he was among founders student Zionist society there 1892, and from 1895 on committee of Zion Society. Delegate I, XI Z.C., 1897, 1913. Among founders Z.O. in Galicia and on its Central Committee. Strong pro-tagonist of Zionist education and Hebrew culture, he founded Hebrew language society Safa Brura in Lemberg, 1893, and Jewish Historical Society there 1894. On editorial board Zionist periodical Pszyszlosc from 1895, and youth monthly Moriya from 1903. Established Hebrew school system in Galicia. From 1909 member Ivria Central Committee. Emigrating Palestine 1910, he directed Hebrew Gymnasium in Jerusalem until 1921. A leading P.Z. ideologist, he was their delegate to Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Hanivharim), 1920. Member Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) 1920-5. His Zionist writings were published posthumously.

RATNOFF, NATHAN (1875-1948). B. Poland. Physician. Emigrated to U.S.A. 1891. Founder in 1921 of American Jewish Physicians’ Committee, of which he remained Chairman for most of his life. Among organisers of Medical Faculty, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, of which he became a Governor. Ran unsuccessfully for President of Manhattan Borough 1941.

RAVENNA, Felice (1869-1937). Italian jurist and public figure. B. Ferrara, where graduated. A pioneer of Zionism in Italy, he was president of its Federation 1901-21. Participated in II-XI Z.C., 1898-1913. Member, G.A.C., 1899-1909. Friend of Theodor Herzl, whom he accompanied on his audiences with King Victor Emmanuel III and Pope Pius X, in 1904. Associated with pre-Balfour Declaration activities. President, Jewish community of Ferrara, 1920-31. Governmental representative on Union of Italian Jewish Communities, 1931-33, its president 1933-37. Delegate to first World Jewish Congress, 1936.

RAVICOVITCH, SALOMON (1874-1965). B. Province of Mohilev, White Russia. Journalist and public figure. Studied Berlin and Berne, obtaining Doctorate 1906. Active in Zionist student circles, member D.F. and Zonei-Zion supporter. Delegate VII, VIII Z.C., 1905, 1907. After residence in Berlin moved 1917 to Harbin, joining Executive Committee National Council of Jews of Siberia and Far East 1919. Emigrated Palestine 1934, residing from 1941 in Haifa. Active in J.N.F

READING, (GERALD RUFUS ISAACS), SECOND MARQUESS OF (until 1935 Viscount Erleigh; 1889-1960). Son of first Marquess (Biog. Index, Vol. XIII). Admitted to Bar and a Bencher of Middle Temple from 1936, becoming treasurer in 1958. Chairman of various government committees; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1951-53, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs 1953-57. A counsel for J.A. before the Shaw Commission, 1929, he was active in Jewish affairs as chairman of Council for German Jewry, and President of London’s Jewish Hospital.

READING, EVA VIOLET, MARCHIONESS OF (until 1935 Viscountess Erleigh, 1895-1973). Social worker; daughter of Alfred Mond, first Lord Melchett (Biog. Index, Vol. IX), and wife of Gerald Rufus Isaacs, second Marquess of Reading, (q Adviser to Ministry of Health on child care 1940-45; President of National Council of Women 1957-59. Raised as a Christian, she reverted to Judaism in 1930s and became a staunch Zionist. Chairman of British section of World Jewish Congress.

READING, RUFUS DANIEL ISAACS, FIRST MARQUESS OF (1860-1935). Jurist and statesman. Called to Bar 1887, specializing in commercial and trade-union law; Q.C. 1898; Liberal M.P. 1904-13; Solicitor-General from March 1910; Attorney General Oct. 1910-Oct. 1913; member of Cabinet 1912 ; Lord Chief Justice 1913-21; President, Anglo-French Loan Mission to U.S. 1915; special envoy to U.S. 1917; special ambassador to U.S. 1918-19; Viceroy of India 1921-26; Foreign Secretary Aug.-Oct. 1931. Late in life Reading developed interest in Jewish and Zionist affairs, and in 1926 became chairman of Palestine Electric Corporation.

REINES, ISAAC JACOB (1839-1915). B. Karlin, White Russia. Rabbi, founder of Mizrahi movement. After occupying pulpits in 1867 in Shukyan and Swieciany, appointed Rabbi of Lida (Vilna district) 1885, remaining till his death. Initiated changes in Talmud study and urged broadening of Yeshiva curricula with inclusion of secular studies. Attracted to H.Z. movement from its beginnings, but arrested on journey to its Conference in Kattowitz 1884. Delegate IV, V, VI, VII, X, XI Z.C., 1900, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1911, 1913. Following V Z.C. he reacted to establishment of D.F. (whose aims included educational activities) by forming Mizrahi in effort to range Orthodox Jewry and Z.O. together. Summoned first Mizrahi Conference in Vilna 1902, and led movement throughout his life. In 1905 established his modern Yeshiva, with Zionist emphasis, in Lida. Supported ‘political’ Zionism. Author many works of Talmudic scholarship and Zionist thought.

REMEZ (DRABKIN), MOSHE DAVID (1886-1951). B. Belorussia, he joined Poalei Zion, published Hebrew poems in Hashiloah, then edited by Bialik, Studied law in Constantinople 1911-12, returned to Russia, and in 1913 settled in Palestine as agricultural labourer. Active in labour movement, he was a leading officer of Histadrut from 1921, and its Secretary-General 1935-45. Chairman of Va’ad Leumi 1944-48. On establishment of Israel became Minister of Transport, and in 1950 Minister of Education, his office at death. As writer and linguist Remez introduced new terms into modern Hebrew.

RICHARDS, BERNARD GERSON (1877-1971). B. Keidan, Lithuania. Journalist. Secretary of New York City Kehillah, 1906-11. In 1915 helped found American Jewish Congress, of which he was Executive Director until 1932. Member of American Jewish delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919. Founding Director of Jewish Information Bureau of Greater New York 1942.

ROBISON, Lours (1873-1945). Z.O.A. Treasurer for many years. Member of American Jewish delegation to Paris Peace Conference 1919. On Zionist A.C. Supported W. in dispute with Brandeis group.

ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO (1882-1945). President of U.S. 1933-45. A Democrat, member of New York Senate 1910-13; Assistant Secretary of Navy 1913-20. Governor of State of New York 1929-33. As President he introduced New Deal to overcome economic depression in U.S. and in 1941 signed the Lend-Lease Act to deliver supplies to Britain. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December, 1941, he declared war on Japan and on the other Axis Powers. With Churchill and Stalin at Yalta, February 1945, he agreed on closing phases of war against Germany.

ROSENBAUM, HEINRICH (1870-1922). B. Jassy. Banker. Early Herzl disciple, co-founder J.C.T. 1899, Board member till 1901. Delegate III, Z.C., 1899, 1901-05. G.A.C. 1905-11, While resident in England on E.Z.F. Executive 190103. Member Executive, Zionist Federation of Rumania from 1906.

ROSENBAUM, SIMON (1860-1934). Jurist. B. Pinsk. A Hovey Zion in student days in Odessa and Vienna. Delegate to I Z.C., 1897, and to all succeeding Congresses up to and including the Eleventh (1913). Elected to G.A.C. at IV Z.C., 1900. Zionist regional leader for Minsk area. One of the organizers, and Vice-President, of Minsk Conference, 1902. Member of deputation sent to Herzl by Kharkov Conference of regional leaders, 1903, to protest against ‘Uganda’ project. Member of first Duma, 1906. After First World War, member of Lithuanian Government as Deputy Foreign Minister and, later, as Minister for Jewish Affairs. Member of Committee of Jewish Delegations at Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Chairman of Lithuanian Zionist Centre. Settled in Palestine, 1924. Lithuanian Consul in Palestine and Chairman of Jewish Arbitration Tribunal.

ROSENBLATT, BERNARD ABRAHAM (1886-1969). B. Gorodok, Galicia. Lawyer. Secretary Fed. of American Zionists (later Z.O.A.) 1911. Magistrate, N.Y.C. 1921. Founder 1915 of American Zion Commonwealth (working for Jewish land purchase and settlement in Palestine). American representative on Zionist Executive in Jerusalem 1921-23. J.N.F. President in U.S.A. 1925-27.

ROSENBLUETH, FEUX (later FINHAS ROSEN). B. Berlin, 1887. Israel political leader. Studied law, was co-founder of Blau-Weiss (German Jewish youth movement) 1912, chairman of Z.O. in Germany 1920-23. In Palestine 1923-25, then in London as member of the Zionist Executive, 1926-31; legal practice in Palestine 1932-48; on Tel Aviv City Council 1935-46; chairman of Association of Immigrants from Germany (later Organization of Immigrants from Central Europe) 1940-48; co-founder of Alga Chadasha (‘New Immigration’) Party in 1942. Active in General Zionists (A), he was close to W. in his approach to Zionism. Member of Knesset 1949-68 (for Progressives, later renamed Independent Liberal Party, which he headed); Minister of Justice 1948-51, 1953-61.

ROSENBLUETH, MARTIN MICHAEL (1886-1963). B. Messingwerk, nr. Berlin. Secretary, C.Z.O. in Cologne and Berlin, 1910-15. Secretary, Copenhagen Zionist Bureau opened 1915. Director of Palestine Office in Vienna, 1921-23, and K.H. in Austria, 1923-25. Vice-chairman of German Z.O. 1925-28, K.H. director in Germany 1928-33. From 1933-40 in London as representative of Central Committee-fur German Jewish Relief and Rehabilitation, and to direct Central Office for German Jewish Settlement in Palestine attached to the Jewish Agency. Participated in XI, XIII-XV, XVII, XIX-XXI Z.C., 1913, 1923-29, 1931, 1935-39. Director – Information of U.P.A. in America from 1941. Representative of Israel Ministry of Finance in U.S.A. 1949-61.

ROSENFELD, MORRIS MOSES JACOB (1862-1923). B. near Suwalki, Poland. Noted American Yiddish poet. Itinerant tailor traveling between Poland, United States, and England till 1886, when he finally settled in New York as garment worker. His first collection of poems, Die Gloke (`The Bell’), published 1888. His poetry voiced the Jewish worker’s suffering, was adopted by the masses and sung to well-known folk melodies. Much of it was translated into other languages. Delegate IV Z.C., 1900, his national poems appeared in collection Zum Firten Zionisten Kongress. He contributed to Yiddish newspapers in United States.

ROSENMAN, SAMUEL IRVING (1896-1973). Jurist. Member New York State Legislature 1922-26; New York State Bill Drafting Commissioner 1926-28; Counsel to Governor F. D. Roosevelt 1929-32; Judge, New York Supreme Court 1932-43. Special counsel to President Roosevelt 1943-45, and to President Truman 1945-46, then continuing in latter’s service as presidential adviser. Editor, 13-volume Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt 1928-45; author, Working with Roosevelt, 1952.

ROSENWALD, JULIUS (1862-1932). B. Springfield, Illinois. Merchant and philanthropist. In Chicago from 1885, he was a proprietor of mail-order firm Sears, Roebuck and Co. Benefactor of numerous educational, social and cultural institutions, and particularly active in amelioration of situation of American Blacks. Established Julius Rosenwald Foundation 1917. On Advisory Board of National Defence Council, 1916. Presidential adviser on industrial affairs and social welfare. A director of Jewish Agricultural Aid Society of America. On Executive, American Jewish Committee, 1911-16, vice-president 1917-32. Substantial supporter of J.D.C., of which a Council member, with special interest in AgroJoint. Though a non-Zionist, he supported the Agricultural Experimental Station at Atlit, being chairman of its Trustees from 1910, and served on Curatorium (governing body) of Haifa Technical College (Technion) 1909-14.

ROSOLIO, DAVID (1898-1961). B. Germany, where following army service he joined Hapoel Hazair party and was close to Chaim Arlosoroff, whose sister he married. Immigrated to Palestine 1922, served as secretary of J.A. Agricultural Experimental Station 1925-35, thereafter practising as accountant. Chief adviser to Israel State Comptroller 1950-54 and Civil Service Commissioner 1954-59. Music critic for newspaper Haaretz.

ROSOV, ISRAEL BEN1ANIIN (1869-1948). B. Dokshitsy, White Russia. Russian Zionist leader and pioneer industrialist in Palestine. Directed oil and mining companies in Russia, 1897-1918. Delegate V-XIII, XVI, XVII Z.C., 1901-23,1929, 1931. On G.A.C. 1907-21, A.C. 1931-33. On Central Committee for Russian Jews 1910-18. A J.C.T. Director 1913-20, he was on Russian Committee for Hebrew University Affairs 1914. Supported neutrality of W.Z.O. in World War I and raised funds for Palestine Jewry. President of Russian Z.O. 1917, he was nominated its representative on the Zionist Commission to Palestine, but arrived in London too late in 1918. Co-opted to committee which drafted the Zionist proposals to the Peace Conference. Emigrating to Palestine 1919, he was a founding Director of the Workers Bank, 1921-29, the Palestine Mortgage Bank and various industrial companies. Joined Revisionist Party on its establishment 1925, its representative on second and third Jewish Elected Assembly (Assefat Hanivharan) 1925-44, Chairman of its Central Committee in Palestine 1930-32. He joined the secessionists forming the Jewish State Party in 1933, but in 1936 re-joined the N.Z.O., retaining prominence there until 1945.

ROTHENBERG, MORRIS (1885-1950). B. Estonia. Admitted to New York Bar 1905, he was appointed City Magistrate of New York 1937. Chairman of Zionist Council of Greater New York, 1916-18, delegate to International Conference of Comiti des Delegations juives and to International Relief Conference at Carlsbad 1923. Regarded by W. as his permanent liaison officer in America, he collaborated in expansion of Jewish Agency 1929 and was elected co-Chairman of its Council. A founder of J.D.C., 1914, he was a member of Zionist A.C. President of Z.O.A., 1932-36, and of J.N.F. in U.S.A., 1943-49. Co-Chairman of United Jewish Appeal and Chairman of United Palestine Appeal 1949-50.

ROTHSCHILD, ANTHONY (GusrAy) DE (1887-1961). Senior partner of London bankers N.M. Rothschild and Sons, youngest son of Leopold de Rothschild and a nephew of first Lord Rothschild. Educated Harrow and Cambridge, served in W.W.I. President of Norwood Jewish Orphanage 1918-61; a B.O.D. Vice-President; chairman of Council of C.B.F. 1940-57, and active in housing of Jewish poor in Britain.

ROTHSCHILD, BARON EDMOND (ABRAHAM BENJAMIN) DE (1845-1934). Head of French branch of House of Rothschild. The first to give financial and practical support on a large scale to the movement for the re-settlement of the Jews in Palestine. By his munificent benefactions, beginning in 1882, he saved the earliest Jewish agricultural colonies from collapse and subsequently founded or supported a large number of other colonies. He provided the settlers with schools, medical services and facilities for the satisfaction of their religious needs. He encouraged intensive farming and laid the foundations of the Palestine wine industry. He set up his own administration for his colonies but in 1900 transferred their management to the Jewish Colonization Association (I.C.A.). In 1924 he founded the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (P.I.C.A.) to take over this function from the I.C.A. and to continue and extend his work in Palestine under the direction of his son, James de Rothschild. Active supporter of the University project on its revival in 1913. Acclaimed as ‘The Father of the Yishuv’, he was, on the establishment in 1929 of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, elected Honorary President of the Agency.

ROTHSCHILD, DOROTHY de (née Pinto). B. 1895, London. Married James, elder son of Baron Edmond de Rothschild, 1913. From 1914 helped W. in his political activities, and her personal contacts were invaluable in developments preceding B.D. Shared her husband’s interests in relief activity for Palestine’s Jews after World War I, and became a generous benefactress of State of Israel, donating the Knesset building.

ROTHSCHILD, JAMES EDMOS D’ARMAND DE (1878-1957). B. Paris, son of Baron Edmond. Educated at Cambridge. Assisted W.’s efforts for Hebrew University, 1913-14. Served in French and British armies in First World War, and facilitated W.’s contacts with public figures in activities leading to Balfour Declaration. in Palestine 1918 with Zionist Commission as an aide to W.G.A. Ormsby-Gore, Political Officer, and attached to British H.Q. as head of volunteer recruitment campaign for Jewish Legion. Vice-president, Economic Board for Palestine established in London 1921, and on Board of Palestine Electric Corporation established 1923. President of P.I.C.A. from its inception in 1924. A Governor of Hebrew University from 1925. Liberal Member of Parliament 1929-45, with membership of Parliamentary Palestine Committee. Junior Minister in Government (Ministry of Supply) 1945. Besides his many benefactions in Palestine and Israel during his life-time, the Knesset building in Jerusalem was erected with funds from his estate.

ROTHSCHILD, Lord (Lionel Walter) (1868-1937). B. London, elder son of Nathaniel Mayer, first Lord Rothschild. M.P. 1899-1910. Succeeded father 1915. In family banking business 1898-1908, then devoted himself to zoology, creating a museum at Tring, Hertfordshire, which he bequeathed to British Museum. Fellow of Royal Society from 1911, president of Zoology Section of British Association from 1932. Vice-president A.J.A. and B.O.D. During War he effected important contacts between Zionists and British government, and was spokesman for Z.O. in submitting draft Declaration to Arthur James Balfour. The eventual B.D. was addressed to him.

ROTHSCHILD, Nathaniel Charles (1877-1923). B. London. Younger son of Nathaniel Mayer, first Lord Rothschild. Entomologist. In family banking business, chairman of Alliance Insurance Company. With his wife Roszika (q.v.) developed active interest in Zionism from 1915, utilising their connections to aid the political activity which preceded B.D.

ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL MAYER (THE FIRST LORD ROTHSCHILD) (18401915). From 1879 head of London banking firm of N. M. Rothschild and Son. M.P. for Aylesbury, 1865, until elevation to peerage in 1885, being the first Jew to sit in the House of Lords. For many years the lay leader of the Anglo-Jewish community. Took a leading part in efforts to secure relaxation of Jewish disabilities in Russia and to ease the position of Russian Jews settling in England. Member of Royal Commission on Alien Immigration, 1902, when he first came into personal contact with Herzl, after which, though not in sympathy with Jewish nationalism, he showed a friendly interest in the El Arish and, later, in the ‘Uganda’ projects. Joined International Council of Jewish Territorial Organization (I.T.O.), founded in 1905, under the leadership of Israel Zangwill, for the purpose of establishing an autonomous Jewish settlement in any part of the world. Near the end of his life, in the changed situation created by the outbreak of war, he became favourably disposed to the idea of a Jewish home in Palestine under British protection.

ROTHSCHILD, ROBERT PHILIPPE DE (1880-1946). Communal worker in France, son of Gustav Samuel James de Rothschild, and nephew of Baron Edmond. President of Central and Paris Consistories and of French Central Relief Committee. In 1941 he left France for U.S.A., continuing with his public activities and philanthropies. After war returned to France.

ROTHSCHILD, ROSZIKA (née Wertheimstein) (1870-1940). B. Oradea Mare, then Hungary. Wife of Nathaniel Charles Rothschild (q.v.), and worked together with him to aid the political activity which preceded B.D.

ROTHSTEIN, ISAAC (?-?). Engineer. A leading Rostov Zionist in the early 1900s. Supporter of D.F. and of Jewish University project. Delegate to Minsk Conference. Later, member of Zionist Centre for South Russia.

ROVINA, HANNA (b. Russia, 1892). Foremost Israel actress. Trained as kindergarten teacher; joined Hebrew theatrical studio in Moscow 1917, and became founding member of the Habimah Theatre Company. Her best-known role was as Leah in An-Ski’s The Dybbuk. She toured with Habimah in Western Europe and the U.S., arriving with the company in Palestine in 1928. Received Israel Prize for arts, 1956.

RUBASHOV (later SHAZAR), SHNEUR ZALMAN (1889-1974). Third President of State of Israel; scholar, writer. Born Russia, joined Zionist labour movement, Poalei Zion, 1905; studied St. Petersburg and Germany, specialising in East European Jewish history, the Sabbatean movement and Bible criticism. With Poalei Zion split in 1920 he joined its right wing; lectured in history at Jewish Pedagogium in Vienna 1922-24; on A.C. from 1923. He settled in Palestine 1924, serving on Histadrut Executive 1925-49 and its daily, Davar, of which Editor-in-Chief 1944-49. On Executive of Va’ad Le’umi (National Council) from 1929; carried out numerous Zionist missions abroad. Member of Knesset 1949-59; Minister of Education and Culture 1949-51; member of J.A. Executive 1951-63, heading Dept. of Information 1952-54 and Dept. of Education and Culture in Diaspora 1954-63; Acting Chairman J.A. Executive 1956-60; President of Israel 1963-73. His prolific writings, in Hebrew, include autobiographical sketches and studies on Yiddish philology and the Jewish role in socialism.

RUPPIN, ARTHUR (1876-1943). B. Rawitsch, Province of Posen, then Germany. Economist, sociologist and jurist considered ‘father’ of Zionist colonization. Studied Berlin and Halle Universities, obtaining Doctorate. Directed Bureau for Jewish Statistics, Berlin 1904-07, and among editors of the Zeitschrift fur liidische Demographic and Statistik 1905-07. Settled in Palestine 1908. Among founders Palestine Land Development Co. 1908, its managing director until 1921, Board member 1921-38, chairman 1938-42. Directed Z.O.’s Palestine Office, Jaffa 1908-16, with central role in land acquisition and settlement. He espoused Jewish workers’ cause, insisting on their employment, with co-operation of private capital in economic development: His term of office saw such notable achievements as establishment of training farms, the first commune at Dagania, the Merhavia co-operative, urban development in Tel Aviv and Haifa, and immigration from Yemen. Among founders Education Committee of Palestine Jewry 1914. Delegate XI-XXI Z.C., 1913-39. Exiled in Constantinople 1916, engaging there in transfer of remittances to Palestine. Member Zionist Commission to Palestine 1920, on Zionist Executive (later Executive of Jewish Agency) 1921-25, 1929-31, 1933-42, A.C. 1925-29, 1931-33, and directed Colonisation Department for many years. A founding-director General Mortgage Bank of Palestine and Bank Hapoalim (Workers Bank) 1921, Palestine Agricultural Settlement Association 1936. On J.N.F. Directorate 1933-35. Seeking Arab-Jewish understanding, he was among founders Brith Shalom (`Covenant of Peace’) Society 1926, of which chairman till 1929, when Arab disturbances prompted his resignation. Directed Jerusalem office of Central Bureau for Settlement of German Jews in Palestine established 1933 by Jewish Agency. A founding-director Rassco (Rural and Suburban Settlement Co.) 1934. From 1936 directed Economic Research Institute of Jewish Agency. Lecturer (from 1938 Professor ad personam) in Sociology of Jews at Hebrew University 1926-42. A Governor of Hebrew University 1926-31, he published works on economy of Palestine and Jewish sociology.

RUSSELL, SIR JOHN (1872-1965). Chemist and soil scientist, lecturer at Victoria University of Manchester 1897-1900; instructor, Wye Agricultural College 1901-07, thereafter at Rothamsted Experimental Station 1907-43, of which Director from 1912. He led missions to Palestine, 1927, 1928, to investigate possibilities of agricultural research. Vice-President Royal Society 1941-42; Chairman Agricultural Sub-Committee UNRRA 1941-45. His autobiography, The Land Called Me publ. 1956.

RUTENBERG, Pinhas (1879-1942). B. Romny, Ukraine. Engineer, among leaders of Russian Social Revolutionary Party, taking prominent part in 1905 Russian Revolution. On its collapse fled to Italy, where he specialised in hydraulics and founded, 1914, Committee Pro Causa Ebraica. Campaigned from outbreak of World War I to raise Jewish legion to fight with Allies for liberation of Palestine. To this end, visited France and England, 1914, and U.S.A., 1915, and worked there for establishment of American Jewish Congress. Returned to Russia with overthrow of Czarist regime, 1917, joining Kerensky Government. Fled Russia again, 1919, settling in Palestine. Engaged with Jabotinsky in organizing Haganah in Jerusalem, 1920, and headed its Tel Aviv units during Jaffa disturbances May 1921. Having acquired concession to erect electric power station in 1921, he formed and directed Palestine Electric Corporation 1923-42. Helped to establish Tel Aviv Port, 1936, and Palestinian Airlines. President of Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) 1929-31, 1939-40. Resigned his first period of office when he failed to secure direct yishuv representation to level equal with Jewish Agency. Mediated between Jabotinsky and Ben-Gurion 1934, to heal rift between Histadrut and Revisionists. Member of Committee of Five, 1936, that worked for negotiations with Arab leaders. During second period of office, which he resigned for health reasons, he launched Emergency Tax to ease country’s economic situation and sought communal unity transcending party interests.

SACHE R, HARRY (1881-1971). B. London. Lawyer, journalist. On staff of Manchester Guardian, 1905-09, 1915-19, and London Daily News 1909-15. An early friend of W. in England, he was (with Simon Marks and Israel Sieff) the third member of the trio of brothers-in-law who constituted the ‘Manchester Group’ around W. An Editor of The Zionist. On E.Z.F. Executive 1907-09, 1911-12, 1917, and its Vice-President 1918-20. Delegate VIII, X, XI, XIV-XVI, XVIII Z.C. 1907, 1911, 1913, 1925-29, 1933. On P.L.D.C. Board 1912-23. Among founders, 1916, of British Palestine Committee, and of its organ Palestine, 1917, campaigning for British rule in Palestine. On London committee which drafted the Zionist proposals to the Peace Conference. In private law practice in Jerusalem from 1920, joining Preparatory Committee of the Hebrew University. The University’s Legal Adviser and a Governor from 1925. Member of Zionist Executive 1927-31, Head of its Labour and Settlement Department, Jerusalem 1927-29. On Board of Marks and Spencer, London 1932-62, and together with his brothers-in-law named above was among the principal benefactors of the Daniel Sieff Research Institute (later the Weizmann Institute of Science) from its foundation in 1934, and a Governor. Sometime member B.O.D. Executive, he was active on behalf of Jewish refugees from Germany.

SAID, NURI (1888-1958). Arab statesman, graduate of Military Academy of Istanbul. Joining the Arab revolt headed by Shereef Hussein, he was Chief of General Staff of the regular army of Emir Feisal. Minister of Defence of Iraq 1922-24, 1926-28, and frequently Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and Defence Minister 1930-58. Killed in military coup of July, 1958.

SALAMAN, Redcliffe Nathan (1874-1955). B. London. Physician and authority on plant genetics. M.D., Cambridge, 1896. Director, Pathological Institute, London Hospital, 1901-04. Captain, Royal Army Medical Corps, 1914-19, serving in Palestine, 1918-19, with 39th Royal Fusiliers (a battalion of Jewish Legion). Believing that all English Jews should serve in the Legion, he was a signatory to the call published in Jewish Chronicle urging all Jewish officers to request transfer to the Jewish Legion. President, Union of Jewish Literary Societies, 1910-11. President, Jewish Historical Society, 1920-22. Among founders of Jewish Committee for Relief Abroad and Jewish Rescue, 1943, and its president. Headed various public institutions.

SALKIND, JACOB MEIR (1875-1937). B. Kobryn, Byelorussia. In student days one of founders of Berne Zionist students’ society, Kadimah. Delegate to Z.Y.C., 1901, but did not join D.F. Later (c. 1904) moved to England, where edited London Yiddish journals, Yiddishe Stimme and Arbeiter Fraind, officiated for a time as Rabbi in Cardiff. British delegate to VIII Z.C., 1907. Went to Palestine, 1913, and took part in foundation of colony of Karkur. Returned to England, where, during First World War, engaged in pacifist propaganda. Settled permanently in Palestine in early 1930s.

SAMUEL, Herbert Louis (First Viscount of Mt. Carmel and Toxteth) (1870-1963). B. Liverpool. Statesman, first High Commissioner of Palestine. Liberal M.P., 1902-18, 1929-35. Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Home Dept., 1905-09, Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1909-10, 1915-16, Postmaster-General 1910-14, 1915-16, President of Local Government Board 1914-15, Home Secretary 1916, 1931-32. Leader of Liberal Parliamentary Party 1931-35, of Liberals in House of Lords 1944-55. Initiated legislation which in 1916 gave friendly aliens (mainly Russian Jews) the alternative of service in British Army or return to Russia. On outbreak of War, saw identity of interest of British and Zionists in Palestine, submitting memoranda to Cabinet accordingly and working for policy that resulted in B.D. Though outside the Zionist movement, worked closely with its leaders, heading the 1918 Advisory Committee that assisted the Zionist Executive in its political contacts on eve of Peace Conference. As High Commissioner of Palestine, 1920-25, he laid foundations of Civil Administration, carefully avoiding pro-Zionist partisanship and incurring severe Zionist censure because of his Arab policy, particularly following Jaffa disturbances, May 1921. Chairman of Royal Commission on Coal Industry, 1925, and associated with various learned societies. A Governor of Hebrew University from 1925, chairman of Palestine Electric Corporation 1936-54, chairman of Council for German Jewry 1936. Order of Merit, 1958. Prior to independence of Israel his proposals for Palestine embraced recognition of both Arab and Jewish national aspirations, with restriction of relative size of the Jewish population and a Middle East federation of states. Author works on philosophy, politics and memoirs.

SAMUEL, MAURICE(1895-1972). Author, lecturer and translator from Hebrew and Yiddish. B. Rumania, he was brought to Manchester in 1900, and following graduation, 1914, settled in U.S. Worked as publicist for Z.O.A. in 1920s, and member of its Administrative Committee 1927-29. He enjoyed a long association with Meyer Weisgal, through whom he came to collaboration with Weizmann on the latter’s memoirs, Trial and Error. His prolific. writings include fiction, works on Zionism, and Yiddish belles-lettres, besides an account of the Beilis Case, Blood Accusation, 1966.

SAMUEL, SIR STUART MONTAGUE (1856-1926). Banker, communal figure, brother of Sir Herbert Samuel. M.P. 1900-16; President of B.O.D. 1917-22, headed the so-called Samuel Commission sent in 1919 by British Government to Poland to examine the causes of antisemitic tension and disturbances there. On various Zionist economic bodies, and an early vice-chairman of British Mizrachi Federation.

SANDLER, AARON (1879-1954). B. Inowroclaw (Hohensalza), then province of Posen, Germany. Physician. Participated in VI, VII, IX Z.C., 1903, 1905, 1909, as proponent of ‘practical’ Zionism. On Central Committee of German Z.O., 1912-22, and its Executive 1922-28. Among initiators of Society of Jewish Physicians and Scientists for Improving Sanitary Conditions in Palestine, 1912. After First World War he was active in bringing Zionist influence and unification to Jewish communal institutions in Germany. Together with other Zionists, he established udische olkspartei, representing it from 1920 on Berlin Jewish Community Council and Union of Jewish Communities in Germany.Settling in Palestine in 1934, he was employed as a physician to the Hebrew University student body.

SAPIR, JOSEPH (1869-1935). B. Kishinev. Gynaecologist. Settled in Odessa after completing studies, and on its H.Z. Committee till this ceased existence in 1915. In 1897 joined Z.O., becoming chairman Odessa Central Committee of Zionist Societies and Zionist Regional Leader. Delegate V-XI Z.C., 1901-13, and XIII Z.C., 1923. On G.A.C. 1905-11. Following Kishinev pogrom, 1903, among organizers Jewish self-defence in Odessa. Active in Zionei-Zion (opponents of East Africa project). Founded Die Zionistishe Kopeke Bibliothek, publishing Zionist propaganda in Russian and Yiddish, and helped establish the Kadimah publishing house. Editor, 1906, Zionist weekly Kadimah and subsequently weekly Evreiskaya Mysl (`Jewish Thought’). Following First World War service as Russian army doctor, he returned Odessa to become chairman J.N.F. and last president Z.O. in South Russia. Organized relief of Jewish emigrants passing through Odessa, the self-defence force during civil war, and the smuggling out of Halutzirn (Palestinian pioneers). In 1922 he escaped to Kishinev, then in Rumania, where headed K.H. and established Die Zionistishe Folks Bibliothek. Emigrated to Palestine 1925 and directed Department of Gynaecology at Bikur-Holim hospital, Jerusalem. A painter and sculptor, he also published several books.

SCHACHTEL, HUGO HILLEL (1876-1949). B. Sulmiersehiiz, district of Posen. Dentist and Zionist writer. Student in Breslau, where he settled 1897, organizing Zionist Society there of which he was chairman for many years. Founder-editor Der Zionist, a monthly, and from 1901 on Central Committee of Organization of German Zionists. Delegate Z.C.s from IV (1900) to XV (1927). Helped Jewish University project 1902-03. A ‘practical’ Zionist, he was actively engaged J.N.F., establishing its bureau in Breslau and other Silesian cities, and conducting propaganda on its behalf. He published tracts on Zionism and the Zionist Congresses. Prominent in Breslau communal affairs, he was president of Bnei-Brith there, member of Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden and of presidium of Breslau Rabbinical Seminary. Settled in Haifa in 1932, establishing Bnei-Brith lodge there. Active in Association of German Immigrants in Palestine.

SCHAUER, RUDOLF (1869-1930). B. Mainz. Expert in International Law. Among founders, Organization of German Zionists. Chairman Zionist Society in Mainz and a leading advocate of Zionism in South and West Germany. Participated in early Z.C.s but ceased his movement activities after Herzl’s death. Lived, mostly in poverty, in Paris (from 1905), Berlin (early twenties), and finally Geneva.

SCHIFF, JACOB HENRY (1847-1920). B. Frankfurt. Banker and philanthropist. Settled in New York in 1865, and from 1885 president and senior partner of the powerful financial institution Kuhn, Loeb and Co. Served on various municipal committees in New York. Among founders of American Jewish Committee, 1906, and on its Executive 1909-20. Furthered many Jewish and general causes both by active participation and large benefactions, the relief of distressed Jewish communities overseas and the welfare of Jewish immigrants to the U.S.A. being his special concern. He was vice-president of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and financed the Galveston project for the dispersal of Jewish immigrants in America. Member of J.D.C. Council. Disapproving of the concept of Jewish nationality, he refrained from direct affiliation to Zionist movement, and he supported the Technical College at Haifa (Technion) and Agricultural Experimental Station at Atlit as institutions of international and philanthropic character. Prominently associated with war-time relief of Palestine Jewish community.

SCHIMMER (later BRITSCHGI), REGINA (INA) (1881-1949). B. Vienna. On clerical staff of Jiidischer Verlag, Berlin, 1903, and, later, of German Zionist Federation and of Publication Department of Z.O.’s Hebrew weekly organ, Ha’olam. After settling in Palestine in the 1930s, actively associated with Aliya Hadasha (German Immigrants Association) and Ihud (movement for Jewish-Arab understanding).

SCHOCKEN, SHLOMO SALMAN (1877-1959). B. Margonin, Prussia. Publisher. Having established a chain of department stores in Germany, he used his fortune to collect rare books and manuscripts and became a patron of general and Hebrew literature. Founded, 1929, Research Institute for Medieval Hebrew Poetry (transferred to Jerusalem 1934), and established Schocken Verlag in Berlin 1931 and, later, other publishing houses in Tel Aviv (1934) and New York (1945). Settled in Jerusalem 1934, but moved to America 1940. Joined Zionist movement 1910, became a member of W.Z.O.’s Financial and Economic Council and, from 1921, a Board member of J.N.F., in which capacity he was instrumental in acquiring Haifa Bay region for Fund 1928. Chairman of Executive Council of Hebrew University 1935-45, and member of its Executive until death.

SCHUSTER (later Nicholls), NORAH HENRIETTA. B. 1892, Manchester. Daughter of Arthur and Caroline Schuster, (q.v.). Studied Natural Sciences and Medicine at Cambridge and Manchester, 1912-18. Served in various medical institutions. President, Society of Clinical Pathologists 1960, member, College of Pathology 1963. Published research in Pathology and History of Medicine.

SCHUSTER, EMNIA CAROLINE ELIZABETH (1867-1963). B. Wardington, Oxfordshire. NI., 1887, Arthur Schuster, (q.v.). Close friend of W. family, she developed great sympathy for Zionism.

SCHUSTER, SIR ARTHUR (1851-1934). B. Frankfurt, of Jewish origin. Physicist and mathematician, making noteworthy contribution to Spectroscopy. Professor at Manchester University 1881-1907; Fellow of Royal Society from 1879, its Secretary 1912-24, Vice-President 1919-24. His prominence in the academic world brought him numerous honours. Knighted 1920. Friend of W., he contributed to Zionist funds and participated in inaugural ceremony of Hebrew University, 1925.

SCOTT, Charles Prestwich (1846-1932). B. Bath. Editor Manchester Guardian, 1872- 1929, its proprietor 1905-32. Strongly radical, he was a Liberal M.P. 1895-1906. Friendship with W. ensued from their meeting, September 1914, and with Turkey’s entry in War proclaimed identity of British and Zionist interests in Palestine. His journalistic and political influence proved invaluable to W., especially with regard to Lloyd George, in achievement of B.D.

SEIDENMAN, SIMON (SOLOMON) (1878-1948). B. Lublin. Lawyer. After his studies in Warsaw, 1901-07, became a leading member of the Legal Association there. For many years chief Counsel to Warsaw Jewish community and ultimately a member of its executive. Counsel to Warsaw Merchants Association. Elected to first Warsaw Municipal Council 1916, and in 1937 he was elected to Polish Sejm. A devoted Zionist from student days, he was particularly active as publicist. Inter alia, he edited, with Isaac Gruenbaum (q.v.) and Appolinary Hartglas, Glos Zydowski (`Jewish Voice’), the first Zionist periodical in Polish. Member D.F. and delegate Fourth Russian Zionist Conference at The Hague (1907). After First World War on Central Committee Polish Z.O., delegate XIII, XIV Z.C., 1923, 1925. A leader of Et-Livnot (Time to Build’) group. Chairman J.N.F. in Poland 1925-29. Escaped Poland on outbreak Second World War, reaching Palestine in 1940. Settling in Jerusalem, he was chairman of committee aiding refugees from Poland.

SENATOR, DAVID WERNER (1896-1953). B. Berlin, served with Jewish welfare organizations in Germany, then as director of ,J.D.C. Refugee Dept., 1922-24; a director in Palestine of Hamashbir (supplying consumer co-operatives and labour settlements) 1924. J.D.C. Secretary-General in Europe 1925-30; a non-Zionist member of J.A. Executive in Jerusalem, first as treasurer, then as head of immigration department, 1930-35. Administrator of H.U. 1937-49; its executive Vice-President 1949-53. Member of Brit Shalom and later of Thud.

SERENI, Angelo (1862-1936). B. Rome. Italian jurist and public figure. President, Jewish Community Council of Rome, 1896-1931, and hon. president 1931-36. Member, Rome Municipal Council, 1905-28. Chairman, Union of Italian Jewish Communities from its establishment in 1911, later its president. Accompanied Sokolow on his meetings with de Martino, Secretary-General of the Italian Foreign Ministry, and Prime Minister Paolo Boselli, May 1917, to enlist support for Zionist objectives. Helped W. to establish contacts with Italian Foreign Ministry, 1918. Active in Zionist fund-raising.

SERENI, ENZO HAYYIM (1905-1944). B. Rome. Part of a leading family, he joined Zionist movement and was among earliest in Italy to promote settlement in Palestine, himself immigrating there 1927 to become a founder of Givat Brenner kibbutz. Labour Zionist emissary among European youth 1931-34; served British army in W.W.II, active in anti-Fascist propaganda in Egypt 1940-41, on mission to Iraq 1942-43 (engaging there in clandestine Zionist educational work), then helped train Palestinian parachutists to drop behind enemy lines in Jewish rescue. In May 1944 he himself was dropped in North Italy, was captured and executed at Dachau. Nezer Sereni kibbutz was named after him, as was a cultural center in Givat Brenner.

SHAW, SIR JOHN VALENTINE (b. 1894). Following war service, he joined Colonial administration in Gold Coast, 1921-35; Asst. Chief Secretary, Palestine 1935-40; Colonial Secretary, Cyprus 1940-43; Chief Secretary, Palestine 1943-46. Governor, Trinidad and Tobago 1947-50. Attached to War Office 1950-54; chairman Commission of Inquiry into industrial disputes and riots, Sierra Leone 1955.

SHEINKIN, MENAHEM (1871-1924). B. Vitebsk. Delegate to I Z.C., 1897. Among founders of earliest Odessa society to be affiliated to Z.O. Visited Palestine 1900. Attended Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. and of its Programme Committee. Crown Rabbi, Balta, 1901-05. Elected to G.A.C. at VI Z.C., 1903. Zionist regional leader for area comprising Podoloa, Volhynia, and Bessarabia. Again visited Palestine in 1905 and settled there in 1906, becoming member of Hovevei Zion Information Bureau. One of the founders of Tel Aviv. During First World War went to U.S.A. but in 1919 returned to Palestine, where appointed Director of Z.E. Immigration Department.

SHERMAN, ISAAC (1883-1955). B. Odessa. Student at Munich and Heidelberg Universities. Attended Z.Y.C., 1901. Member of D.F. Served as link between W. and Zionist youth groups in South Russia. After outbreak of First World War settled in U.S.A.

SHERMAN, MOSES. Physician. Brother of Isaac Sherman (q.v.). B. 1881, Nikolayev. Active Zionist from 1898. Student at Odessa, Berlin, and Dorpat Universities. At Odessa leading member of Zionist students’ society. Joined D.F., 1901. Settled in Palestine, 1911. During First World War medical officer in Turkish Army. One of founders, first Chairman, and, later, President of Palestine (Israel) Medical Association.

SHERTOK (from 1948 SHARETT), MOSHE (1894-1965). B. Ukraine, brought to Palestine 1906; in first graduating class of Herzlia Gymnasium 1913. Studied law in Constantinople, commissioned in Turkish army in W.W.I. At war’s end returned to Palestine, then attended London School of Economics 1920-25, whereupon deputy editor of the Histadrut daily Davar 1925-31. Secretary of J.A. Political Dept. 1931, and following Arlosoroff’s murder in 1933 elected head of department, holding position until 1948. Led Jewish delegation at U.N. in partition debate, and on establishment of State of Israel became Foreign Minister. Prime Minister from Jan. 1954 (continuing as Foreign Minister) until Nov. 1955, and then Foreign Minister until resignation 1956. Director of Am Oved publishing house, 1956-60, thereupon chairman Z.O. and J.A. Brother-in-law of Eliyahu Golomb (q.v.).

SHIELS, SIR T. DRUMMOND (?-1953). Physician and politician. President Royal Medical Society; served in W.W. I 1914-18; member Edinburgh Town Council: M.P. (Labour) 1924-31; Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, India Office 1929, Colonial Office 1929-31.

SHIRE, MAX MENDELE (?1870-1937). B. Warsaw. Settled in London in 1880s, opening furrier’s establishment. Delegate V-VII Z.C., 1901-05. Member E.Z.F. Executive 1901-07, treasurer 1918-23. G.A.C. 1920-21. Brother-in-law of Percy Baker (q.v.).

SHNEERSON (later, FEIWEL), ESTHER (?-1964). B. Liady, Byelorussia. M. 1906, Berthold Feiwel (q.v.). Geneva student of economics and active member of Geneva Zionist students’ societies, c. 1900. Assisted W. in preparations for Z.Y.C. but in summer of 1901, before the Conference met, went home to Russia, and later in the year went for further study to Berlin, where she was in contact with Syrkin’s Zionist-Socialist group.

SHRIRO, SAMUEL (1862-1928). B. Oshmiana, Lithuania. Baku oil magnate. The first substantial contributor to fund for preparatory work on Jewish University project, 1902. Seceded from Z.O. on ‘Uganda’ issue (1905) and became a Territorialist. Left Russia after the October 1917 Revolution and died in Paris.

SHUCKBURGH, SIR JOHN EVELYN (1877-1955). Civil servant in India Office 1900-21. Transferred to C.O. 1921, where head of Middle East Dept. Deputy Under-Secretary of State at C.O. 1931-42.

SIDEBOTHAM, Herbert (1872-1940). B. Manchester. Journalist. Pseudonyms: Candidus, Scrutator, Student of Politics, Student of War. On staff of Manchester Guardian, 1895-1918, then on The Times and political adviser to Daily Chronicle. Urged support of Zionist aspirations in Palestine as British interest in Middle East. His Manchester Guardian colleague Harry Sacher introduced him to Simon Marks and Israel M. Sieff in 1916, and this resulted in formation of British Palestine Committee that worked for a Jewish Palestine under British protection. From 1917 edited Palestine, organ of the committee. Author works on Britain and Palestine, and contributor to Zionist periodicals.

SIEFF, ISRAEL MOSES (Lord Sieff of Brimpton) (1889-1972). B. Manchester. Merchant and philanthropist. Educated at Manchester University, then entered his father’s textile business. With his brothers-in-law Simon (Lord) Marks and Harry Sacher and others, formed the ‘Manchester Circle’ which from 1914 became closely identified with W.’s activities. From 1926 deputy chairman and joint managing director of Marks and Spencer Ltd., which, with Simon Marks, he built up into one of the largest chain-store organizations in the world. Board chairman from 1965, president from 1967 until death. Among founders of British Palestine Committee 1916, and its organ Palestine, 1917, to influence British opinion in favour of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine under British aegis. Member of U.K. Zionist Political Committee and London Zionist Bureau, 1917, that advised W. in negotiations leading to Balfour Declaration. Joined E.Z.F. Executive, 1917, vice-president 1918-20, 1927-39, hon. president from 1966. For some years Grand Commander, O.A.M. Hon. Secretary Zionist Commission in Palestine, 1918, later W.’s representative there and his aide at Peace Conference, 1919, and San Remo Conference, 1920. A founder of K.H., 1920, he was on its U.K. Board, and on its World Executive 1921-23. A foundation member of British Section of Jewish Agency from 1929. Together with his family, he was among the foremost contributors to K.H. and other bodies and institutions both before and after establishment of Israel, and negotiated K.H. and K.K.L. loans in Cit). of London. He and his wife Rebecca Doro Sieff founded, with W., the Daniel Sieff Research Institute at Rehovoth (nucleus of Weizmann Institute of Science), 1934, and was its principal supporter and a Governor. Active in C.B.F. and its supplementary bodies from 1933. Chairman, European Executive of World Jewish Congress. His public interests included leadership, as chairman and vier-chairman, 1931-64, of Political and Economic Planning (PEP). Created Life Baron in 1966.

SILBERSTROM, MOSES (1860-1928). Physician in Lodz, and faithful adherent of Herzl. Delegate II, III, VI, XII Z.C., 1898, 1899, 1903, 1921. He was dedicated to fostering national Jewish education in Poland, and in his latter years was active on Lodz Committee of Friends of Hebrew University.

SILVER, ABBA HILLEL (1893-1963). B. Sirvintos, Lithuania. His family migrated to. U.S.A. in 1902. Ordained rabbi at Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 1915. Appointed to pulpit of Reform temple in Cleveland, Ohio, where he remained until death. Founder and co-Chairman of United Jewish Appeal 1938-44. Headed American Zionist Emergency Council in 1943, soon developing a line of action in opposition to W. As Chairman of American section of Jewish Agency, presented Z.O. case before U.N. Assembly 1947. Z.O.A. President 1945-47. Author many works of Zionist and general Jewish history.

SIMON, JAMES (1851-1932). B. Berlin. Merchant, philanthropist, art collector-Among founders Deutsche Orient G’esellschaft, and its Secretary from 1904. Founding chairman, 1901-32, Hilfsverein der deutschen juden, Chairman of Curatorium (governing body) formed 1909 to plan Technical College at Haifa (Technion). On I.C.A. Council 1910-29.

SIMON, Julius (1875-1969). B. Mannheim. Merchant. Delegate VI -XII Z.C., 1903-21. Though voting for East Africa project at VI Congress, he subsequently joined the `practicals’ against it. On G.A.C. 1911-21, J.C.T. Board 1913-20. Associated with W. in preparations for Hebrew University 1913-14. Moved to the Hague 1915, joining K.K.L. Board there 1916, and Zionist Political Committee established there 1917. Came to London late 1918 at W.’s invitation, and directed Palestine Department of Central Zionist Office, with membership of Executive and K.H. Board 1920-21. Supported Brandeis group in the controversy with W. over economic policy to be pursued in Palestine. He took the view that the political functions of the Z.O. had now ceased, and as a consequence resigned his offices. Thereafter engaged in commercial life in U.S.A., concurrently active in economic development of Palestine through the Palestine Economic Corporation, of which body he was a founder 1925, President 1931-51, Hon. President until his death. He directed its operations in Palestine 1933-49, a capacity which gave him a prominent role in the birth of basic industries there.

SIMON, SIR LEON (1881-1965). B. Southampton. After studying Classics and Philosophy at Oxford entered British Post Office 1904. Director, Telegraphs and Telephones, 1931-35, Post Office Savings Bank 1935-44. A noted Hebrew scholar and disciple of Ahad Ha’am, he was the latter’s translator and biographer, and W.’s close friend. Gave long service on E.Z.F. Executive, delegate X, XI Z.C., 1911, 1913, and an Editor of The Zionist. Member of Zionist Political Committee in London, 1917, and of Zionist Commission in Palestine in London, 1917, and of Zionist Commission in Palestine 1918. In Palestine 1946-53, as Chairman of Executive Committee of Hebrew University 1946-49 and of its Board of Governors 1949-50. Board Chairman of Judah L. Magnes Press, 1948-53. In 1950 was engaged in establishment of Post Office Bank in Israel, which he directed until 1953. Received C.B. 1931, Knighthood 1944. Author of works on Zionism, translated Plato into Hebrew.

SIMPSON, SIR JOHN HOPE (1868-1961). B. Liverpool. In Indian Civil Service 1889-1916. Liberal M.P. 1922-24. Vice-President of Refugee Settlement Commission in Athens of Anatolian Greeks 1926-30. His report on land settlement, immigration and development in Palestine served as basis for Passfield White Paper of 1930. Director-General National Flood Relief Commission, China 1931-33; Commissioner for Natural Resources Commission of Government of Newfoundland 1934-36. Author of studies on refugee problem.

SINCLAIR, SIR ARCHIBALD HENRY (1890-1970). Liberal Party leader 1935-45, strong Zionist sympathiser. Personal Military Secretary to War Minister 1919-21; Private Secretary to Colonial Secretary 1921-22; M.P. 1922-45; Chief Liberal Whip 1930-31; Secretary of State for Scotland 1931-32; Air Minister 1940-45. Cr. Viscount Thurso 1952.

SLOUSCH, NAHUM (1872-1966). Orientalist. B. Odessa. Hovey Zion from his youth. As student in Geneva (1898-9) and Paris (1899-1904) member of Zionist students societies and correspondent of Hebrew periodicals in Russia. Delegate to II Z.C., 1898 and all succeeding Congresses up to and including Seventh, 1905. Took part in Z.Y.C., 1901, but became active opponent of D.F. On ‘Uganda’ issue a pro-Ugandist and, later, joined Territorialist secession from Z.O. Returned to Zionism after the Balfour Declaration and settled in Palestine in 1919.

SMEDLEY (later MacLean), IDA (?-1944). Chemist. Lecturer at Manchester University 1907-10, then at Lister Institute in London. Published research in metabolism of fats. Friend of W. family.

SMILANSKY, MOSHE (1874-1953). Pseudonyms: Heruti, Hawaja Mussa. B. near Kiev, Ukraine. Hebrew writer settling in Palestine as agricultural pioneer 1890. A founder of Hadera, he moved to Rehovot 1893 as an orange grower. Among founders, 1903, of Hitandut HaMoshavot Birehudah (Association of Agricultural Settlements in Judea), whose Chairman he became during World War I, and of Hitandut Halkkarim Berisrael (Farmers’ Federation of Israel, founded 1922), which he headed during its early years. Served in Jewish Legion 1918, and subsequently a faithful supporter of W.’s views. Devoted to acquisition of land in Negev, he was founding editor of Farmers’ Federation periodical Bustanai, 1929-39, and participated in unofficial, unpublicised talks with’ Arab leaders 1936. Opposed struggle of rishuu against British regime in Palestine during 1940s and was among founders’ of Ihud (`Unity’) group advocating Jewish-Arab rapprochement. Author, works on Jewish agricultural settlement in Palestine, autobiographical novels and tales of Arab life.

SOKOLOW (later MENDELSON ; HEYMAN), MARIA (1880-1969). Daughter of Nahum Sokolow, sister of Florian and Henrik (q.v.). Attended I Z.C., 1897, as young journalist accompanying her father. Studied in Switzerland early in century. Associated with D.F., delegate VI Z.C., 1903. Later employed in I.C.A. Bureau in Warsaw and on newspaper belonging to her first husband, Stanislav Mendelson. On his death 1913, she married Dr. Stephen Heyman. During First World War employed in secretariat of Zionist administration in Berlin, and subsequently lived in England and Italy.

SOKOLOW, TINRIK ISAAC HIRSCH (HENYO, HENYA) (1883-1929). B. Warsaw, son of Nahum Sokolow, brother of Florian and Maria (q.v.). M. Helena Krinsky. Electrical engineer. While student in Warsaw arrested and banished by the authorities, continuing studies in Germany. He finally settled in Berlin.

SOKOLOW, FLORIAN EPHRAIM (1887-1967). B. Warsaw, son of Nahum Sokolow, brother of Henrik and Maria (q.v.). Journalist. Studied at Universities in Russia, Berlin, and Paris. Edited various periodicals in Poland. Emigrated to England 1932 and became correspondent of Gazeta Polska, contributing also to Press in Britain, United States, and various East European countries. During Second World War he was a Polish commentator for British Broadcasting Corporation.

SOKOLOW, NAHUM (1861-1936). One of the most prolific and most widely read Jewish writers of his age and one of the foremost figures in the post-Herzlian development of the Zionist Movement. B. Vishogrod, Russian Poland. Educated with view to becoming a Rabbi but, after settling in Warsaw towards end of 1870s, drifted into journalism and in 1881 became editor of Hebrew daily Hazefirah. Not a Hovey Zion, but after attending I Z.C., 1897, converted to Zionism and took active part, especially as advocate of cultural work, in early Zionist Congresses and in Minsk Conference, 1902. Assisted in campaign for Jewish University project in Warsaw and Lodz, 1903. General Secretary of Z.O., at its Cologne Central Office, 1907-9. Visited London, 1906, on mission on behalf of Russian Jewry. In 1907 founded Hebrew weekly organ of Z.O., Ha’olam. Elected to S.A.C. at X Z.C., 1911 and re-elected at XI Z.C., 1913. Came to London at end of 1914 and closely associated with W. in discussions leading to, and following on, Balfour Declaration, in connexion with which undertook missions to French and Italian Governments and to the Holy See. President of Committee of Jewish Delegations at Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Presided at all Zionist Congresses from Twelfth (1921) to Sixteenth (1929). Elected President of Z.E. at XII Z.C., 1921 and held that office until 1931. President of Zionist Organization, 1931-5. Appointed President of K.H., 1935.

SOLOVEICHIK, MAX (1883-1957), later Mordechai Solieli. Lithuanian Minister for Jewish Affairs 1919-21. On Zionist Executive 1921-23, resigning over disagreement with W.’s policies. A founder of Radical Zionist faction. Elected to Administrative Committee of enlarged Jewish Agency 1929. Settled in Palestine 1933. Head of Education Dept. of Va’ad Leumi (Jewish National Council) 1944-48. Director of Kol Yisrael, Israel Broadcasting, 1948.

SOSKIN, EVGENY (SELIG) (1873-1959). Agronomist. B. Crimea. As Berlin student among first to join Russian-Jewish Academic Society. Worked in Palestine as agronomist, 1896-1903. Member of Zionist exploratory mission to El Arish, 1902. D.F. delegate to VII Z.C., 1903. Directed German plantation companies in Africa, 1903-15. A leading member of Zionist Revisionist Organization (as to which see below, s.n. Tyornkin), 1927-33. Helped to establish Jewish State party, 1933. Settled in Palestine, 1933. One of the founders of Nahariya and author of plans for cultivation by hydroponic methods in Palestine.

SPANIEN, JOSEPH (1862-1935). B. Betygala, province of Kovno. Goldsmith and jeweller. Resident of Paris from 1883. Helped to bring W. into contact with Baron Edmond de Rothschild, with whom he was closely associated. Pioneer of Zionism in France, working in the movement with Jacques Bramson (q.v.). Vice-president of French Zionist Federation from 1917.

SPIRE, ANDRE (1868-1966). B. Nancy. Poet. Official of French Ministry of Labour 1898-1902 and of Ministry of Agriculture 1902-26. Active dreyfusard and militant Zionist. In 1918 he founded Lague des Amis du Sionisme. Member of delegation presenting Zionist case to Paris Peace Conference 1919. Following a rift with W. in 1920, Spire withdrew from active participation in Zionist movement. In U.S.A. during World War II he supported Hillel Kook’s Hebrew National Liberation Movement.

SPRINZAK, JOSEPH (1885-1959). B. Moscow, moved to Warsaw 1891, co-founder of Ze’irei Zion movement in southern Russia, and its delegate to Helsingfors Conference 1906. In 1908 he came to Palestine as secretary of Hapoel Hatzair, remaining during W.W.I. and organizing relief work. Elected to Zionist Executive 1921, heading its Labour Dept. until 1927 and Aliyah Dept. 1929-31; co-founder and leading member of Histadrut; on Tel Aviv municipality, Assefat Hanivharim (Jewish elective assembly) 1920-48, and Va’ad Leumi 1931-46. Prominent in formation of Mapaz, he was General-Secretary of Histadrut 1945-48; chairman of Zionist General Council from 1946 until death. Chairman of Provisional Council of State 1948, first Speaker of Knesset 1949-59.

STANLEY, OLIVER FREDERICK GEORGE (1896-1950). Son of 17th Earl of Derby, he first entered Parliament as Conservative in 1924. Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Home Office 1931-33; Minister of Transport 1933-34; Minister of Labour 1934-35; President Board of Education 1935-37; President Board of Trade 1937-40; Secretary of State for War 1940; Secretary of State for Colonies 1942-45. Chancellor of Liverpool University from 1948.

STEED, HENRY WICKHAM (1871-1956). Journalist. As correspondent of The Times in Berlin, 1896, he first made the acquaintance of Theodor Herzl and retained close interest in Zionist movement. Correspondent of The Times in Rome 1897-1902, in Vienna 1902-03; foreign editor 1914-19; editor 1919-22. Proprietor and editor of Review of Reviews 1923-30. Lecturer in European history at London University 1925-38; broadcaster and prolific author.

STEIN, LEONARD JACQUES (1887-1973), O.B.E. B. London. Barrister. Among founders at Oxford of first student Zionist society in England, 1906. President of Oxford Union 1910. While on army service he was stationed in Palestine, 1918,1,9, as Staff Captain and Military Governor of Salad, then joined political staff at G.H.Q., Cairo. Z.O. Political Secretary, with brief interval, 1920-29. Legal Adviser to Jewish Agency 1929-39, drafting memoranda for submission to such bodies as Royal Commission, 1936, and Woodhead Commission, 1938. Participated in St. James’s Conference, 1939, and opposed partition of Palestine. As president of A.J.A., and chairman of its Joint Foreign Committee with B.O.D., 1939-49, he opposed Biltmore Programme for a Jewish State, favouring a Jewish national home in whole of Palestine under British protection. Council-member of I.C.A., 1939-67. On Board of Jewish Chronicle from 1936. President, Jewish Historical Society of England, 1964-65. Author of classic work, The Balfour Declaration, 1961. On Editorial Board and Editorial Committee, Weizmann Letters, and editor of Vols. I and VII thereof.

STEIN, LUDWIG (1859-1930). Pseudonyms: Eduard Volmer, Diplomaticus. B. Erdoebenye, Hungary. Philosopher, rabbi, and journalist. Studied at Berlin University from 1876 and at Rabbinical Seminary there, where ordained. Preacher in Berlin 1881-83, and among founders Society for Jewish History and Literature. Lectured in history of philosophy at University and Polytechnic in Zurich from 1886, professor 1888-90. Professor of Philosophy at Berne University 1891-1910. President International Institute of Sociology 1909-11. Lecturer Humboldt Academy in Berlin 1911-24. Author many works, among them volume of Memoirs, correspondent several newspapers and active in international diplomacy, particularly after War. Founder-editor Archiv fiir Geschichte der Philosophic 1887-1929 and Nord and Siid 1912-29. Although not a Zionist, he was friend of Herzl and Nordau and sought to help Zionist movement through his extensive connections. Visited Palestine 1885 and returned pessimistic about its colonization potential. Later revised his views and during twenties joined Committee for Palestine in Germany.

STIFF, NAHUM (1879-1933). B. Rovno, Ukraine. In early 1900s member of Kiev Zionist students society, Kadimah. Delegate to Minsk Conference, 1902. Active member of Jewish Self-Defence Organization after Kishinev pogrom, 1903. Later, among leaders of the Socialist Jewish Workers’ Party (`Seymists’), and of Dubnow’s ‘Popular Party’, as to which see above, s.n. Perelman. After Russian Revolution of Oct. 1917 lived for a time in Berlin but later returned to Russia, where he became a leading authority on Yiddish language and literature.

STORRS, Sir Ronald Henry (1881-1955). B. Bury St. Edmunds. Senior British official in Middle East. Began public service in 1904 at Ministry of Finance, Cairo, and held various posts until 1909. Oriental Secretary of British Mission, Cairo, 1909-17, and adviser to Sir Henry MacMahon in his exchanges with Sherif Hussein of Mecca, 1915-16. Secretary of Foreign Office committee reviewing British policy towards Egypt, 1917. Military Governor of Jerusalem, 1917-20. Governor of Cyprus, 1926-32. Governor of Northern Rhodesia, 1932-34. Member, London County Council, 1937-45. Author, works on military subjects and memoirs.

STRAUS, ISAAC (1881-1933). B. Karlsruhe. Merchant. Obtained Doctorate in Medicine, Freiburg 1912, but did not practice. Delegate X, XI Z.C., 1911, 1913. Co-operated actively with W. in preparations for Hebrew University 1913-14. In U.S.A. from 1915, conducting pro-German propaganda among the Jews,. in which connection he founded American Jewish Chronicle. Lived in Berlin from 1920, Basle from 1924. Owned factories in Berlin, Basle and Munich. President of Swiss Z.O. 1927-30.

STRAUS, NATHAN (1848-1931). B. Otterberg, Germany. Merchant, philanthropist, public figure in New York. Brother of Oscar and Isidor Straus. Among his foremost benefactions was a network of pasteurised milk stations throughout the U.S.A., and a T.B. Prevention Clinic, 1909. He gave financial support to the Agricultural Experimental Station at Atlit, 1909, and acquired land intended for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His other activities were mainly concerned with public health in Palestine: a Health Centre and ‘Pasteur’ Institute in Jerusalem, 1912, 1913; projects of the Hadassah women’s organization; the Nathan and Lina Straus Health Centre established 1929. He supported Bnei Binyamin, an organization of families of pre-1914 settlers. President of American Jewish Congress from its inception in 1922 to 1924.

STRAUS, OSCAR SOLOMON (1850-1926). B. Otterberg, Germany. Statesman, lawyer, and author, active in Jewish public life in America. U.S. Minister, later Ambassador, in Constantinople 1887-89, 1898-1900, 1909-10, interceding there for Jews of Palestine. U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labour 1906-9. U.S. representative, Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague. Philanthropist, concerned with alleviation condition of Russian Jewry, and on behalf immigrants in U.S. Proposed to Herzl, 1899, Mesopotamia rather than Palestine as region attainable for Jewish settlement. Among founders I.T.O. in America, 1906, and of American Jewish Committee in same year. Author, mainly works of political science.

STUPNITSZKY, SAUL ISAAC (1876-1942). Publicist. B. Bielsk, Lithuania. As Berne student in later 1890s helped to found Berne Zionist Academic Society. Secretary of Jewish University Bureau in Geneva, 1903. D.F. delegate to VI Z.C., 1903. On ‘Uganda’ issue joined Territorialist secession (1905) from Z.O. Perished during Second World War in Warsaw Ghetto.

SUARLS, EDGAR (?-1924). Banker (Edgar Snares et Cie.) and public figure. A founder of Egyptian land mortgage bank, Credit Foncier Egyptien. On Jewish Community Council in Alexandria, and its President 1914-17. President, Palestine ewish Relief Fund assisting refugees in Alexandria, 1915-19. Though non-Zionist, he favoured the opening of Palestine to Jewish immigrants, with Jewish autonomy under British aegis.

SULLAM, Angelo (1881-1971). B. Venice. Jurist, public worker, pioneer of Zionism in Italy. Founding president of Zionist association in Venice, 1903. Participated in VI, IX Z.C., 1903, 1909. Member, East Africa Commission which explored possibilities of Jewish settlement there. Adviser on Palestine Affairs to Italian Foreign Ministry and active in affairs of Jews in Balkans and Mediterranean basin, 1917-19. President, Jewish community in Venice, 1919-29. Member, Union of Italian Jewish Communities. President, Italian Committee for Assistance to Jewish Immigrants, 1921-24. Served as Adviser to Allied Powers on matters of soil improvement and irrigation, 1944-45. Wrote on Italian legal and economic problems.

SULZBERGER, CYRUS LEOPOLD (1858-1932). B. Philadelphia. Merchant, public figure and philanthropist chiefly concerned with American-Jewish immigrant welfare. A founder and Executive member American Jewish Committee 1906. Briefly active in Z.O., he supported East Africa project at VI Z.C., 1903. Vice-president F.A.Z. 1904-06. G.A.C. 1905, resigning to establish American Federation of I.T.O., of which a member International Council from 1907.

SYKES, Sir Mark (1879-1919). B. London. Diplomat. Specialised in Middle Eastern affairs. Private Secretary to Minister for Irish Affairs 1904-05, Hon. Attache of British Embassy in Constantinople 1905-07. Conservative M.P. from 1911, succeeding to Baronetcy 1913. Seconded 1915 to General Staff as expert on Oriental questions. Engaged in diplomatic and intelligence missions in Middle East and conducted negotiations resulting in Sykes-Picot Agreement, May 1916, and attached to Imperial Defence Committee as liaison officer for Middle East. Asst. Secretary to War Cabinet from December 1916. His contacts with Zionist leaders, early 1917, convinced him of similarity of Zionist and British interests in Palestine, and his collaboration with Zionists was based on his hope that Armenians, Arabs and Jews would live amicably as national units connected with France and Britain. Late 1917 he established Zionist-Armenian-Arab Committee in London, but his 1918 visit to Palestine and Syria persuaded him of conflict of interest between these elements. On British delegation to Peace Conference. Published books on travel in Middle East.

SYRKIN, NAumAN (1868-1924). B. Mohilev. Hovev Zion from his youth. As Berlin student among first to join Russian-Jewish Academic Society. Delegate to I Z.C., 1897 and to all succeeding Congresses up to and including the Seventh (1905). At II Z.C., 1898, appeared as a Zionist Socialist. In 1901 published ‘Manifesto to Jewish Youth’ setting out Z.-S. ideas and founded in Berlin the Z.-S. Hessiana Society. During V Z.C., 1901, initiated discussions leading to the formation of Cheirus group, founded with object of forcing I.C.A. to co-operate with Z.O., but later turned into Zionist-Socialist organization. On ‘Uganda’ issue joined Territorialist secession (1905) from Z.O. Headed Zionist-Socialist Workers’ Party in Russia, 1905-07. Settled in U.S.A., 1907 and became a leading figure in the American branch of the Poole Zion. Member of Committee of Jewish Delegations at Paris Peace Conference, 1919.

SZOLD, HENRIETTA (1860-1945). Educator, social worker and founder of Hadassah. Born Baltimore, she was a teacher for nearly 15 years; literary secretary of Jewish Publication Society of America 1893-1916; moved to New York 1902. In 1914 became first President of Hadassah; organized American Zionist Medical Unit, which went to Palestine in 1918. She directed this unit, the nucleus of the Hadassah Medical Organi-zation, in Palestine from 1920. Returned to U.S. in 1923, but joined Palestine Zionist Executive 1927, with portfolio of health and education, and in 1930 she took charge of Dept. of Social Welfare of Va’ad Le’umi. In 1934 Miss Szold became the leader of Youth Aliyah. Upon her initiative a centre for research, publication and co-ordination of youth activities was founded in 1940, and named Mosad Szold after her death.

SZOLD, ROBERT (born 1889). Jurist, Asst. Attorney-General in Puerto Rico (1915) and Asst. U.S. Solicitor General (1915-18). American member of Zionist Commission, 1919. Szold aligned himself with the Brandeis-Mack forces, and in 1930 when the Z.O.A. formally recalled the Brandeis-Mack leadership he served as chairman of administration until 1932. He opposed the 1937 proposal for the partition of Palestine, but in 1946 supported W.’s policy of negotiation with the British. On numerous bodies connected with Palestine’s economy.

TEGART, SIR CHARLES AUGUSTUS (1881-1946). Police officer in India, 1901-31, specialist in anti-terrorist measures. Member of Council of India, 1932-36; in Palestine 1937-39, he devised a security fence along the northern frontier (‘Tegart wall’) to prevent infiltration of Arab terrorist bands, and a system of police stations (‘Tegart forts’) at strategic points throughout the country.

THOMAS, JAMES HENRY (1874-1949). British Trade Union leader. Labour M.P. 1910-36 (Nat. Labour from 1931). Colonial Secretary 1924, 1931, 1935-36. Lord Privy Seal and Minister of Employment 1929-30; Dominions Secretary 1930-35. Found to have made unauthorised disclosures of budget proposals in 1936, and following this he resigned and withdrew from public life.

THOMPSON, DOROTHY (1894-1961). U.S. writer. In Europe following W.W. I as free-lance newspaperwoman with syndicated column on international affairs called ‘On the Record’. Head of Berlin Bureau of New York Evening Post, expelled by Nazis in early 1930s. President of American PEN Club 1936-40. Her second husband was the novelist Sinclair Lewis. Until 1948 she wrote and lectured extensively on behalf of Zionism and plight of European Jewry, but subsequently supported the Palestinian Arab cause.

THON, JACOB JOHANAN (1880-1950). B. Lemberg. Jurist. Galician Zionist leader and prominent communal figure in Palestine. Among leaders Emuna Student Zionist Society, Lemberg, and editor of the Polish-language youth monthly Moriya. Editor Palastina 1907. Assistant to Ruppin (q.v.) in Bureau for Jewish Statistics in Berlin 1904-07, in editing Zeitschrift fur judische Demographie and Statistik, and at Z.O.’s Palestine office on emigration there from 1908 (succeeding Ruppin as director 1916-20). Delegate VIII, X, XIII Z.C., 1907, 1911, 1923. Among founders Palestine Land Development Co. 1908, Board member from 1909, managing director 1921-50. Supported cause of Jewish labour in Palestine and actively engaged in land purchase and settlement. Member Board of Supervisors, Hebrew High Schools of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Member Educational Committee of Palestine Jewry from 1914, its chairman 1919. During First World War was among organizers of relief activity for Jewish community and member of its Political Committee. After the British military occupation he became one of the organizers of the Jewish Community Council in Jerusalem. President Jewish Provisional Committee in Palestine 1918-20. Director Department of Lands, Statistics and Law of Zionist Commission to Palestine 1919. Delegate Jewish Elected Assembly (Asefat Hanivharim) 1920-47, On presidium Jewish National Council (Va’ad Leumi) 1920-25, its vice-chairman 1925-29. Among founders General Mortgage Bank of Palestine 1921, Meshek Co. 1923, director Rassco (Rural and Suburban Settlement Co.). Active in Hapoel Hatzair (Young Worker’s Party) and in Mapai (Palestine Labour Party) upon its absorption there, contributing to periodical Hamel Hatzair. Among founders Brith Shalom (`Covenant of Peace’) Society 1926, member League for Jewish-Arab Rapprochement and Cooperation. Wrote mainly on Jewish statistics.

THORPE, SIR JOCELYN FIELD (1872-1940). B. London. Chemist. Lecturer Manchester University from 1899, Sorby Research Fellow of Royal Society 1909-13. Professor London University 1914-38. Member Council of Royal Society 1923-25. President Chemical Society 1928-31. On various governmental enquiry and consultative committees. Authored works on chemistry.

TIETZ, LUNWIO (1897-1933). Physician, communal worker, member of well-known German family of department store owners. Vice-President of Central-Verein (‘Central Union of German Citizens of Jewish Faith’); co-founder 1933 of Zentralausschuss fuer Hilfe and Aufbau (`Central Committee for Relief and Reconstruction), President of Reichsausschuss der juedischen jugendverbande in Deutschland (`National Committee for Jewish Youth Organizations in Germany). Participated in founding J.A. in Germany. In 1936 the Ludwig Tietz vocational school was established in Yagur in his memory.

TOLKOWSKY, Samuel (1886-1965). B. Antwerp. Agronomist. Immigrating to Palestine 1911 he engaged in citrus cultivation. Served in Belgian Army at the beginning of World War I, moving to London early in 1915 and joining Zionist Political Committee there, 1917-18. Drafted memorandum on Palestine boundaries. General Secretary of Zionist delegation to Peace Conference, 1918, returning to Palestine 1919. On Tel Aviv City Council 1921-25, with chairmanship Town Planning Committee and Arab-Jewish Committee for construction of Jaffa port. On Tel Aviv Committe of Haganah from its foundation, 1921. A founder, 1925, of Jaffa Fruit Company marketing citrus overseas, its director until 1934; and of Citrus Exporters Association, 1929, of which chairman 1934-40. Associated with governmental committees relating to various aspects of the economy, he was prominent in Farmers’ Association and Tel Aviv-Jaffa Chamber of Commerce. Founding chairman Israel Maritime League, 1937-48, and Zim Navigation Company 1945-49. Hon. Swiss Consul in Tel Aviv, Jaffa and Haifa, 1934-39. Consul-General of Israel in Zurich, 1949-51, Minister in Berne 1951-56. On Board of Jerusalem Post (formerly Palestine Post), from 1932. Author works on history of Palestine and citriculture.

TRIETSCH, DAVIS (DAVID) (1870-1935). B. Dresden. Joined Z.O. at its inception but, contrary to the then accepted policy of the Movement, pressed for immediate colonizing activity. Promoted formation of Society for Jewish Settlement in the East, 1903. On editorial board of the Berlin German-language Jewish periodicals, Ost and West, 1901-02, and Pallistina (published by the Jiidischer Verlag, of which he was managing director), 1902-03. Prolific writer on Jewish statistics, emigration, and colonization. Member of D.F. On the ‘Uganda’ issue an anti-Ugandist. Elected to G.A.C. at VI Z.C., 1903. During First World War advocated Zionist co-operation with Germany. Settled in Palestine, 1932; one of the founders of Ramat Hashavim.

TRUMAN, HARRY S. (1884-1972). President of U.S.A. (Democrat) April 1945-Jan. 1953. His public career began as a judge in Missouri, 1922-34. U.S. Senator for Missouri from 1934. He was Vice-President for three months when he succeeded Roosevelt to the Presidency. Truman pressed the British for immediate admission of 100,000 Jewish survivors to Palestine in 1945, a request which the British met with their proposal for a joint Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. He campaigned to repeal the U.S. immigration law regarding Displaced Persons enacted by the 80th Congress, which he regarded as discriminating against Jews and Catholics. He supported, against the State Department’s stand, the partitioning of Palestine and establishment of a Jewish State as proposed by UNSCOP, 1947, and the inclusion of Negev within that state. Again over-riding State Department hesitations, he gave de facto recognition to Israel immediately on its establishment.

TRUMPELDOR, JOSEPH (1880-1920). Soldier and agricultural pioneer. B. Pyatigorsk, he was drafted into the Russian Army in 1902, and was captured in Russo-Japanese War (1904), in which he lost his left arm. Promoted to senior non-commissioned rank. After two years in captivity, he returned to Russia, immigrating o Palestine as agricultural labourer in 1912. With outbreak of W.W. I went to Alexandria where he formed Zion Mule Corps, with which he saw action as deputy commander at Gallipoli. On the corps’ disbandment he joined Jabotinsky in London in efforts to form Jewish Legion. In 1917 he left for Russia, establishing the fie-Halutz movement of which he became chairman (1919). He returned to Palestine and organized defence of Jewish settlements in Upper Galilee. Killed March 1920 in an Arab attack on Tel Hai. Trumpeldor became a symbol of pioneering and armed defence in Eretz Israel.

TSCHERNIKOVSKY, SAUL (SHAUL) (1875-1943). One of the founders of the modern school of Hebrew poetry. B. Crimea. Associated with Hovevei Zion movement from his early years in Odessa and member of Zionist societies in his student days at Heidelberg and Lausanne. Settled in Palestine, 1931.

TSCHLENOW, YEHIEL (1863-1918). Physician. B. Kremenchug, Ukraine. In early 1880s one of the founders of Bilu and Bnei Zion societies in Moscow and an active Hovev Zion. At II Z.C., 1898, elected to G.A.C., and served as Zionist regional leader for Moscow area. Chairman of Russian Zionist Conferences at Minsk, 1902, and Helsingfors, 1906. Member of Council (Aufsichtsrat) of J.C.T. and of directorate of J.N.F. On ‘Uganda’ issue (1903-05) one of the leaders of the anti-Ugandists. Elected to S.A.C. at XI Z.C., 1913, and, abandoning a large medical practice, moved to the Zionist Central Office in Berlin. In London, as representative together with Sokolow, of S.A.C. during first half of 1915, after which returned to Russia, where in 1917, between the March and October revolutions, he came forward as the representative spokesman of the Russian Zionists. Came to London in October 1917, shortly before the Balfour Declaration and died there early in 1918.

TULIN, Abraham (1883-1973). B. Besdjez, Russia. American lawyer. Graduated from Harvard, 1906, and in commercial practice till 1919. Assistant to Herbert Hoover in American Relief Administration and Supreme Economic Council of Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Headed American Mission to Soviet Russia and Armenia, 1919, and on American delegation to London Zionist Conference, 1920. Participated in XV, XVII-XVIII Z.C., 1927, 1931-33. Deputy Member, G.A.C., 1931-33, on Z.O.A. Executive, 1919-20, 1929-33, American Zionist Emergency Council, 1940-47. Chief Counsel, Jewish Agency and American Zionist bodies before Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 1945, and U.N. General Assembly, 1947. Director, American Technion Society, 1940-51, vice-president, 1951-56. Board chairman, 1956-61, hon. chairman, 1961-73.

TWEEDSMUIR, LORD (SIR JOHN BUCHAN, 1875-1940). Author and administrator. Assistant Private Secretary to Lord Milner in South Africa 1901-03; on headquarters British Army in France 1916-17; Director of Information under Prime Minister 1917-18; M.P. (Cons.) 1927-35; Lord High Commissioner, Church of Scotland, 1933-34; Governor-General of Canada 1935-40. As John Buchan he was chairman of Parliamentary Pro-Palestine Committee and author of many works of non-fiction, besides his well-known novels of adventure.

TYOMKIN, VLADIMIR (ZEEV) (1861-1927). B. Yelizavetgrad, Ukraine. In early 1880s, while student in St. Petersburg, went over from Russian revolutionary movement to Hovevei Zion. Appointed head of Jaffa Bureau of Hovevei Zion Odessa Committee, 1891. Crown Rabbi, Yelizavetgrad, 1894-1914. At II Z.C., 1898, at which he spoke in favour of cultural work, elected to G.A.C., and served as Zionist regional leader for Yelizavetgrad area. On ‘Uganda’ issue, 1904-5, an anti-Ugandist. After First World War, joined Revisionist Party founded by Jabotinsky in 1925 in opposition to the then Zionist leadership, and was for a time President of the Union of Zionist Revisionists.

UNTERMYER, SAMUEL (1858-1940). B. Virginia. Lawyer. K.H. President in U.S.A. from its inception 1921. During 1930s served as President of Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League, and was among organisers of boycott of imports from Nazi Germany in U.S.A.

USSISHKIN, MENAHEM MENDEL (1863-1941). B. Dubrovna, Byelorussia. A Hovev Zion from his youth. One of the founders of Moscow Bilu Society (1882) and Bnei Zion Society (1884). Member of Bnei Moshe. Attended I Z.C., 1897. Elected to G.A.C., II Z.C., 1898, and served as Zionist regional leader for the Yekaterinoslav area. Took a leading part in Minsk Conference, 1902. Visited Palestine, 1903. In ‘Uganda’ controversy leading figure in anti-Ugandist group (Zione Zion), and promoter of Kharkov Conference of Russian Zionist regional leaders, 1903, from which delegation sent to Herzl to demand abandonment of ‘Uganda’ project. Member of S.A.C., 1905-07. Chairman from 1906 of Hovevei Zion Odessa Committee. At XI Z.C., 1913, supported project for Jewish University in Palestine. Member of Committee of Jewish Delegations at Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Settled in Palestine, 1919, and served as head of Zionist Commission until its replacement in 1921 by Palestine section of Z.E., of which he became Chairman. Appointed President of directorate of J.N.F., 1923, and thenceforth concentrated his activities on acquisition and development of land for Jewish settlement. Chairman of S.A.C. from 1935. At XX Z.C., 1937, a leading opponent of the partition proposals of the Peel Commission.

VAN VRIESLAND, SIEGFRIED ADOLF (1886-1939). B. Holland, practiced law in Amsterdam. Secretary of Z.F. in Netherlands before W.W. I. Settling in Palestine, 1919, he joined the Zionist Commission. Treasurer of Zionist Executive 1919-29 (full member 1923-27). Dutch Consul-General in Palestine from 1929, when he joined Board of Dead Sea Potash Company. Manager of Tel Aviv port 1936-39.

VANSITTART, ROBERT GILBERT, LORD (1881-1957). Senior F.O. official 1919. Served Paris, Teheran, Cairo, Stockholm; Counsellor in Diplomatic Service 1920; Secretary to Curzon 1920-24; Asst. Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Principal Private Secretary to P.M. 1928-30; Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1930-38; Chief diplomatic adviser to Foreign Secretary 1938-41. He advocated a punitive peace for Germany in W.W. II.

VEIT, SIGMUND (1863-1945). B. Sandhausen, Baden, but lived from childhood at Basle. Active in Zionism from late 1890s and elected to G.A.C. at II Z.C., 1898, but in later life took no part in Zionist affairs.

VINAVER, MAXIM MOISEEVICH (1862-1926). B. Warsaw. Lawyer, communal and political leader in Russia. Established bureau for legal aid to Russian Jews 1901. Founding-chairman League for Attainment of Equal Rights for Jewish People in Russia 1905. Among founders Constitutional-Democratic Cadet Party 1905, and vice-chairman of its group in First Imperial Duma 1906. Founder of Jewish Folks-Gruppe 1907, and a contributing-editor of Voskhod Attic in Society for Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia. Chairman, Jewish Historical and Ethnographical Society. Following February Revolution elected Cadet representative in Constituent Assembly and Senator responsible for civilian Appeals Section, Ministry of Justice. Foreign Minister in Crimean Government 1918-19. Settled in Paris 1919 where continued public activities.

VISSER, LODEWIJK ERNST (1871-1942). B. Amersfoort, Holland. Jurist and communal leader, District Court judge 1903-15; President of Supreme Court 1939. Dismissed by Nazis following occupation of Holland 1940. Helped Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe 1918, was founder of Jewish Aid Committee for German Jews from 1933, and became symbol of Jewish wartime resistance in Holland. For many years K.H. Chairman in Netherlands.

VOEGTLIN, CARL. Pharmacologist. B. Basle, 1879. Ph.D. Fribourg, 1903. Studied under W. at Manchester University, 1904-5. In 1905 settled in U.S.A., where, after holding various other appointments, he became, in 1938, director of the National Cancer Institute.

WALLACE, HENRY AGARD (1888-1965). B. Iowa. Politician, editor of Wallace’s Farmer, influential agricultural periodical owned by his family. An agricultural expert, he developed several strains of hybrid corn. Originally a Republican, he carried Iowa for Democratic Party in 1932 election, and in 1933 was appointed Secretary of Agriculture

WALSH (later Robinson), GERTRUDE MAD (1886-1954). Chemist. Studied at Manchester University from 1904. Was W.’s student, and continued in research with him. M., 1912, (Sir) Robert Robinson (q.v.). Published many scientific papers.

WARBURG, FELIX MORITZ (1859-1937). B. Hamburg. Banker, philanthropist, and Jewish communal leader. Moved to U.S.A. 1894 and married Frieda, daughter of Jacob H. Schiff, whose banking firm Kuhn Loeb & Co. he joined. Founding Chairman of J.D.C. 1914-32. Though not a Zionist, he generously gave his time and substance for the cultural and economic development of yishuv, particularly the Hebrew University. Chairman of Administrative Committee of (expanded) Jewish Agency 1929-30. Resigned (together with W.) in 1930 in protest against Passfield White Paper.

WARBURG, FRIEDA ( 1876-1958). Daughter of Jacob Schiff (Biog. Index, Vol. VI), wife of Felix Warburg (Biog. Index, Vol. X). Associated both with her husband and in own right in numerous American and international philanthropies. Although not a Zionist, she was active in Hadassah, serving as chairman of building campaign for Hadassah-H.U. Hospital in Jerusalem, and in 1949 she established a $100,000 scholarship fund there. Prominent in Youth Aliyah and American Friends of H.U.

WARBURG, MAX (1867-1946). B. Hamburg. Brother of Felix Warburg (Biog. Index, Vol. X) and partner in family bank from 1893. Judge of Commercial Court in Hamburg and member of City Parliament. Associated with Albert Ballin, the Jewish magnate, in expanding German shipping. On Reichbank advisory committee, he was a financial adviser to German delegation at Paris Peace Conference. As a foremost communal figure he directed the relief organization of German Jews. Later, chairman of welfare committee of representational bodies authorised by the Nazis.

WARBURG, OTTO (1859-1938). B. Hamburg. Botanist. Obtained Doctorate 1883. Published works of botanical research. During nineties he was active in organizing German societies for overseas colonization. Joined Kolonial Wirtschaftliches Komite 1896, edited periodical Tropenpflanzen 1897-1922. Professor at University of Berlin from 1898. From 1894 member of Ezra, the H.Z. Society in Berlin. Joined Z.O. 1897, paid his first visit Palestine, Anatolia, and Cyprus 1900 and developed his ideas for settlement in Palestine, subsequently devoting himself to this subject. At VI Z.C., 1903, chairman of East Africa Committee. Was chairman also of Committee for Investigation of Palestine, which from 1904 published monthly Altneuland. There he advanced pleas for scientific research and vocational training as basis for Zionist work to lead to independent economy in Palestine. He helped develop such economic instruments as the Syndicate for Industry. Member S.A.C. from 1905, its chairman 1911-20, and virtually Z.O. president. Leading spokesman for ‘practical’ Zionism, he established Palestine Bureau in 1907, Palestine Land Development Company in 1908 (of which he was head throughout his life), and among founders of Bezalel School of arts and crafts and Olive Tree Fund, as well as Agricultural Experimental Station in Atlit. Engaged in various economic enterprises in Palestine. During First World War he was strongly preoccupied with influencing German Foreign Ministry to protect Jews in the Ottoman Empire. On W.’s election to Z.O. presidency he remained on G.A.C. Settling in Palestine, he founded Agricultural Institute in 1922, and became head Hebrew University Institute of Palestine Natural History in 1925. On Board of Directors J.N.F. 1907-25, chairman 1933-5. Returned to Berlin owing to wife’s illness.

WASSERMANN, OSKAR (1869-1934). B. Bamberg, Germany. Banker and communal leader. Director of Berlin branch of his family bank, he joined Board of Deutsche Bank 1912, and on its merger, 1929, with Discontogesellschaft, became. director of the merged institution and a Council member of German Reichsbank. Dismissed from these posts by Nazis, 1933. Vice-President of Administrative Council of Akademie fair die Wissenschaft des Judentums and on governing body of Hochschule fiir die Wissenschaft des- Judentums, both in Berlin. K.H. President in Germany, 1922, and on its world Board, 1929. Served on Joint Palestine Survey Commission 1927-28; founding member of Jewish Agency, Administrative Committee, 1929-33.

WAUCIIOPE, SIR ARTHUR GRENFELL (1874-1947). Fourth High Commissioner of Palestine, Nov. 1931-Mar. 1938. Served in South African War, 1899-1902, in France and Mesopotamia during W.W.I; chief of British section, Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control, Berlin, 1924-27; promoted General 1936. He showed understanding for Jewish work in Palestine. During his term the Jewish population more than doubled, largely through immigration from Nazi Germany. Problems in Palestine during his period of office included the Arab rebellion, leading to the Royal (Peel) Commission, and to the publication of the first partition plan for Palestine. He later expressed support for the White Paper of 1939, and foresaw the future of Palestine as a bi-national state.

WAVELL, ARCHIBALD PERCIVAL, 1ST EARL (1883-1950). Served in India 190310, with Russian Army 1911-12, in France 1914-16, in Palestine 1917-20. Commanded 2nd Division Aldershot 1935-37, Forces in Palestine 1937-38, Southern Command 1938-39. In July 1939 he formed Middle East Command, of which he was G.O. C.-in-C. until July 1941, when he became C.-in-C., India; Supreme Commander, South West Pacific Dec. 1941-43. Viceroy of India 1943-47. Author, Palestine Campaigns 1928, Allenby 1940, Allenby in Egypt 1943.

WEDGWOOD, JOSIAH CLEMENT, 1st Lord (1872-1943). Liberal M.P. 1906-19. Labour M.P. 1919-42. Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster 1924. Active supporter of Zionism from 1915. Founded ‘Seventh Dominion League’ calling for a Jewish Dominion of Palestine within the British Commonwealth.

WEICMAN, SELIG (SIEGMUND) (1873-1943). B. Wyszogrod, Poland. M. Fruma, W.’s sister, 1908. Zionist leader in Warsaw and Palestine. On completion of studies at Warsaw School of Commerce, employed as book-keeper in Lodz and later manager of a business house in Warsaw. Active in Kadimah and Hatehiya Societies. Member D.F., delegate VI Z.C., 1903, and opposed East Africa project. Book-keeper for Atid factory in Haifa on emigration there 1908, and engaged in community activities. With failure of Atid company he returned with his family to Warsaw. The family went back to Palestine in 1913, but he was caught in Warsaw by War, and remained to engage in public and Zionist affairs. He organized youth movement that evolved as Hashomer-Hatzair, was chairman of Maccabi and for a period secretary of Polish Zionist Central Committee. After War resumed life in Palestine as book-keeper successively for Zionist Commission, Hebrew University, Phoenix Society, Haganah Command, and Jewish Palestine Exploration Society. His communal activities were widespread.

WEISGAL, MEYER WOLF. B. 1894, Kikol, Poland. Journalist. Emigrated to U.S.A. 1905. Editor The Maccabean 1918-21, New Palestine 1921-30. In theatre, produced The Romance of a People (1933) and The Eternal Road by Franz Werfel, directed by Max Reinhardt (1937). Secretary of U.S. section of Jewish Agency 1940-46. From 1940 W.’s personal political representative in the U.S. In 1944 began his public activities on behalf of Sieff (later Weizmann) Institute. Settled in Rehovot 1949 and served as Chairman of Executive Council (1947-66), President (1966-69), and Chancellor (from 1969), of Weizmann Institute of Science. General Editor of Letters and Papers of Chaim Weizmann, and head of Yad Chaim Weizmann (Weizmann Memorial Foundation). His memoirs, So Far, London 1971.

WEISSMAN, DAVID (1880-1966). Lawyer. B. Novozlatopol, Ukraine. Specialist in credit financing and housing schemes, on which submitted various projects to Z.O. Member, Municipal Housing Commission of All-Russian Union of Cities, 1917. Settled in Palestine, 1921.

WEIZMANN (formerly TCHMERINSKY), RACHEL-LEAH (1852-1939). Mother of W. Settled in Palestine, 1920 ; founded at Haifa the first Old Age Home for Palestinian Jews. For other biographical data, see s.n. Feivel W. and Ozer W.

WEIZMANN (later DOUNIE), GITA. Music teacher. Sister of W. B. 1884. M. 1918, Tuvia Dounie, engineer (killed in Arab riots, 1938). Studied at Warsaw Institute of Music, 1901-5. Settled in Palestine, at Haifa, 1911. One of the founders, 1924, of Haifa School of Music, later known as the Dounie-Weizmann Conservatoire.

WEIZMANN (later LAW), MINNA (1888-1925). B. Motol, White Russia. Sister of W. Studied medicine at Zurich and Berlin. Emigrated to Palestine 1914 and worked as physician in Jerusalem. M., 1921, A. N. Law, a government official in Jaffa and later Deputy District Commissioner, Haifa district.

WEIZMANN (later LICHTENSTEIN), HAYA (1878-1959). Teacher. Sister of W. M. 1901, Abraham Lichtenstein (q.v.). In early years active Zionist in Pinsk and, after 1905, in Warsaw. Moved in 1909 to Vilna and in 1915 to Yekaterinoslay. Settled in Palestine, 1921; teacher at Herzlia High School, Tel Aviv, and later at Levinsky Women Teachers’ Academy, Tel Aviv. President, 1946-56, of Bnot Brith Society. Published two volumes of memoirs, Tel Aviv, 5708 (1947/48) and 5713 (1952/53).

WEIZMANN (later LLTBZHINSKY), MIRIAM (MARIYA) (1871-1950). Sister of W. M. 1888, Chaim Lubzhinsky (q.v.). Moved with her husband to Warsaw, c. 1896, and, at outbreak of First World War, from Warsaw to Russia. After his death in Petrograd in 1917, lived in Poland until 1938, when she settled in London.

WEIZMANN (later SAVITZKY), MASHA. B. 1888 Motol, White Russia. W sister. Medical student in Zurich from 1905. Practised medicine in Russia. Emmigrated to Israel in 1956.

WEIZMANN (later WEICMAN), FRUMA (1880-1947). B. Motol, White Russia. M. Selig Weicman of Warsaw. Sister of W. In early years active in Bnot-Zion circle in Pinsk. Completed dentistry studies in Kiev, 1903. Active in 1905 Revolution, was imprisoned with her brother Moses in Pinsk. Upon marriage accompanied husband to Haifa, 1908, but a year later the couple returned to Warsaw. In 1913 she went back to Palestine with their two children, and in 1919 the family was reunited, settling in Jerusalem where she practised dentistry. In widowhood moved to Haifa 1944.

WEIZMANN, ANNA (LIANA) (1886-1963). Chemist. Sister of W. Studied at Zurich, 1905-12 and at Manchester University, 1913-14. During First World War employed in Moscow machine-tool factory. After the war joined Moscow Institute of Biochemistry. Settled in Palestine, 1933 ; member of scientific staff of Daniel Sieff Research Institute (later, Weizmann Institute of Science), Rehovoth.

WEIZMANN, BENJAMIN. B. 1907, Manchester. W.’s first and only surviving son. Studied Agriculture, Languages and Economics at Cambridge 1925, 1927-28, and at Sorbonne 1926. Employed in chemical products company of Joseph Blumenfeld (q.v.), France 1930, 1935; Palestine Potash Co. 1932; his father’s laboratory, London 1933; Marks & Spencer, London; London office of Fruit Chemistry, Ltd., 1935. Farmed in Ireland during 1950’s. Now lives in Channel Islands.

WEIZMANN, FEIVEL (1872-1941). Brother of W. M. 1900, Fanya, sister of Chaim Lubzhinsky, husband of W.’s sister Miriam, (q.v.). Engaged in the timber business of his father, Ozer W. (q.v.). After father’s death, 1911, accompanied his mother to Warsaw (where his brother-in-law, Lubzhinsky, was a prosperous timber-merchant), then to Pinsk, then to Warsaw, and finally to Moscow, where they lived until both settled in Palestine in 1920. Employed at Haifa on clerical staff of Palestine Electric Corporation Industries and, later, of Imperial Chemical Industries.

WEIZMANN, MICHAEL (1916-1942). B. London. W.’s younger son. Studied engineering at Cambridge. Enlisted 1939 in R.A.F. A Flight Lieutenant, he was lost in action over French coast.

WEIZMANN, MIKHAIL (YEHIEL MIKHAL) (1892-1957). Agronomist. Brother of W. M. 1920, Yehudit Krishevsky, of Rishon-le-Zion. Studied agriculture at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Berlin. Settled in Palestine, 1914. Assistant Director, Palestine Government Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1920-28. Manager, Imperial Chemical Industries, Middle Eastern Zone, 1928-35. Later engaged on own account in industry and in development of Tel-Mond (founded 1929).

WEIZMANN, MOSES (MOSHE) (1879-1957). Chemist. Brother of W. M. (1) Zinaida, daughter of Samuel Rivlin of Baku, and (2) Helena Levin. Entered Kiev Polytechnic as student of agriculture, 1900. Later, went over to chemistry, studying at Geneva and Grenoble. Settled in Palestine, 1924 ; became head of Organic Chemistry Laboratory at Hebrew University, and given rank of Professor, 1947.

WEIZMANN, OZER (? 1850-1911). Timber-transporter. Father of W. B. Syerniki, near Pinsk. M. 1867, Rachel-Leah Tchmerinsky, of Motol, near Pinsk. After living for some years at Motol, where he was the first and only Jew to be appointed starosta (head of the village), moved, c. 1894, to Pinsk. In later years, achieved a measure of prosperity through business association with his son-in-law, Lubzhinsky (q.v.). A devout Jew, of the enlightened type known as Maskilim, well versed in Jewish learning, and with Zionist sympathies; delegate to VI Z.C., 1903.

WEIZMANN, SAMUEL (Smuuth) (1882-?). Engineer. Brother of W. M., 1905, Bazia Rubin, a Zurich medical student. Student at Kiev and Zurich, c. 1906 joined Zionist-Socialist Workers’ Party (Territorialist). In 1909 worked for about a year in Manchester. Returned to Russia and engaged in engineering work in Kiev and, during the First World War, at the Moscow machine-tool factory at which his sister Anna (q.v.) was also employed. After Russian Revolution, directed industrial plants in U.S.S.R. Died after Second World War in Russian penal camp.

WEIZMANN, VERA-see s.n. KHATZMAN, VERA.

WELLES, SUMNER (1892-1961). U.S. career diplomat from 1914; in State Department’s Division of Latin American Affairs 1920-22, later serving in Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Honduras. Assistant Secretary of State 1933-37, Under-Secretary 1937-43; retired 1943.

WELTSCH, ROBERT (b. 1891, Prague). Journalist. A student Zionist, he served during World War I as front line officer in Austro-Hungarian Army. At XII Z.C., 1921, elected alternate member of Zionist Executive, representing Hitandut faction. Edited Judische Rundschau, Berlin, 1920-38, then settled in Jerusalem to edit, until 1945, German-language weekly rediot Shel Hitandut Olei Germanyah. From 1946 lived in London as correspondent of Ha’aretz.

WERNER, SIEGMUND (1867-1928). B. Vienna. Physician, dentist, and journalist. Among founders of Vienna Jewish student fraternity Gamala. One of Herzl’s closest friends and followers, he joined the Zionist Organization on its creation. Editor of Die Welt, organ of Z.O., 1897-99, 1903-05. Chairman 1902 of Committee (later Association) for Jewish Statistics in Vienna. After Herzl died he settled in Iglau (Jihlava), Moravia, where he practised dentistry and remained active in the Zionist cause.

WERTHEIMER, JOSEPH (1833-1908). Appointed Chief Rabbi of Geneva, 1859. Professor of Philology at University of Geneva, 1874-1906. Supported Jewish University project, 1902-03.

WILBUSH (WILBUSHEVITZ), NAHUM (1879-1971). Pseudonym: Ima. B Province of Grodno, then Lithuania. Engineer, industrial pioneer in Palestine Studied in Germany, then worked in Minsk. Member Z.O.’s survey expedition to East Africa, 1905, rejecting practicability of settlement there. Delegate VII, X Z.C., 1905, 1911. Emigrated Palestine 1905, establishing Hadid oil-press (BenShemen) which later merged with Atid Co. A founding-director of company establishing industrial enterprises in Haifa from 1906. Engaged in further study in Russia 1911-14, and propaganda there for Palestine’s industrial development. Served Turkish army as City Engineer in Jerusalem and Water Engineer in Damascus 1915-17. Member Nili pro-British espionage organization in Palestine. Bureau manager Industries and Public Works Department of Z.O.’s Palestine office 1919 Among founders Shemen oil factory Haifa, of which technical manager and Board member 1924-51. Active in public life in Haifa and member Hadar-Hacarmel Council 1927-28. Author articles on Palestine’s industrial potential.

WILLIAMS, THOMAS (1888-1967). Politician. Worked in coal mines 1916-22; M.P. (Lab.) 1922-59; Parliamentary Private Secretary, Minister of Agriculture 1924; Minister of Labour 1929-31; Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Agriculture 1940-45; Minister of Agriculture 1945-51.

WILLSTAETTER, RICHARD (1872-1942). Organic chemist. B. Karlsruhe, professor at Technische Hochschule in Zurich 1905, director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Berlin, 1912. Awarded civilian Iron Cross for work on gas respirators in W.W.I., and in 1915 became director of State Chemical Laboratory. Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1915, for research into chlorophyll and other plant pigments. In 1924 he resigned his Chair at Munich University in protest against antisemitic pressures, working privately in Munich, and from 1939 in Switzerland. Principal guest at opening of Daniel Sieff Research Institute at Rehovot. His autobiography, Ausmeinem Leben, publ. 1949.

WILSON, FIELD-MARSHAL SIR, HENRY HUGHES (1864-1922). Served Burma campaign 1885-89; S. African War; Commandant Staff College 1906-10; Director Military Operations, Imperial General Staff 1910-14; Liaison Officer with the French; British military representative, Versailles 1917; C.I.G.S. and member War Cabinet 1918; Field-Marshal 1919. Assassinated by Irish nationalists in London 1922.

WILSON, WOODROW (1856-1924). B. Stonetown, Virginia. Twenty-eighth President of United States, 1913-21. President of Princeton University, 1902-10, Democratic Governor of New Jersey 1911-13. While expressing support for concept of B.D., he avoided giving it official endorsement. Nobel Peace Prize 1920.

WINGATE, SIR FRANCIS REGINALD (1861-1953). B. Broadfield, England. British army officer. Specialist in Middle East affairs. Served India and Aden, 1881-83, when posted to Egypt to be Assistant Military Secretary to the Sirdar (commander) of Egyptian Army and rising to Director of Military Intelligence, 1899. Governor-General of Sudan and Sirdar of Egyptian Army 1899-1916. High Commissioner in Egypt, 1917-19. Author, works on Egypt and the Sudan.

WINTZ, LEO (JUDAH LEIB) (1876-1952). Journalist. B. Glukhov, Ukraine. Moved to Berlin in early 1890s. Member of Berlin ‘Young Israel’ Society. Delegate to IV Z.C., 1900. Contributor to Russian Jewish press, founder (1901) of ‘Phoenix’ Art Press, and of German-language Jewish periodical, Ost and West. During First World War operated Jewish news-agency in Copenhagen. Editor for many years of journal of Berlin Jewish community until settlement in Palestine, 1935.

WISE, Stephen Samuel (1874-1949). B. Budapest. Reform Rabbi, communal and Zionist leader. In America from 1875, he was ordained 1893 and obtained Doctorate 1902. Rabbi Bnei reshurun, New York, 1893-1900, Beth Israel, Portland, Oregon, 1900-06, then founded Free Synagogue in New York, officiating there 1907-48. Founding president Jewish Institute of Religion, and professor there 1922-48. An active Democrat, he was close to Pres. Wilson (q.v.) and F.D. Roosevelt. Among founders F.A.Z. (later, Z.O.A.) 1898, its Secretary until 1900, president 1917-18, 1936-38, vice-president 1918-21. Participated in II-VII, XIV-XXI Z.C., 1898-1905, 1925-46. On G.A.C. 1898-1905, Z.G.C. 1925-29, 1935-49. Among founders Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, 1914, its chairman 1916-18. Worked with Brandeis (q.v.) to influence Pres. Wilson to take sympathetic stand on Zionism and B.D. Among founders American Jewish Congress, its president 1925-29, 1935 till death, and one of its representatives Paris Peace Conference, 1918. Resigned his Zionist offices with Brandeis Group 1921, rejoining Z.O.A. Executive 1923. Associated with U.P.A., of which foundit chairman 1925, till death. Opposed participation of non-Zionists in enlarged’ Jewish Agency though served on its Council 1931-35, 1937-39. Opposing Government policies in Palestine and cooperation between Jews and British, he favoured, W.’s resignation from Z.O. presidency in 1931, but supported his re-election 19Zi. Opposed 1937 Partition Plan, headed American delegation to St. James’s Conference, 1939. Founding chairman, World Jewish Congress, 1936; president, Amerieati, the Zionist Emergency Council, 1940; on Jewish Agency Executive, 1945; represent American Zionism at San Francisco Conference, 1947. A prolific author, he was active in the amelioration of conditions of Americans of all races.

WISSOTZKY, DAVIN (1855-1929). B. Moscow. Merchant, philanthropist. Succeeded his father as head of Wissotzky Tea Co. In 1908 was instrumental in allocation of funds under Wissotzky Bequest for establishment, in association with flilfsverein, of Haifa College of Technology (`Technicum’). Member of its Curatorium from its formation.

WOLF, LUCIEN (1857-1930). Pseudonym: Diplomaticus. B. London. Founding president, Jewish Historical Society of England, 1893. Asst. editor Jewish World 1874-93, editor 1906-08. Asst. foreign editor Daily Graphic 1890-1909. Frequent contributor on foreign affairs to periodicals in England and overseas. As editor of weekly Darkest Russia, 1912-14, he took strongly critical attitude towards Russia’s treatment of its Jews. On Council of A.J.A. from 1886, and member Conjoint Foreign Committee (of which A.J.A. and B.O.D. were the parent bodies) from 1888. A founder-member I.T.O., 1905, and president of its London branch. Elected, 1915, to B.O.D. During First World War represented Conjoint Foreign Committee in negotiations with British government to secure rights for Jews of Eastern Europe and for definition of status of Jews of Palestine. Among founders anti-Zionist League of British Jews, 1918. Secretary of Joint Foreign Committee, which replaced C.F.C. in 1918, and served Anglo-Jewish delegation in this capacity at Peace Conference. Represented I.C.A., Alliance Israelite Universelle, and Joint Foreign Committee in activities culminating in achievement of the Minorities Treaties in the peace settlement and subsequently their representative at League of Nations. Author of works on Jewish history.

WOLFFSOHN, DAVID (1855-1914). B. Dorbyany, Lithuania. Lived from 1885 in Cologne. Prosperous timber-merchant, with international connexions. One of first Hovevei Zion in Germany. Meeting with Herzl in 1896 was the start of a close association and personal friendship. Attended I Z.C., 1897. Among the founders, and first Treasurer, of German Zionist Federation, 1897. First President of J.C.T., 1899. Accompanied Herzl to Constantinople, 1902. Chairman of S.A.C. and, in effect, President, Z.O., 1905-11. In face of mounting opposition from Russian and other ‘Practical Zionists’, first evidenced at IX Z.C., 1909, withdrew from leadership of Z.O. at X Z.C., 1911, and thereafter played no part in the direction of the Movement, though given the honour of presiding at the Eleventh Congress, 1913.

WOLFSBERG, OSCAR (later A VIAD, YESETAYANU; 1893-1957). Leader of religious Zionism. B. Hamburg, practised as pediatrician in Berlin. On central committee of Mizrachi in Germany and editor of its organ. President of Mizrachi in Germany from 1926. On Zionist Executive, J.A. Administrative Committee, and council of ,Jewish community in Berlin. Settling in Palestine 1933, he continued medical practice there and assumed prominence in Hapoel Hannzrachi (religious pioneering and labour movement); executive member of Mosad Harav Kook (religious cultural institution), and on Court of Honour of W.Z.O. Israel envoy in Scandinavia 1948-49, and in 1956 was Israel Minister in Switzerland, where he died.

WOLFSKEHL, KARL (1869-1948). B. Darmstadt. Scholar, poet, and art critic. Studied linguistics, comparative mythology, and history of religion at Giessen, Leipzig, and Berlin, obtaining Doctorate. Joined Stefan George Circle (of litterateur) 1893. His home in Munich, where he lived from 1898, became well-known literary salon. Contributor to Bldtter fur die Kunst 18921919, and Jahrbiicher fiir die Geistige Bewegung 1910-12. Besides his poetry, translated the classics into German. From 1920 he held senior post in management of Miinchener Ruprecht Presse. Left Germany for Switzerland and Italy in 1933, and emigrated to Auckland, New Zealand, in 1938, where he died. An early Zionist, he remained in close touch with others, including Martin Buber and Eugen Mayer (q.v.). During his last years he was connected with the Jerusalem publishers Schocken.

WORMSER, GASTON (1865-1937). B. Paris. Private tutor of sons of Baron Edmond de Rothschild, later his adviser and private secretary. Responsible for establishment and administration of earliest Rothschild colonies in Palestine. Active in management of I.C.A. and later of P.I.C.A. Of great assistance to W. in enlisting the Baron’s interest in Hebrew University project.

WORTSMAN, CHARLES (YEHESREL) (1878-1938). Pseudonyms: Ben-Adam, Ba’al-Dimyonot, Ish-Emet. B. Zhvanets, Ukraine. Left-wing journalist. While chemistry student Basle (where graduated 1903) was chairman Zion Society of East European Zionists. Among founders Academic Zionist Society in Berne. Contributed, inter alia, to Hayoetz (Bucharest) and Der Yud (Warsaw-Cracow). Delegate first six Z.C.s 1897-1903. Member D.P. Moved to London 1904, founding radical Zionist periodical Die Yiddishe Zukunft there, and transferring it that same year to Warsaw. Emigrated to United States in 1907, where he was active in Poalei-Zion movement. Engaged in Jewish journalism and revived Die Yiddishe Zukunft. On staff Amer. Joint Distribution Committee 1920-21, with missions to Europe and Palestine, and sometime employee K.H. in New York.

YAHUDA, Abraham Shalom (1877-1951). B. Jerusalem. Orientalist and biblical scholar. Studied Heidelberg and Strasbourg, 1895-1904. Active in student Zionism, he attended I Z.C., 1897. Professor at Hochschule fur die Wissenschaft des judentupa, Berlin 1905-14. Professor of Hebrew Literature at Madrid, 1915-22. With Max, Nordau, influenced King of Spain to intervene with German and Turkish authorities on behalf of Palestine’s Jewish community. On committee of experts planning Institute of Humanities for Hebrew University, 1919. Lectured at English universities from 1923. During World War II in United States, with professorship at New School for Social Research in New York, 1942. A revisionist, he opposed W., he sought to create Arab-Jewish understanding through his contacts with Arab scholars.

YANOVSKY, SAMUEL (1876-1944). B. St. Petersburg. Graduating in law at St Petersburg University, 1899, he specialized in economic and emigration problems. Headed I.C.A. Emigration Department in St. Petersburg 1904-19. Member D.E. Delegate IX, XII Z.C., 1909, 1921. Member Central Committee of Russian Zionists from 1910, he was elected to Russian Zionist Executive 1917, directing its department for community and cultural affairs. Directed Odessa office for immigration to Palestine 1919, then in Paris 1921-26 to organize I.C.A.-sponsored emigration to United States and Argentina. Emigrated 1927 to Palestine, where active in public life and in organization of refugee immigration and projects for their economic integration. Contributor to Zionist Press in Russia and Hebrew Press in Palestine.

YAROCHINSKY, STANISLAV (1852– ?). B. Lodz. Son of Sigmund Yarochinsky, textile manufacturer and philanthropist. Manager Goldfeder Bank in Lodz. With his brother, continued their father’s philanthropic and public service activities after Sigmund’s death in 1909, particularly the Yarochinsky Vocational School that he had founded. Member Warsaw Committee for Jewish University project 1903. Died in Lodz sometime between World Wars.

YASINOVSKY, ISIDORE (ISRAEL) (1842-1917). Lawyer. B. Grodno Province. An early Hovey Zion, one of the organizers of Kattowitz H.Z. Conference (1884), an original member of the H.Z. Odessa Committee and head of H.Z. Warsaw Office. Delegate to I Z.C., 1897, at which elected to G.A.C., and to all succeeding Congresses up to the Seventh (1905). From 1898 Zionist regional leader for Warsaw area. On ‘Uganda’ issue joined Territorialist secession from Z.O. (1905) and became one of the leaders of the Jewish Territorial Organization (I.T.O.).

YELLIN, DAVID (1864-1941), educator, writer, scholar, public figure. B. Jerusalem, and teacher there 1888-1904. Dep. director Hilfsverein Seminary 1904-10, then asst. director and director of Hebrew Teachers Seminary until death. Appointed Professor of Hebrew Medieval Poetry at Hebrew University, 1926. On Jerusalem Municipal Council 1910-14, member Ottoman parliament 1913. A Yishuv delegate to P.C., Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem 1920-25, chairman of Va’ad Leumi 1920-29, and simultaneously member of Jewish town council of Jerusalem (chairman 191921). A Jewish representative on League of Nations ‘Wailing Wall Commission 1931.

YELSKY, ISRAEL (1865-1927). B. Slonim, White Russia. Rabbi, graduate Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau, he obtained Doctorate at University there. Preacher at Modern Synagogue in Lodz from 1891. Among first supporters of Herzl in Poland. Member G.A.C. 1898-1905 and Zionist Regional Leader for Lodz district. Supported East Africa project, and was sole delegate absent from Kharkov Conference to consider scheme in October 1903. From 1905 lived in Germany, and on outbreak First World War in Geneva.

YOUNG, SIR HUBERT WINTHROP (1885-1950). Asst. Political Officer in Mesopotamia 1915-17. Served with Arab army in Hejaz 1918: At F.O. 1919-21. Asst. Secretary in Middle East Dept. C.O. 1921-27. Colonial Secretary, Gibraltar 1927– 29. Counsellor to High Commissioner, Iraq, 1929-32. Governor of Nyasaland 1932-34. Governor of Trinidad and Tobago 1938-42.

ZANGWILL, ISRAEL (1864-1926). B. London. Novelist, playwright, and public figure. Began writing while young teacher at Jewish Free School in London slums. His Children of the Ghetto gained him international acclaim and appeared in several languages. Many other works followed, among best known The King of Schnorrers, and the play The Melting Pot, dealing with immigration to America. Edited satirical weekly Ariel, pseudonymous contributor to many periodicals, translated medieval poet Ibn Gabirol and sacred Hebrew texts. Herzl’s first London contact, he joined Z.O. and was delegate first seven Z.C.s 1897-1905. Among leading protagonists East Africa project and following its defeat at VII Z.C. he withdrew from Z.O. to found Jewish Territorial Organization (I.T.O.) which survived until 1925 with aim of securing Jewish homeland in any suitable part of world. Toward end First World War he became partially reconciled Z.O., but opposed British policy in Palestine and disagreed with Zionist Executive. He never returned to Z.O. He also wrote general works, including trilogy of pacifist plays.

ZEITLIN, MOSES (1872-1907). B. Voronezh. Engineer, economist, and journalist. After studies Cracow Polytechnic he worked in Baku and contributed to South Russian newspapers. In his youth close to revolutionary circles, but following IV Z.C. (1900) became active Zionist in Baku. Supported effort for Jewish University in 1902. Delegate V, VII Z.C., 1901, 1905. Moved to St. Petersburg 1906 for editorial work Zionist periodicals and to study economics. Died in railway accident on his way to The Hague as delegate VIII Z.C. (1907).

ZHITLOVSKY, CHAIM (1865-1943). B. Ushatch, Byelorussia. Student at Universities of Berlin, Zurich, and Berne, 1888-1904. Closely associated with the Russian Social-Revolutionaries and one of their leading theoreticians. Strongly opposed to Zionism, but a Jewish nationalist and the earliest advocate in Russia of a combination of Jewish nationalism with socialism. After Kishinev pogrom (1903) joined movement for Jewish ‘national autonomy’ and became leading figure in Socialist Jewish Workers’ Party (`Seymists’). Settled in U.S.A., 1908. During First World War joined American branch of Poole Zion, but severed connexion with Zionism after the War, becoming an ardent supporter of the Biro-Bidjan project.

ZLATOPOLSKY, HILLEL (1868-1932). B. Ekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk) Ukraine. Philanthropist and Zionist leader. Delegate VI, VII, X-XIII, XVI Z:C., 1903, 1905, 1911-23, 1929. Opposed East Africa project at VI Z.C. An industrialist and merchant in Kiev, he was Zionist Regional Leader there 1903-05 and active in Zionei-Zion. G.A.C. 1905-07, 1920-21. Among founders Hovevei Slat Eger (Lovers of Hebrew Language) 1907 and on Central Committee. Among organizers Hebrew language association Histadrut Lesafa Uletarbut Ivrit, 1909. During First World War in Moscow, where among founders Tarbut Association 1917, heading its Central Committee in Moscow and on its World Executive from 1923. With his daughter Shoshana Persitz he founded Onianut Hebrew publishing house for youth literature, 1917. A K.H. founding-director 1920-23, he was its representative in Paris, where resident from 1919. Contributor to Jewish Press. His Selected Writings have been published.

ZOLOTAREV, A. (1880–?). B. Ukraine. Journalist. As a student at Kiev and a member of Kiev Zionist students’ society inclined towards Zionist-Socialist ideology. From 1902 an active Bundist and from 1919 a member of the Communist Party.

ZWEIG, EGON (1877-1944). Lawyer. B. Moravia. Delegate to II Z.C., 1898 and to all succeeding Congresses up to and including the Nineteenth (1935). Director of Vienna J.N.F. Office, 1903-20, and of Vienna Palestine Office, 1918-20. Member of J.N.F. directorate at The Hague, 1920, and in Jerusalem, 1922-23.