The Impact of Covid-19 on Middle Eastern and North African Studies: A Curated Reading List (Updated – July 18, 2020) A check-point set up to regulate the coronavirus pandemic in the northern Israeli city of Tiberias. Photo Credit: Gil Eliahu

Ben Wax, Michele Freesman, and Ken Stein, ISMI and the Center for Israel Education

Think tanks, scholars and analysts are producing excellent assessments of the impact that the Coronavirus pandemic is and will have on Middle Eastern countries. The pandemic continues to dramatically disrupt the economies of Middle Eastern and North African states as well as their domestic and regional politics.  Israel closed for two months, then in early May reopened schools and business destinations. With surging numbers of cases iny early July, Israel has begun to shutdown again closing bars, restaurants, and restricted congregational worship sizes.   Earlier in the pandemic outbreak, Israel and the Palestinian Authority and Hamas in Gaza cooperated to slow the virus.  Emerging long distance learning in Egypt had a salutary impact on education: iPad and computer needs pushed internet growth and reliability. By early July, the Egyptian finance minister estimated that the pandemic would cost Egypt billions of pounds. Oil producing states that historically provided subventions and safety nets to Muslim neighbors and insurgency groups are hemorrhaging incomes as the price per barrel falls to unprecedented lows due in great measure to a world-wide economic depression. Operating under international sanctions, Iran’s economy teetered precariously with one of the highest per capita death rates from the pandemic worldwide. All agree that the pandemic has strengthened the controls of the security networks over populations throughout much of the region.  The number of monthly articles devoted to the pandemic was extraordinarily high until mid- June when the topic took a back seat to intense discussions on speculations about Israel’s possible annexation of portions of the West Bank. To secure a glimpse of the rich discussion of what is and what lies in store, the curated list of analyses of Covid-19’s impact on the region and on individual countries is provided. This is the fifth update since early April. This compilation is arranged most recent first; Our suggested use, download the list, then control+F to locate countries, etc.; *recommended.  (265 entries, March 6, 2020-July 18, 2020)

Anshel Pfeffer, “COVID-19 Is a Crisis for Jewish Life in the Diaspora – and a Chance to Remake It,”  Haaretz, July 18, 2020, https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/.premium-covid-19-is-a-crisis-for-jewish-life-in-the-diaspora-and-a-chance-to-remake-it-1.8999114

Ben-Dror Yemeni, “ Anti-Semitism and Coronavirus: when old plague meets new,” Y-Net News, July 17, 2020,  https://www.ynetnews.com/article/rkBUKf5yw

Gerstenfeld, Manfred, “COVID-19 and the Anti-Racism Movement Are Challenging Liberal Democracy,” July 17, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/covid19-democracy-racism/

Al Arabiya Staff, “Coronavirus: Iran continues to struggle with 198 COVID-19 deaths and 2,500 new cases”, Al Arabiya, July 16, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/16/Coronavirus-Iran-continues-to-struggle-with-198-COVID-19-deaths-and-2-500-new-cases.html

Jeffay, Nathan, “Planned Weekend Lockdown Could Cause More Infections, Leading Doctor Says” July 16, 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/planned-weekend-lockdown-could-cause-more-infections-leading-doctor-says/

Sharon, Jeremy, “Can Naftali Bennett lead Israel out of the coronavirus crisis?”, The Jerusalem Post, July 16, 2020, https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/politics-and-diplomacy/can-naftali-bennett-lead-israel-out-of-the-coronavirus-crisis-635332

Morsy, Ahmed, “Egypt’s daily coronavirus cases stay below 1,000 for eighth day in a row”, Ahram Online, July 16, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/374688/Egypt/Politics-/Egypts-daily-coronavirus-cases-stay-below-,-for-ei.aspx

Druckman, Yaron, “Israel sees further rise in coronavirus infection rate, 4 fatalities”, YNET News, July 16, 2020, https://www.ynetnews.com/article/r1zQVG01P

Weinreb, Gali, “BATM unveils enhanced Covid-19 test kits”, Globes, July 15, 2020 https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-batm-unveils-enhanced-covid-19-test-kits-1001335980

Reuters, “Coronavirus resurgence sidelines Israel’s plans to annex part of occupied West Bank”, Al Arabiya, July 15, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/15/Coronavirus-resurgence-sidelines-Israel-s-plans-to-annex-part-of-occupied-West-Bank.html

Jaffe-Hoffman, Maayan, “Israel pilots coronavirus test that delivers results in 15 minutes”, The Jerusalem Post, July 15, 2020, https://www.jpost.com/health-science/israel-pilots-coronavirus-test-that-delivers-results-in-15-minutes-635196

AFP, “New virus lockdown another burden for cash-strapped Palestinians”, Ahram Online, July 15, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/8/374569/World/Region/New-virus-lockdown-another-burden-for-cashstrapped.aspx

Yanko, Adir, “Edelstein: Barring a miracle, Israel heading to a second lockdown”, YNET News, July 15, 2020, https://www.ynetnews.com/article/rJaFqMhJD

Fazeli, Yaghoub, “Iran will execute people who deliberately spread coronavirus: Judiciary official”, Al Arabiya English, July 14, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/15/Iran-will-execute-people-who-deliberately-spread-coronavirus-Judiciary-official-.html

Keinon, Herb, “Coronavirus crisis: Where in the world is Gantz?”, The Jerusalem Post, July 14, 2020, https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/coronavirus-crisis-where-in-the-world-is-gantz-634915

Ahram Online Staff, “Egypt reports 929 new coronavirus cases, 73 deaths on Tuesday”, Ahram Online, July 14, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/374476/Egypt/Politics-/Egypt-reports–new-coronavirus-cases,–deaths-on-T.aspx

Reuters, “Coronavirus: Crisis-hit Moroccans join ‘informal economy’ as job market shrinks”, Al Arabiya English, July 14, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/14/Coronavirus-Crisis-hit-Moroccans-join-informal-economy-as-job-market-shrinks.html

Yanko, Adir, “Israel fails to supply medical teams with PPE amid virus, review finds”, YNET News, July 14, 2020, https://www.ynetnews.com/article/BJ5007BikP

Reuters, “20 arrested protesting coronavirus lockdown of Haredi J’lem neighborhood”, The Jerusalem Post,July 14, 2020 https://www.jpost.com/breaking-news/16-arrested-protesting-coronavirus-lockdown-of-haredi-jlem-neighborhood-634950

Reuters, “Iraqi children’s hospital fighting to keep cancer patients safe from COVID-19”, Ahram Online, July 14, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/8/374477/World/Region/Iraqi-childrens-hospital-fighting-to-keep-cancer-p.aspx

Serrieh, Joanne, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia sees stability in confirmed, critical cases, spokesman says”, Al Arabiya English, July 14, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/14/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-COVID-19-cases-have-stabilized-spokesman-says.html

Yanko, Adir, “Israel sets worrying new record with 1,681 coronavirus cases in 24 hours”, YNET News, July 14, 2020, https://www.ynetnews.com/article/HJ6qqC5yw

AFP, “Thailand halts flights after Egyptian soldier breaks quarantine with coronavirus”, Al Arabiya English, July 14, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/14/Thailand-halts-flights-after-Egyptian-soldier-breaks-quarantine-with-coronavirus.html

Hoffman, Gill, “Fewer immigrants could come to Israel because of coronavirus – MKs”, The Jerusalem Post, July 14, 2020, https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/fewer-immigrants-could-come-to-israel-because-of-coronavirus-mks-635024

AFP, “Iran reports 179 new virus deaths”, Ahram Online, July 14, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/2/8/374439/World/Region/-Iran-reports–new-virus-deaths.aspx

Jaffe-Hoffman, Maayan, “Hebrew U. scientist: Drug could eradicate COVID-19 from lungs in days”, The Jerusalem Post, July 14, 2020, https://www.jpost.com/health-science/hebrew-u-scientist-drug-could-eradicate-covid-19-from-lungs-in-days-635028

Hoffman, Gill, “Fewer immigrants could come to Israel because of coronavirus – MKs”, The Jerusalem Post, July 14, 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/fewer-immigrants-could-come-to-israel-because-of-coronavirus-mks-635024

Berkovitz, Uri, “Israeli tech collaborates on Covid-19 challenges”, Globes, July 14, 2020 https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-israeli-tech-collaborates-on-covid-19-challenges-1001335741

Gil-ad Hadar, “Pandemic leaves thousands of Israelis fighting to feed their family”, YNET News, July 13, 2020, https://www.ynetnews.com/article/SJQ300YYJD 

Ashkenazi, Shani, “Health Ministry chief: 2,100 cases in just over 36 hours”, Globes, July 13, 2020, https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-health-ministry-chief-2100-cases-in-just-over-36-hours-1001335671

Ahram Online, “EgyptAir offers discounted tickets of up to 20% for medical workers”, Ahram Online, July 13, 2020 http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/374339/Egypt/Politics-/EgyptAir-offers-discounted-tickets-of-up-to–for-m.aspx

Schneider, Tal, “Bennett benefits as gov’t stumbles on Covid-19”, Globes, July 13, 2020 https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-bennett-benefits-as-government-stumbles-on-covid-19-1001335606

AFP, “Coronavirus claims over 20,000 lives across Mideast”, YNET News, July 12, 2020 https://www.ynetnews.com/article/SyhUV2ukP

Moneim, Doaa, “Egypt dealing with COVID-19 impacts by increasing investments: Planning minister”, Ahram Online, July 12, 2020, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/3/12/374302/Business/Economy/Egypt-dealing-with-COVID-impacts-by-increasing-inv.aspx

Moses, Shany, “Amazon cuts charges for shipping to Israel”, Globes, July 12, 2020 https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-amazon-cuts-charges-for-shipping-to-israel-1001335445

Rudnitzky, Arik, “Arab Society in Israel and the Coronavirus Crisis,” Moshe Dayan Center, July 8, 2020 https://dayan.org/content/arab-society-israel-and-coronavirus-crisis 

Abueish, Tamara, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia records 3,036 new COVID-19 cases, 3,211 recoveries,” Al Arabiya English, July 8, 2020, https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/08/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-records-3-036-new-COVID-19-cases-3-211-recoveries.html

Elran, Meir, “For the Love of God, don’t let ID manage coronavirus crisis,” Y-Net News, July 8, 2020, https://www.ynetnews.com/article/rJPIhPXJD

Jensen, Sterling and Waleed Al-Rawi, “Iraq’s Silver Lining Amid the Pandemic,” Carnegie Middle East Center, July 7, 2020 https://carnegie-mec.org/2020/07/07/iraq-s-silver-lining-amid-pandemic-pub-82248 

Salem, Ola, “Egypt’s Social Media Discovered Its Coronavirus Crisis,” Foreign Policy, July 7, 2020 https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/07/07/egypts-social-media-discovered-its-coronavirus-crisis/ 

Zilber, Neri “Israel’s Short-Lived ‘Victory’ Over Coronavirus,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, July 7, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/israels-short-lived-victory-over-coronavirus

*Hoffman, Gil, “Lapid: Coronavirus management ‘humiliating national failure,” The Jerusalem Post, July 6, 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/lapid-coronavirus-management-humiliating-national-failure-634041

Schneider, Tal “Israel Tightens Restrictions, closes halls, bars, clubs,” Globes, July 6, 2020  https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-israels-cabinet-tightens-restrictions-1001334850

Ashkenazi, Shani, “Israel loses Covid-19 advantage,” Globes, July 6, 2020 https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-israel-loses-covid-19-advantage-1001334749

El-Din, Gamal Essam, “Egypt has lost EGP 130bln in state revenues due to coronavirus, finance minister tells MPs,” Ahramonline, July 5,  2020 http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/3/12/373697/Business/Economy/Egypt-has-lost-EGP–bln-in-state-revenues-due-to-t.aspx

*Plocker, Sever, “As Coronavirus Makes Its Comeback, Israel Must Look Abroad for Solution,” Y-Net News, July 5, 2020 https://www.ynetnews.com/article/S1nzyBJJv

Dorsey, James, “Facing a Pandemic of Crises, Few Middle Eastern Leaders Step Up. “ BESA Center, July 3, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/pandemic-crises-middle-east/

Naar, Ismaeel, “UAE Announces 400 New Coronavirus Cases, One Death,” Al Arabiya, July 3, 2020  https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/03/UAE-announces-400-new-coronavirus-cases-one-death.html

Times of Israel Staff, “PM Declares ‘Major Outbreak’ as Active Virus Cases Soar past 10,000 for 1st Time,” Times of Israel, July 3, 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/pm-declares-major-outbreak-as-active-virus-cases-soar-past-10000-for-1st-time/ 

Times of Israel Staff, “Ultra-Orthodox, Arab Neighborhoods Again Centers of Jerusalem Virus Surge,” Times of Israel, July 3, 202., https://www.timesofisrael.com/ultra-orthodox-arab-neighborhoods-again-centers-of-jerusalem-virus-surge/

Abueish, Tamara, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia Detects 3,383 New COVID-19 Cases, 54 deaths,” Al Arabiya, July 2, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/02/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-detects-3-383-new-COVID-19-cases-54-deaths-.html

Bennett, Naftali, “Bennett to ‘Post’: 15 Emergency Measures to Save Israel from Coronavirus,” The Jerusalem Post, July 2, 2020  https://www.jpost.com/opinion/bennett-to-post-15-emergency-measures-to-save-israel-from-coronavirus-633676

Al Arabiya Staff, “Coronavirus: Iran’s COVID-19 Death Toll Surpasses 11,000,” Al Arabiya, July 2, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/02/Coronavirus-Iran-s-COVID-19-death-toll-surpasses-11-000-.html

Efrati, Ido, “As Coronavirus Cases Skyrocket, Israel Is Making Decisions in the Dark,” Haaretz, July 2, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-health-ministry-jealously-guards-data-harming-response-1.8964018

Abueish, Tamara, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia’s Hospitals Invited to Participate in Four Clinical Trials,”  Al Arabiya, July 2, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/02/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-s-hospitals-invited-to-participate-in-four-clinical-trials-.html

Keinon, Herb, “Israel is Juggling COVID-19, Annexation and Iran – Analysis,” The Jerusalem Post, July 2, 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/israel-is-juggling-covid-19-annexation-and-iran-analysis-633675

Khalid, Tuqa, “Saudi Arabia Sets New Coronavirus Protocols for Funerals, Weddings, Women’s Salons,” Al Arabiya, July 2, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/07/02/Saudi-Arabia-sets-new-coronavirus-protocols-for-funerals-weddings-women-s-salons.html

Reuters, “Coronavirus and sanctions hit Iran’s support of proxies in Iraq,” The Jerusalem Post, July 2, 2020  https://www.jpost.com/middle-east/iran-news/coronavirus-and-sanctions-hit-irans-support-of-proxies-in-iraq-633640

AlJazeera, “Middle East at ‘critical threshold’ of coronavirus crisis: Who, More than 80 percent of all deaths in the region were in five countries: Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, July 1, , 2020  https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/07/middle-east-critical-threshold-coronavirus-crisis-200701174842532.html

Harel, Amos, “Israel Is Paying the Price for Netanyahu Refusing to Appoint a ‘Corona Czar’,” Haaretz, July 1, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-is-paying-the-price-for-netanyahu-refusing-to-appoint-a-corona-czar-1.8960583?utm_source=traffic.outbrain.com&utm_medium=referrer&utm_campaign=outbrain_organic

Times of Israel Staff, “859 new cases confirmed, in Israel highest 24-hour tally since COVID-19 struck,” Times of Israel, July 1, 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/859-new-virus-cases-confirmed-in-highest-24-hour-tally-since-outbreak-started/

Breiner, Josh, “Israel Police to Carry Out Weekend Coronavirus Enforcement Operation as Cases Rise,” Haaretz, July 1, 2020  https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-police-to-carry-out-weekend-coronavirus-enforcement-operation-as-cases-rise-1.8965839

Bob, Yonah, “Knesset reinstates Shin Bet surveillance of coronavirus infected citizens,” The Jerusalem Post, July 1, 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/knesset-reinstates-shin-bet-coronavirus-surveillance-of-infected-citizens-633506

Khoury, Jack, “Palestinian Authority Announces Full Lockdown as West Bank Coronavirus Cases Spike,” Haaretz, July 1, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/palestinians/.premium–1.8963870

Jalal, Ibrahim, “Yemen’s botched pandemic response and fragile conflict dynamics allow COVID-19 to spread undetected,” The Middle East Institute, June 30, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/yemens-botched-pandemic-response-and-fragile-conflict-dynamics-allow-covid-19-spread

Jeffay, Nathan, “Their best shots: Israeli efforts to invent a coronavirus vaccine, explained,” Times of Israel, June 30, 2020  https://www.timesofisrael.com/their-best-shots-israeli-efforts-to-invent-a-coronavirus-vaccine-explained/

Efrati, Ido, “Israel Launches Antibody Testing to Determine Scope of Coronavirus Infection,” Haaretz, June 29, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-launches-nationwide-coronavirus-antibody-test-1.8955607

Times of Israel Staff, “Widespread serological testing of public for coronavirus antibodies kicks off,” Times of Israel, June 29, 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/widespread-serological-testing-of-public-for-coronavirus-antibodies-kicks-off/

Ashkenazi, Gabi, “Gabi Ashkenazi – Israel’s Foreign Minister faces 3 main challenges,” The Jerusalem Post, June 29, 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/gabi-ashkenazi-israels-foreign-minister-faces-3-main-challenges-633153

Times of Israel Staff, “Ailing business owners to get new NIS 2 billion coronavirus aid package,” Times of Israel, June 29, 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/ailing-business-owners-to-get-new-nis-2-billion-coronavirus-aid-package/

Koseoglu, Sinem, “COVID-19 lockdowns take toll on Turkey tea harvest,” Aljazeera, June 28, 2020 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/06/covid-19-lockdowns-toll-turkey-tea-harvest-200628111411353.html

Jeffay, Nathan, “‘It’s frightening’: Doctors say half of ‘cured’ COVID patients still suffer,” Times of Israel, June 28, 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/its-frightening-doctors-say-half-of-cured-covid-patients-still-suffer/

Aljazeera Staff, “Pakistan producing own ventilators as COVID-19 cases rise,” Aljazeera, June 28, 2020 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/06/pakistan-producing-ventilators-covid-19-cases-rise-200628091242236.html

“IMF Executive Board Approves 12-month US$5.2 Billion Stand-By Arrangement for Egypt,” International Monetary Fund, June 26, 2020   https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/06/26/pr20248-egypt-imf-executive-board-approves-12-month-us-5-2billion-stand-by-arrangement

The Associated Press, “Israel Announces Coronavirus Partnership With U.A.E.,” The New York Times, June 25, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/video/world/middleeast/100000007209990/israel-uae-coronavirus-partnership.html?searchResultPosition=1

Soliman, Mohammed, “Egypt’s path forward from the pandemic’s economic fallout,” The Middle East Institute, June 23, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/egypts-path-forward-pandemics-economic-fallout

Yerkey, Sarah and Maro Youssef, “Coronavirus Reveals Tunisia’s Revolutionary Gains for Women Only Exist on Paper,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, June 22, 2020 https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/06/22/coronavirus-reveals-tunisia-s-revolutionary-gains-for-women-only-exist-on-paper-pub-82151

Rabi, Uzi, “The GCC States and the Coronavirus: Between “Coronaphobia” and Economic Shock” Moshe Dayan Center, June 20, 2020 https://dayan.org/content/gcc-states-and-coronavirus-between-coronaphobia-and-economic-shock

“The Coronavirus in the Middle East: State and Society in a Time of Crisis,” Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies and Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, NO DATE, https://dayan.org/content/coronavirus-middle-east-state-and-society-time-crisis

Tamara Abueish, “Coronavirus Cases in Saudi Arabia Surpass 150,000 after 4,301 New Cases Detected,” Al Arabiya, June 19, , 2020https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/06/19/Coronavirus-cases-in-Saudi-Arabia-surpass-150-000-after-4-301-new-cases-detected.html

Tamara Abueish, “Saudi Arabia to Resume Domestic Tourism Starting from June 21.” Al Arabiya, June 19, , 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/06/19/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-to-resume-domestic-tourism-starting-from-June-21.html

Amos Harel, “Israel’s ‘Coronavirus Cabinet’ Faces a Tough Dilemma – and Public Disobedience,” Haaretz, June 19, , 2020  https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-s-coronavirus-cabinet-faces-a-tough-dilemma-and-public-disobedience-1.8932332 

, 2020 “Coronavirus Israel Live: Israel Tops 20,000 Confirmed Cases,” Haaretz, June 19, 2020https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/coronavirus-israel-live-new-hot-spots-emerging-in-south-tel-aviv-jaffa-1.8921483

Times of Israel Staff, “Israel Records Nearly 350 New Coronavirus Cases in One Day, in First Since April,” Times of Israel, June 19, , 2020 https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-records-over-300-new-cases-in-one-day-in-first-since-april/

Khaled Mansour, Mau El-Sandany, Michael Wahid Hanna, Amr Hamzawy, “Egypt Faces the Pandemic: Politics, Rights, and Global Dynamics,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, June 18, 2020 https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/06/18/egypt-faces-pandemic-politics-rights-and-global-dynamics-event-7353

Zachary Keyser, “Israeli AI Firm that Offers Early COVID-19 Detection Receives FDA Approval,” Jerusalem Post, June 17, , 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/israeli-medtech-firm-specializing-in-early-detection-of-covid-19-receives-fda-approval-631752

Manfred Gerstenfeld, “Post-Coronavirus Societies: Where We are Right Now,” Perspective Papers, BESA Center, June 17, , 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/post-coronavirus-societies/

Eytan Halon, “Tour Operators Appeal to Netanyahu to Rescue Tourism Industry,” Jerusalem Post, June 17, , 2020 https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/tour-operators-appeal-to-netanyahu-to-rescue-tourism-industry-631784

Reem Salahi, “Syrians Respond to COVID-19 with Renewed Volunteer and Community Efforts,” Middle East Institute, June 17, , 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/syrians-respond-covid-19-renewed-volunteer-and-community-efforts

Ido Efrati, “Israel Set to Seal Multi-million Deal on Unapproved Coronavirus Vaccine,” Haaretz, June 16, , 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-close-to-buying-high-priced-unapproved-coronavirus-vaccines-1.8923312

World Bank staff, “Morocco: Stepping up to the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak,” World Bank, June 16, , 2020 https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2020/06/16/morocco-stepping-up-to-the-covid-19-pandemic-outbreak

Burcu Karakas, “Violence Against Women in Turkey during COVID-19,” Middle East Institute, June 15, , 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/violence-against-women-turkey-during-covid-19

Roy Schulman, “COVID-19 and the Post-Truth Age: The Role of Facts in Public Policy,” INSS, June 15, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-post-truth-seminar/

Zulfiqar Ali, “Coronavirus: Has a Second Wave of Infections Hit Iran?” BBC, June, 15, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/52959756

Omer Karasapan, “Yemen and COVID-19: The Pandemic Exacts Its Devastating Toll,” Brookings Institute, June 15, , 2020 https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2020/06/15/yemen-and-covid-19-the-pandemic-exacts-its-devastating-toll/

Hafsa Halawa, “The gendered impact of COVID-19 in the Middle East,” Middle East Institute, June 11, , 2020 https://www.mei.edu/policy-analysis

Stephen Kalin and Rory Jones, “Middle East’s Coronavirus Surge Shows Pandemic’s Shift to Developing World,” Wall Street Journal, June 11, , 2020 https://www.wsj.com/articles/middle-easts-coronavirus-surge-shows-pandemics-shift-to-developing-world-11591893467

Muhsen al-Mustafa, “Fighting on Two Fronts,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, June 9, , 2020 https://carnegie-mec.org/diwan/81997

OECD staff, “COVID-19 Crisis Response in MENA Countries,” OECD, June, 9, , 2020 http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/covid-19-crisis-response-in-mena-countries-4b366396/

Lt. Col (ret.) Michael Segall, “Iran’s President Rouhani: Coronavirus Will be Here for a Long Time,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, June 8, , 2020 https://jcpa.org/irans-president-rouhani-coronavirus-will-be-here-for-a-long-time/

Donna Rachel Edmunds, “Israeli Study Points to Nicotine As A Potential Therapeutic for COVID-19,” Jerusalem Post, June 7, , 2020 https://www.jpost.com/health-science/more-studies-point-to-nicotine-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-covid-19-630576

Maayan Jaffe-Hoffman, “Israel Inaugurates First ‘Blue-and-White’ COVID-19 Mask Production Line,” Jerusalem Post, June 7, , 2020 https://www.jpost.com/health-science/israel-inaugurates-first-blue-and-white-covid-19-masks-production-line-630597

Ali Younes, “Jordan Takes Major Step Towards Post-Coronavirus Normality,” Al Jazeera, June 5, , 2020 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/06/jordan-takes-major-step-post-coronavirus-normality-200605184050646.html

Declan Walsh, “Coronavirus Rips into Regions Previously Spared,” New York Times, June 4, , 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/04/world/middleeast/coronavirus-egypt-america-africa-asia.html

Dr. Mordechai Chaziza, “Coronavirus, China, and the Middle East,” The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies-Bar Ilan University, June 2, , 2020 https://besacenter.org/mideast-security-and-policy-studies/coronavirus-china-middle-east/

Yoel Guzansky and Shmuel Even, “The Economic Crisis in the Gulf States: A Challenge to the “Contract” between Rulers and Ruled,” INSS Insight. June 1, , 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/gulf-states-economy/

George N. Tzogopoulos, “Government Accountability Is Being Tested in the Age of Coronavirus, BESA Center, June 1, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/coronavirus-government-accountability/

Tamara Abueish, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia detects 1,877 new cases, raising total to 85,261,” Al Arabiya English, May 31, , 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/31/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-detects-1-877-new-cases-raising-total-to-85-261.html

Matthew Amlôt, “Dubai’s Emirates airline plans to cut staff amid coronavirus crisis” Al Arabiya English, May 31, , 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/31/Dubai-s-Emirates-airline-plans-to-cut-staff-amid-coronavirus-crisis.html

AFP, “Iran struggles to contain coronavirus as cases surpass 150,000,” Al Arabiya English, May 31, , 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/31/Iran-struggles-to-contain-coronavirus-as-cases-surpass-150-000.html

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Famous mosques reopen in Saudi Arabia and Jerusalem,” BBC News, May 31, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52868291?intlink_from_url=https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers&link_location=live-reporting-story

Reuters, “Coronavirus: Egypt confirms new daily record of 1,289 new COVID-19 cases,” Al Arabiya English, May 30, , 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/30/Coronavirus-Egypt-confirms-new-daily-record-of-1-289-new-COVID-19-cases.html

Orla Guerin, “Coronavirus: How Turkey took control of Covid-19 emergency,” BBC News, May 29, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-52831017

Joseph Hinks, “Yemen Officially Has One of the Middle East’s Lowest COVID-19 Counts. In Reality, the Virus Is Spreading Unseen and Unchecked,” TIME, May 28, , 2020 https://time.com/5843732/yemen-covid19-invisible-crisis/

Menelaos Hadjicostis, “Cyprus Pledges to Cover ‘All Costs’ for Tourists Who Test Positive for COVID-19 While on Vacation,” TIME, May 28, , 2020 https://time.com/5844179/cyprus-sponsors-covid-tourists/

Amos Harel, “Israel’s COVID-19 Experts: The Lockdown Saved the Country, but Steps Are Needed to Avert Another,” Haaretz, May 28, , 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-s-covid-experts-lockdown-saved-country-steps-are-needed-to-avert-another-1.8879376

Judy Maltz, “Aliyah in the Time of Coronavirus: Meet the Immigrants Who Moved to Israel During a Pandemic,” Haaretz, May 28, , 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-meet-the-immigrants-who-moved-to-israel-during-coronavirus-pandemic-1.8876334

Martin Patience, “Coronavirus: Lebanon’s woes worsen as country pushed to the brink,” BBC News, May 27, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52756418

AFP, “Coronavirus: 15 Syrian refugees in east Lebanon test positive,” Al Arabiya English, May 27, , 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/27/Coronavirus-15-Syrian-refugees-in-east-Lebanon-test-positive.html

David Breakstone, COVID-19 and the Jewish Question, The Jerusalem Post, May 27, , 2020 https://www.jpost.com/diaspora/covid-19-and-the-jewish-question-629432

Itan Brun Online International Conference: COVID-!9 and the Post-Truth Era- The Role of Facts in Public Policy, INSS< May 27, , 2020  https://www.inss.org.il/event/coronavirus-and-post-truth/  (2:04) 

Ayelett Shani, “When It Comes to Emergency Preparedness, Japan and Israel Have Something in Common,” Haaretz, May 27, , 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-when-it-comes-to-emergency-preparedness-japan-and-israel-have-something-in-common-1.8877646

Lee Yaron, “Proposed Bill Would Abolish Benefit Cuts for Most Vulnerable Israelis Affected by Coronavirus,” Haaretz, May 26, , 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-bill-would-abolish-benefit-cuts-for-most-vulnerable-israelis-affected-by-coronavirus-1.8874143

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Egypt doctors accuse government over medics’ deaths,” BBC News, May 26, , 2020https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52805743

Paul Rivlin, “Coronavirus, Oil and the Middle East,” Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, May 25, , 2020 https://dayan.org/content/coronavirus-oil-and-middle-east

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Iran reopens Shia Muslim shrines after two-month closure,” BBC News, May 25, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52797959

The Associated Press, “Jerusalem’s Holy Sepulcher Reopens After Coronavirus Closure,” Haaretz, May 24, , 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/jerusalem-s-holy-sepulcher-reopens-after-coronavirus-closure-1.8868525

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Yemen’s healthcare system ‘in effect collapsed’,” BBC News, May 22, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52769919?intlink_from_url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world/middle_east&link_location=live-reporting-story

Jack Detsch, Robbie Gramer, “Trump Administration Says Iran Could Exit Syria Amid Pandemic,” Foreign Policy, May 21, , 2020 https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/21/trump-iran-syria-exit-coronavirus-pandemic/

Manjari Singh, “The Influence of Coronovirus on Diplomatic Relations: Iran, China, Gulf Arabs and India, Washington Institute, Fikra Forum, May 21, , 2020  https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/Coronavirus-Diplomacy-Trade-Iran-China-Gulf-States-India

Noa Shusterman, “The Economic Challenge in the Palestinian Authority following COVID-19,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 20, , 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/the-pa-economic-situation-after-corona/?offset=2&posts=undefined&outher=undefined&from_date=undefined&to_date=undefined

Ashish Kumar Sen, “Pakistan’s Battle with Coronavirus Reveals Governance Challenges,” United States Institute of Peace, May 19, , 2020 https://www.usip.org/publications/2020/05/pakistans-battle-coronavirus-reveals-governance-challenges

Meir Elran, Shmuel Even, “Civilian Resilience in Israel and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of a CBS Survey,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 17, , 2020  https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-survey/?offset=3&posts=56&subject=1218

Amos Yadlin, Ari Heistein, “Down but Not Out – Trump’s Deal of the Century in the Shadow of the Coronavirus,” The Institute for National Security Studies, Spring , 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/down-but-not-out-trumps-deal-of-the-century-in-the-shadow-of-the-coronavirus/?offset=1&posts=56&subject=1218

Benjamin Miller, “The Geopolitical Effects of the Corona Crisis,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 18, 2020 (written April 2020), https://strategicassessment.inss.org.il/en/articles/the-geopolitical-effects-of-the-corona-crisis/

CGTN, “COVID-19 Global Roundup: The Political side effects in the Middle East,” May 17, , 2020 https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-05-17/Covid-19-Global-Roundup-The-political-side-effects-in-the-Middle-East-QyGicQAzPW/index.html

Michael Milshtein, “​Escalation of the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle for Influence in East Jerusalem in the Shadow of the Coronavirus Crisis,” Institute for Policy  and Strategy -IPS, May 17, 2020 https://www.idc.ac.il/en/research/ips/pages/insights/michael-milshtein-15-5-20.aspx

Meir Elran, Shmuel Even, “Civilian Resilience in Israel and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of a CBS Survey,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 17, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-survey/

Tamara Abueish, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia reports 2,736 new cases, conducts up to 18,000 tests daily,” Al Arabiya English, May 17, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/17/Coronavirus-Saudi-Arabia-2-736-new-cases-conducts-15-000-to-18-000-tests-daily.html

Reuters for Al Arabiya English, “Eid amid coronavirus: Egypt to impose movement restrictions,” May 17, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/17/Eid-amid-coronavirus-Egypt-to-impose-movement-restrictions.html

AFP for Al Arabiya English, Iran’s coronavirus death toll rises to nearly 7,000: Health ministry spokesman, May 17, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/17/Iran-s-coronavirus-death-toll-rises-to-nearly-7-000-Health-ministry-spokesman-.html

Tuqa Khalid, “Saudi Arabia’s coronavirus death rate, critical cases lowest in world: Minister,” Al Arabiya English, May 17, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/05/17/Saudi-Arabia-has-one-of-world-s-lowest-coronavirus-death-rates-critical-cases-Min.html

Associated Press at TIME, “Turkey Reports 41 New COVID-19 Deaths, Its Lowest Daily Fatality Number Since March,” May 16, 2020 https://time.com/5837900/turkey-lowest-daily-death-rate-march/ 

Shafiqur Rahman, “First Coronavirus Case Confirmed in Crowded Rohingya Refugee Camps,” TIME, May 15, 2020 https://time.com/5837270/coronavirus-rohingya-bangladesh-refugee-camp/

Juan Diaz-Prinz, Ph.D., “Yes, we can meet on online. But can we negotiate peace there?,” United States Institute of Peace, May 15, 2020   https://www.usip.org/blog/2020/05/yes-we-can-meet-online-can-we-negotiate-peace-there

Zeena Salman, “What It’s Like to Celebrate Ramadan Under Coronavirus Lockdown in the West Bank,” TIME, May 13, 2020 https://time.com/5833500/ramadan-lockdown-coronavirus/

Martin Patience, “Coronavirus: Lebanon begins ‘total’ shutdown as cases increase,” BBC News, May 13, 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52637725

**Oded Eran and Shimon Stein, “Israel’s Foreign Policy in the Post-Covid-19 Era,” INSS, May 13, , 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/foreign-policy-in-time-of-corona/

**IMF Country Focus. “Covid-19 Poses Formidable Threat for Fragile States in the Middle East and North Africa,” International Monetary Fund, May 13, 2020 https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/05/13/na051320-covid-19-poses-formidable-threat-for-fragile-states-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa

Associated Press, “Doctors and nurses suffered as Iran ignored virus concerns,” May 12, 2020 https://www.ynetnews.com/article/HyTguRP9L

Ido Efrati, “26-hour-shifts, Confusion and Exhaustion: Israel’s Medical Residents Describe a Disaster in the Making,” Haaretz, May 12, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-working-26-straight-hours-resident-doctors-demand-shorter-shifts-1.8839773

**Itai Brun and Amos Yadlin, “Updated Strategic Assessment (Coronavirus) for Israel for 2020 and Recommendations for the New Government,” INSS, May 12, , 2020  https://www.inss.org.il/publication/updated-strategic-survey-for-israel/

Adam Hoffman, Roie Yellinek, “The Middle East and China: Trust in the time of COVID-19,” Middle East Institute, May 12, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/middle-east-and-china-trust-time-covid-19

Dr. Irwin J. Mansdorf, Dr. Michael Weinberg, Dr. Jacob Weinberg, Dr. Muhammad Mahajnah, “Resilience, Stringency of Restrictions and Psychological Consequences of Covid-19 in Israel: Comparing Jewish and Arab Samples,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 12, 2020 https://jcpa.org/article/resilience-stringency-of-restrictions-and-psychological-consequences-of-covid-19-in-israel/

Saud Al-Sharafat, “Securitization of the Coronavirus Crisis in Jordan: Successes and Limitations,” The Washington Institute, May 11, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/COVID-19-Jordan-Middle-East-Securitization

Natia Chankvetadze, Ketevan Murusidze, “Challenges of COVID-19 in areas of protracted conflict,” Middle East Institute, May 11, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/challenges-covid-19-areas-protracted-conflict

Ido Efrati, “Israeli Researchers Pinpoint What Happens to Seriously Ill Coronavirus Patients,” Haaretz, May 11, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israeli-researchers-pinpoint-what-happens-to-seriously-ill-coronavirus-patients-1.8833677

Neha Maqsood, “On the Coronavirus, Pakistan’s Government Is Missing in Action,” Foreign Policy News, May 11, 2020 https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/11/on-coronavirus-pakistans-government-is-missing-in-action/

Burak Bekdil, “Turkey:Post Coronavirus Challenges Are Likely to Hurt,” BESA Center, May 10, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/turkey-coronavirus-challenges/ 

Efraim Inbar, “Coronavirus has not changed the Middle East,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 10, 2020 https://jiss.org.il/en/inbar-coronavirus-has-not-changed-the-middle-east/

Raed Ahmed, “The Religious Dimension of Iraq’s Coronavirus Response,” The Washington Institute, May 8, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/Iraq-Coronavirus-Religion-Sunni-Shia

Ido Efrati, “What We Did Right: Israeli Doctors Explain How They Beat the Coronavirus,” Haaretz, May 8, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-what-we-did-right-israeli-doctors-explain-how-they-beat-coronavirus-1.8849374

Ben Cahill, “Gulf States: Managing the Oil Crash,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, May 7, 2020 https://www.csis.org/analysis/gulf-states-managing-oil-crash

Ephraim Kam, “Iran, the Coronavirus Crisis, and the Consolidation in Syria,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 7, 2020   https://www.inss.org.il/publication/iran-syria-and-the-coronavirus/?offset=3&posts=51&subject=1218

Lt. Col. (ret.) Michael Segall, “BBC: IRGC-Affiliated Mahan Air Is to Blame for Spreading the Coronavirus in the Middle East,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 7, 2020 https://jcpa.org/bbc-irgc-affiliated-mahan-air-is-to-blame-for-spreading-the-coronavirus-in-the-middle-east/

Gershon HaCohen, “Coronavirus and the Modern State,” BESA-Center, May 7, , 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/coronavirus-and-the-modern-state/

David Siman-Tov, Shmuel Even, “Assistance from the Intelligence Community in the Fight against the Corona Pandemic,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 7, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-the-intelligence-community/?offset=4&posts=51&subject=1218

Ashley Jackson, “For the Taliban, the Pandemic Is a Ladder,” Foreign Policy News, May 6, 2020 https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/06/taliban-afghanistan-coronavirus-pandemic/

Eran Lerman, “Major upheavals due to coronavirus pose challenges for US-Israel relationship,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 6, 2020  https://jiss.org.il/en/lerman-major-upheavals-due-to-coronavirus/

Mohammed Abdalfatah, “COVID-19 Crisis – Business as Usual for Gaza?,” Chatham House, May 6, 2020 https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/covid-19-crisis-business-usual-gaza

Orna Mizrahi, Yoram Schweitzer, “The Israel-Hezbollah Confrontation amidst the Coronavirus Crisis,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 6, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/israel-hizbollah-and-the-coronavirus/?offset=5&posts=51&subject=1218

Asaf Ronel, Ido Efrati, “Labs in Israel and Abroad Report Progress Towards Coronavirus Antibody Therapy,” Haaretz, May 5, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/science/.premium-labs-in-israel-and-abroad-report-progress-towards-coronavirus-antibody-treatment-1.8823071

Nadav Shragai, “Stopping the Spread of the Coronavirus at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 5, 2020 https://jcpa.org/stopping-the-spread-of-the-coronavirus-at-the-temple-mount-in-jerusalem/

Michal Hatuel-Radoshitzky, Shahar Eilam, Tal-Or Cohen, “When an Old Disease Meets a New Disease: Antisemitism and Delegitimization of Israel in the COVID-19 Era,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 5, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-antisemitism/?offset=1&posts=undefined&outher=undefined&from_date=undefined&to_date=undefined

Yousif Kalian, “Iraq and its Minorities Face a New Challenge with Coronavirus,” United States Institute of Peace, May 5, 2020 https://www.usip.org/publications/2020/05/iraq-and-its-minorities-face-new-challenge-coronavirus

Efraim Inbar, “China’s coronavirus cover-up and the implications for Israel,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 5, 2020 https://jiss.org.il/en/inbar-chinas-coronavirus-cover-up-implications-for-israel/

Nader Ibrahim, Owen Pinnell and Manisha Ganguly, “Coronavirus by Air: The spread of Covid-19 in the Middle East,” BBC News, May 5, 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-52537663/coronavirus-by-air-the-spread-of-covid-19-in-the-middle-east

Efraim Laor and Gershon Hacohen, “Coronavirus: Improvisation is the Key to a Successful Response,” BESA Center, May 5, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/coronavirus-improvisation/

*The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security—Fellows, “Coronavirus in the Middle East: A Review and Assessment,” May 5, 2020 https://jiss.org.il/en/jiss-coronavirus-in-the-middle-east-a-review-and-assessment/

James Dorsey, “Coronavirus Threatens to Drive Wedge into US-Gulf Relations,” BESA Center, May 4, 2020 https://besacenter.org/author/dorsey/#.XrE8OqhKiUkGershon

INSS, “The Coronavirus and the US Jewish Community: Setbacks, Strategies, and the Silver Lining,” INSS Podcast, May 3, 2020 https://soundcloud.com/inss2006/the-coronavirus-and-the-us-jewish-community-setbacks-strategies-and-the-silver-lining

Ahmed  Abdel- Tawwab, “Covid-19 and education What are the lessons for reform of education in Egypt,” May 1, , 2020 al-Ahram Online, May 1,   2020 http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/4/368212/Opinion/Covid-and-education.aspx

*Jaafar Allawi, Saad Jaber, and Abdullah Algwizani, “Three Arab Health Officials (Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia) Discuss Fighting Covid- 19,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 30, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/arab-health-ministers-discuss-fighting-covid-19

Haley Bobseine, “Waiting for the bad to get worse: Lebanon in the time of corona,” Middle East Institute, April 30, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/waiting-bad-get-worse-lebanon-time-corona

Maged Atef, “Egypt’s Bitter Options in the Face of Coronavirus,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 30, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/Egypt-Coronavirus-Transparency-Response-Madbouly-Sisi

Mathew Ha and Alice Cho, “China’s Coronavirus Disinformation Campaigns Are Integral to Its Global Information Warfare Strategy,” Foundation for Defense of Democracy, April 30, 2020 https://www.fdd.org/analysis/2020/04/30/chinas-coronavirus-disinformation-campaigns-are-integral-to-its-global-information-warfare-strategy/

Gönül Tol and Dimitar Bechev,,“Can corona diplomacy cure Turkey’s foreign policy isolation, Middle East Institute, April 29, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/can-corona-diplomacy-cure-turkeys-foreign-policy-isolation

Gershon Hacohen, “A Tale of Two Leaders: Netanyahu During the Coronavirus Crisis and Ben-Gurion During the War of Independence,” BESA Center, April 28, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/coronavirus-netanyahu-ben-gurion/

Mohamed Mokhtar Qandil, “Terrorism and Coronavirus: Hyberbole, Idealism and Ignorance (ISIS and al-Qaeda),” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 28, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/Terrorism-Extremism-Coronavirus-ISIS-Al-Qaeda-Resurgence-COVID-19

Zvi Bar’el, “In Iraq, the Coronavirus Crisis Is Looking for a Government to Manage It,” Ha’Aretz, April 27, , 2020https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/iraq/.premium-in-iraq-the-coronavirus-crisis-is-looking-for-a-government-to-manage-it-1.8800666

*Yohanan Tzoreff, Kobi Michael, “Israel and Hamas: From Corona to Prisoners and a Possible Arrangement” INSS, April 27, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/israel-and-hamas-from-corona-to-prisoners-and-a-possible-arrangement/

Yoram Schweitzer and Aviad Mendelboim, “Salafi-Jihadists and the Coronavirus Pandemic,” INSS, April 27, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-jihadi-groups/

Zvi Bar’el, “As Iran Tries to Project Business as Usual, the Coronavirus Inflames Tensions,” Ha’aretz, April 25, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/iran/.premium-as-iran-tries-to-project-business-as-usual-the-coronavirus-inflames-tension-1.8794945

Ranj Alaaldin, “COVID-19 will Prolong Conflict in the Middle East,” April 24, , 2020 Brookings Institution, April 24, , 2020 https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/04/24/covid-19-will-prolong-conflict-in-the-middle-east/

INSS Staff, “[Audio panel discussion] Iran in the Corona Era: Implications for Israel’s National Security,” INSS, April 23, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/event/iran-coronavirus/

Farnza Fassihi, “Cheap Oil Poses New Quandry for Iran as It Relaxes, Virus Lockdown,” New York Times, April 23, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/23/world/middleeast/iran-coronavirus-oil.html

*Rasha Abou Jalal, “How is Palestine dealing with added hunger, poverty from COVID-19?” Al Monitor, April 23, , 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/palestinian-poor-families-government-plans-coronavirus.html

Ephraim Lavie, (et.al), “On the Eve of Ramadan: Arab Society in Israel and the Coronavirus,” INSS, April 23, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/ramadan-in-times-of-corona/

**Elizabeth Tsurkov, Qussal Jukhadar, “Ravaged by war, Syria’s health care system is utterly unprepared for pandemic,” Middle East Institute, April 23, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/ravaged-war-syrias-health-care-system-utterly-unprepared-pandemic

Sara Feuer, “Corona in the Casbah: The Pandemic’s Destabilizing Impact on Algeria,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 22, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/corona-in-the-casbah-the-pandemics-destabilizing-impact-on-algeria

Ofir Winter/Tzvi Lev, “Challenges to Egypt from the Coronavirus Pandemic,” INSS, April 22, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/egypt-coronavirus-test/

*Sever Plocker, “Finding coronavirus vaccine is international effort,” Y-Net, April 22, , 2020https://www.ynetnews.com/article/ryDUTFT008

**Oded Eran, “A Gloomy Forecast for the Middle East following the Coronavirus Crisis,” INSS, April 22, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/the-coronavirus-crisis-in-the-middle-east/

Rouhani hits out at skeptics of Iran pandemic statistics,” Al-Monitor, April 22, 2020 http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/rouhani-iran-skeptics-coronavirus-pandemic.html#ixzz6KOSS7Tx6

Yasmina Abouzzohour, “Covid in Maghreb: Responses and impacts,” Brookings Institute, April 21, 2020 https://www.brookings.edu/

Ronny Linder, “Inside the ultra-Orthodox Hospital at the Center of Israel’s Coronavirus Pandemic,” Haaretz, April 20, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-inside-the-ultra-orthodox-hospital-at-the-center-of-israel-s-coronavirus-pandemic-1.8781069

Josh Breiner, “Two Thousand Israelis Brave Coronavirus Fears to Protect Assault on Democracy,” Haaretz, April 20, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-over-a-thousand-israelis-brave-coronavirus-fears-to-protest-netanyahu-1.8781869

Yahya Anouti and Raed Kombargi, “How GCC governments can recover from the dual shock of COVID-19 and lower oil prices,” PWC Strategy&, April 2020 https://www.strategyand.pwc.com/m1/en/articles/2020/how-gcc-governments-can-recover.html

AFP, “Middle East braces for bleak Ramadan as coronavirus threat lingers,” al-Arabiyyah, April 20, , 2020  https://english.alarabiya.net/en/coronavirus/2020/04/20/Middle-East-braces-for-bleak-Ramadan-as-coronavirus-threat-lingers.html

Yossi Melman, “The Mossad Is Flaunting Too Much During the Coronavirus Crisis,” Haaretz, April 19, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-the-mossad-is-flaunting-too-much-during-the-coronavirus-crisis-1.8781348

Alan Baker, “Isn the Cove-19 Pandemic, What Are the Reciprocal Israeli and Palestinian Obligations,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, April 19, , 2020 https://jcpa.org/in-the-covid-19-pandemic-what-are-the-reciprocal-israeli-and-palestinian-obligations/

*Amos Yadlin, “Before Israel Reboots its (after Coronavirus) economy,” Y-Net, April 19, , 2020 https://www.ynetnews.com/article/HypBeAtOI

Manuel Traitenberg, “Managing the Coronavirus Crisis at the National Level: Not Only “What,” but “How,” INSS, April 19, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-management/

Amos Harel, “As Israel and Hezbollah Trade Barbs, Army Sees Opportunity in Coronavirus Crisis,” Haaretz, April 19, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-easing-of-israeli-restrictions-effectively-end-coronavirus-lockdown-with-no-return-1.8782255

Yaakov Amidror, “Israeli Decision-Making During the COVID-19 Crisis,” Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, April 19, 2020 https://jiss.org.il/en/amidror-israeli-decision-making-during-the-covid-19-crisis/

**Abdel Moneim Said, “Will Covid-19 mark a departure or merely an acceleration of what already was the path of the world,?” Alhramonline, April 18, , 2020 http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/4/367248/Opinion/Reshaping-the-world.aspx

Emil Avdaliani, “Coronavirus is Hitting Russia More than the Economy,” BESA Center, April 17, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-jihadi-groups/

*Michael Milstein, “Israel and the Palestinian Authority in the Face of the Coronavirus Crisis, April 17, , 2020 IDC Herzeliya, https://www.idc.ac.il/en/research/ips/pages/insights/michael-milshtein-17-4-20.aspx

Ofer Aderet, “Funerals on Zoom: How Israelis Grieve in the Time of Coronavirus,” Haaretz, April 15, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-funerals-on-zoom-how-israelies-grieve-in-the-time-of-coronavirus-1.8766623

Dina Ezzat, “Egypt: Striking the Right Balance,” Ahram Online, April 15, 2020 http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/50/1201/367310/AlAhram-Weekly/Egypt/Egypt-Striking-the-right-balance.aspx

*AP, Mideast economies battered by virus, oil prices and conflict, Al-Nahar, April 15, 2020 https://en.annahar.com/article/1167223-mideast-economies-battered-by-virus-oil-prices-and-conflict

Manjari Singh, “Jordan after COVID-19: From Crisis Adjustment to Crisis Management,” Fikra Forum Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 15, , 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/Jordan-response-COVID19-pandemic-Middle-East

Noa Shpigel, “Missiles Out, Ventilators In: Israeli Defense Contractors Answer the Coronavirus Call,” Haaretz, April 15, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-missiles-to-ventilators-israeli-defense-contractors-answer-the-coronavirus-call-1.8766154

Dr. Nouh El Harmouzi, The Arab World: Between the Coronavirus Pandemic and the Plague of Populism, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 15, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/Arab-world-coronavirus-pandemic-populism-economy

Manfred Gerstenfeld, “Political Leadership During the Coronavirus Crisis,” BESA Center, April 14, 2020 https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/political-leadership-during-the-coronavirus-crisis/

Kadri Gursel, “Is Coronavirus Good for Health of Turkish-US Relations?” Al-Monitor, April 14, 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/turkey-united-states-can-coronavirus-be-good-for-ties-s400.html

Hussain Abdul-Hussain, “Palestinians and Israelis Show Peace is Attainable with Coordinated COVID-19 Response,” Al Arabiya, April 14, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2020/04/14/Palestinians-and-Israelis-show-peace-is-attainable-with-coordinated-COVID-19-response.html

 “Scarce Resources in Syria’s Rebel-Held Areas amid COVID-19 Fears,” Al Jazeera, April 14, 2020 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/scarce-resources-syria-rebel-held-areas-covid-19-fears-200414202039334.html

Amir Afkhami, Katherine Bauer, Patrick Clawson, and Medhi Khalaji, “Iran’s Coronavirus Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 13, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/irans-coronavirus-crisis-implications-for-u.s.-policy 

AFP, “Virus ‘Disaster in the Making’ in War-Torn Syria,” The Jordan Times, April 13, 2020 https://www.jordantimes.com/news/region/virus-disaster-making-war-torn-syria

Udi Dekel and Noa Shusterman, “The Coronavirus in Gaza: Insights from a War Game,” INSS, April 13, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-gaza/

Samantha Gross, Suzanne Maloney, Bruce Riedel, and Angela Stent, “Brookings Experts Comment on Oil Market Developments and Geopolitical Tensions,” Brookings, April 13, 2020 https://www.brookings.edu/on-the-record/brookings-experts-comment-on-oil-market-developments-and-geopolitical-tensions/

Ben Hubbard, “Coronavirus Fears Terrify and Impoverish Migrants in the Persian Gulf,” The New York Times, April 13, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/13/world/middleeast/persian-gulf-migrants-coronavirus.html

Genevie Abdo and Anna L. Jacobs, “Are COVID-19 Restrictions Inflaming Religious Tensions?” Brookings, April 13, 2020 https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/04/13/are-covid-19-restrictions-inflaming-religious-tensions/

*Sultan Althari, “Coronavirus: Developing nations face choice between infection and starvation,” al-Arabiyyah, April 12, 2020  https://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/business/economy/2020/04/12/Coronavirus-Developing-nations-face-choice-between-infection-and-starvation.html

Ariel Finkelstein, “Public Health and the Ultra-Orthodox Community in Israel,” The Israel Democracy Institute, April 12, 2020 https://en.idi.org.il/articles/31196

Hussein Solomon, “The Impact of Covid-19 on the Middle East and North Africa,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs Vol. 20, No. 6, April 12, 2020 https://jcpa.org/article/the-impact-of-covid-19-on-the-middle-east-and-north-africa/

The Economist, “The Risk that Iraq Might Fall Apart,” The Economist, April 11, 2020 https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2020/04/11/the-risk-that-iraq-might-fall-apart

Ferid Belhaj, “Importance of Government Transparency in Saving Lives,” Asharq Al-Awsat, April 11, 2020 https://aawsat.com/english/home/article/2228281/ferid-belhaj/importance-government-transparency-saving-lives

Al-Monitor Staff, “War-Ravaged Yemen Reports First Case of COVID-19,” Al-Monitor, April 10, 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/yemen-reports-first-coronavirus-case.html

Reza Behrouz, Al-Arabiyah, “Coronavirus has gone global, but in Iran, it’s the Khamenei virus,” April 10, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2020/04/10/The-Khamenei-virus.html

Herb Keinon, “How will the Middle East look the day after coronavirus?”  The Jerusalem Post, April 10, , 2020 https://www.jpost.com/middle-east/how-will-the-middle-east-look-the-day-after-coronavirus-624200

International Monetary Fund, “IMF Executive Board Approves a US$745 Million Disbursement to Tunisia to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic,” International Monetary Fund, April 10, 2020 https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/04/10/pr20144-tunisia-imf-executive-board-approves-a-us-745m-disbursement-address-covid19-pandemic 

Jonathan Fenton-Harvey, “Saudi Arabia and the UAE’s Diverging Regional Coronavirus Strategy,” Al-Monitor, April 9, 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/uae-relations-iran-coronavirus-saudi-arabia.html

Azadeh Zamirirad, “Three Implications of the Corona Crisis in Iran,” SWP German Institute for International and Security Affairs, April 9, 2020 https://www.swp-berlin.org/en/publication/three-implications-of-the-corona-crisis-in-iran/

Zine Labidine Ghebouli, “Coronavirus Will Change Both Algeria’s Political System and Its Opposition,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 9, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/coronavirus-will-change-both-algerias-political-system-and-its-opposition

Diego Cupolo, “Turkish pandemic plan raises concerns over citizens’ digital rights,” Al Monitor, April 9, 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/turkey-coronavirus-response-concerns-digital-rights.html

David M. Halbfinger and Mohammed Najib, “Palestinians Fear a Coming Coronavirus Storm,” The New York Times, April 9, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/09/world/middleeast/coronavirus-palestinians-israel-gaza-west-bank.html

Saeed Al-Batati and Ben Hubbard, “Saudi Arabia Declares Cease-Fire in Yemen, Citing Fears of Corona,” The New York Times, April 8, 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/08/world/middleeast/saudi-yemen-ceasefire-coronavirus.html

Remi Daniel and Gallia Lindenstrauss, “Turkey and the Fight against the Coronavirus: Significant Challenge, Partial Response,” INSS Insight No. 1297, April 8, 2020  https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-and-turkey/?offset=1&posts=1300&type=399

Udi Dekel, Assaf Orion “The Natonal Struggle agains the Coronavirus: An Integrated, Multi-Phase Systematic Campaign, INSS, April 8, 2020m revised analytics, May 31, , 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/special-publication-080420.pdf

Micky Aharonson and Aiman Mansour, “Will Coronavirus be a Moderating Factor in the Middle East?” Jerusalem Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 7, 2020 https://jiss.org.il/en/aharonson-mansour-will-coronavirus-be-a-moderating-factor-in-middle-east/

 Hagar Shezaf, “Coronavirus ‘Disaster’ at Israeli Factory Prompts Policy Revamp on Palestinian Workers,” Haaretz, April 7, 2020 https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/palestinians/.premium-coronavirus-disaster-at-israeli-factory-prompts-revamp-on-palestinian-workers-1.8745545

Kobi Michael and Yohanan Tzoreff, “The Corona Pandemic and the Palestinian Arena: Significance for Israel,” INSS Insight No. 1295, April 6, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-gaza-and-the-west-bank/?offset=4&posts=1300&type=399

Orna Mizrahi and Yoram Schweitzer, “The Coronavirus Crisis Heightens the Distress of Lebanon and Hezbollah,” INSS Insight No. 1294, April 6, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/corovavirus-lebanon/?offset=5&posts=1300&type=399

Colonel (ret.) Dr. Jacques Neriah, “Lebanon Suffocates under the Coronavirus and the Rising U.S. Dollar,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, April 6, 2020 https://jcpa.org/lebanon-suffocates-under-the-coronavirus-and-the-rising-u-s-dollar/

Eliza Volkman, “Algeria’s protesters say COVID-19 will not kill movement, just transform it,” Al Monitor, April 5, 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/algeria-protest-hirak-change-coronavirus-awareness.html#ixzz6JjIbWzXS 

Mehmet Cetingulec, “Syrian refugees villainized as Turkey faces costs of coronavirus,” Al Monitor, April 5, 2020 https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/04/turkey-syria-refugees-blamed-coronavirus-economic-turmoil.html

Udi Levi, “Coronavirus and the Campaign Against Iran,” Jerusalem Institute for Strategic Studies, April 4, 2020 https://jiss.org.il/en/levi-coronavirus-and-the-campaign-against-iran/ 

Heba Saleh, “Activists accuse Algeria of using Covid-19 to clamp down on protests,” Financial Times, April 3, 2020 https://www.ft.com/content/74643fe5-a90f-414e-a5dd-fb75cb30a71e  

Hanin Ghaddar, “Hezbollah’s Coronavirus Public Relations Act Won’t Save Lebanon,” Al Arabiya, April 2, 2020 https://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2020/04/02/Hezbollah-s-public-relations-act-won-t-save-Lebanon-.html

Mohammed Masbah, “Can Morocco Effectively Handle the COVID-19 Crisis?” Chatham House, April 2, 2020 https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/can-morocco-effectively-handle-covid-19-crisis-1

Lucy Kurzter-Ellenbogen and Robert Barron, “In Gaza, Israelis and Palestinians Face a Common Foe in Coronavirus,” April 1, 2020  https://www.usip.org/publications/2020/04/gaza-israelis-and-palestinians-face-common-foe-coronavirus

Aaron Y. Zelin and Oula A. Alrifai“Syria’s Three Governments Confront the Coronavirus,” April 1, , 2020 Washington Institute for Near East Policy, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrias-three-governments-confront-the-coronavirus

Jacob Mchangama and Sarah Mclaughlin, “Coronavirus Has Started a Censorship Pandemic,” Foreign Policy, April 1, 2020 https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/04/01/coronavirus-censorship-pandemic-disinformation-fake-news-speech-freedom/  

Oula A. Alrifai and Aaron Y. Zelin, “Syria’s Three Governments Confront the Coronavirus,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 1, 2020https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrias-three-governments-confront-the-coronavirus

Itai Brun, Yoel Guzansky, Daniel Rakov and Sarah J. Feuer, “Food for Thought during the Corona Virus: Ten Potential Negative Scenarios in Israel’s Strategic Environment,” INSS, April 1, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/ten-negative-scenarios/

*Jonathan Marcus, “Coronavirus: A Ticking time-bomb for the Middle East,” BBC News, March 31, , 2020 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-52103958

Jehad Harb, “The Palestinian Health System: Improving its Financing and Enhancing the Quality of its Services,” Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, April , 2020 https://www.pcpsr.org/en/node/801

Mohamed Abdelaziz, “The Egyptian Response to Coronavirus: Denial and Conspiracy,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, March 27, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/fikraforum/view/egypt-coronavirus-denial-conspiracy-COVID-pandemic

Itai Brun and Sarah J. Feuer, “The Calm before the Storm? Coping with Corona in the Middle East,” INSS, March 26, 2020 https://www.inss.org.il/publication/coronavirus-in-the-middle-east/

Nate Mason and Jason Pack, “Could Coronavirus Lead to an Arab Spring 2.0?” Middle East Institute, March 25, 2020 https://www.mei.edu/publications/could-coronavirus-lead-arab-spring-20

Ambassador Alan Baker, “Israel, the Palestinians, Corona and Peace,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs Vol. 20, No. 5, March 24, 2020 https://jcpa.org/article/israel-the-palestinians-corona-and-peace/

Samy Magdy and Albert Aji, “Libya Reports First Coronavirus Case as the Pandemic Sweeps Across the Middle East,” Time, March 24, 2020 https://time.com/5809453/libya-middle-east-coronavirus-covid19/

Jon B. Alterman, “Add Coronavirus to Other Crises, and the Middle East Faces a Catastrophe,” CSIS, March 23, 2020 https://www.csis.org/analysis/add-coronavirus-other-crises-and-middle-east-faces-catastrophe

Jihad Azour, “COVID-19 Pandemic and the Middle East and Central Asia: Region Facing Dual Shock,” International Monetary Fund, March 23, 2020 https://blogs.imf.org/2020/03/23/covid-19-pandemic-and-the-middle-east-and-central-asia-region-facing-dual-shock/

*IDC Herziliya, “Coronavirus in the Middle East: Regimes; Stability, Oil, Religion,” Institute for Policy and Strategy, March 20, , 2020 https://www.idc.ac.il/en/research/ips/pages/spotlight/spotlight-16-3-20.aspx

Neri Zilber, “Coronavirus in the Holy Land: Israel Has Been Ready for a Crisis Such as This,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, March 20, 2020 https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/coronavirus-in-the-holy-land-israel-has-been-ready-for-a-crisis-such-as-thi

Karnit Flug, “The COVID-19 Crisis- Economic Impact and Economic Policies,” The Israel Democracy Institute, March 19, 2020 https://en.idi.org.il/articles/31051

Middle East Institute, “Covid-19 and the Middle East – Rondtable covering Middle Eastern States,” March 18, , 2020 https://www.mei.edu/blog/covid-19-and-middle-east

**IDC Herzeliza, “Coronavirus in the Middle East: Regimes’ Stability, Oil, Religion, and Politics, March 16, , 2020 https://www.idc.ac.il/en/research/ips/pages/spotlight/spotlight-16-3-20.aspx