This is an excellent historical review of the relationship, including discussion of the Israel-Hamas War (31p.).

Since October 7, 2023, Israel has been at war with the Palestinian Sunni Islamist group Hamas (a
U.S.-designated foreign terrorist organization, or FTO), which led attacks on that day from the
Gaza Strip into Israel. The ongoing conflict has broad implications for U.S. policy in the Middle
East, on questions that include how to bolster Israel’s security from threats posed by Iran-
supported actors near its borders (including Hamas and Lebanese Hezbollah, another FTO), how
to prevent the spread of conflict in the region, how to protect and care for civilians displaced or
otherwise affected by the fighting, how to reach a cease-fire agreement that secures the return of
hostages under circumstances agreeable to Israel and Hamas, and how to reconcile Palestinian
desires for statehood and post-conflict recovery with Israeli efforts to eliminate Hamas as a political and military force in Gaza. For more on the conflict, see CRS Report R47828, Israel and Hamas Conflict In Brief: Overview, U.S. Policy, and Options for Congress, by Jim Zanotti and Jeremy M. Sharp.

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