Nathan Birnbaum, 1864-1937

An Austrian-born journalist, activist and writer, Birnbaum coined the word “Zionism” in the late 19th century. Using the pseudonym Mathias Acher, he wrote about the sociopolitical culture of European Jewry and expanded on the ideas of Leon Pinsker and Theodor Herzl. Later in life, he turned against political Zionism as running counter to his newfound devotion to Orthodox Judaism.

Photo: Public domain