Moses Hess, 1812-1875

Born into an Orthodox family in Germany in 1812, Hess became interested in socialism, befriended Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and contributed to the Communist Manifesto. He recognized that German nationalism would inspire increased antisemitism. In 1862 he wrote “Rome and Jerusalem: The Last National Question,” which called for a Jewish socialist commonwealth in Palestine. The book influenced Theodor Herzl.

Portrait: Public domain