The Impact of Covid-19 on Middle Eastern and North African States: A Curated Reading List (Recently Updated) The empty Kaaba in the Muslim holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia during Ramadan in March 2020. Photo: Ganoo Essa/Reuters.

The Impact of Covid-19 on Middle Eastern and North African Studies: A Curated Reading List (Updated—June 2, 2020)

Ben Wax, Eli Sperling and Ken Stein, ISMI and the Center for Israel Education

Think tanks, scholars and analysts are producing excellent assessments of the impact that the Coronavirus pandemic is and will have on Middle Eastern countries. The pandemic is dramatically disrupting the economies of Middle Eastern and North African states as well as their domestic and regional politics. Israel closed down for two months and in early May reopened schools and business destinations. And then at the end of May, a spike in new cases caused Israel to re-emphasize social distancing. To date, Israel and the Palestinian Authority and in Gaza with Hamas have cooperated to slow the virus. Long distance learning in Egypt may have a salutary impact: iPad and computer needs will push internet growth and reliability. Otherwise, regularly marred by war and instability, the pandemic is jolting the region. Countries like Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Yemen and Iraq, with long-standing wars, bleeding sectarianism and crises in governance are at particular risk of humanitarian crises. With other regions facing the pandemic as well, is it feasible for international bodies like the UN and International Monetary Fund to mitigate fallout? Oil producing states that historically provided subventions and safety nets to Muslim neighbors and insurgency groups are hemorrhaging incomes as the price per barrel falls to unprecedented lows. Laboring under international sanctions, Iran’s economy teeters precariously with one of the highest per capita death rates from the pandemic worldwide. Yet, the pandemic has likely strengthened the controls of the security networks over populations. A devastated Syrian healthcare system will not likely cope with the pandemic. To secure a glimpse of the rich discussion of what is and what lies in store, the curated list of analyses of Covid-19’s impact on the region and on individual countries is provided. This is the fourth update since early April. It is arranged most recent first; suggested use, download the list, then control+F to locate countries, etc.; *recommended. (156 entries, June 1-March 6, 2020)

Yoel Guzansky and Shmuel Even, “The Economic Crisis in the Gulf States: A Challenge to the “Contract” between Rulers and Ruled,” INSS Insight, June 1, 2020.

George N. Tzogopoulos, “Government Accountability Is Being Tested in the Age of Coronavirus,” BESA Center, June 1, 2020.

Tamara Abueish, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia detects 1,877 new cases, raising total to 85,261,” Al Arabiya English, May 31, 2020.

Matthew Amlôt, “Dubai’s Emirates airline plans to cut staff amid coronavirus crisis,” Al Arabiya English, May 31, 2020.

AFP, “Iran struggles to contain coronavirus as cases surpass 150,000”, Al Arabiya English, May 31, 2020.

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Famous mosques reopen in Saudi Arabia and Jerusalem,” BBC News, May 31, 2020.

Reuters, “Coronavirus: Egypt confirms new daily record of 1,289 new COVID-19 cases,” Al Arabiya English, May 30, 2020.

Orla Guerin, “Coronavirus: How Turkey took control of Covid-19 emergency,” BBC News, May 29, 2020.

Joseph Hinks, “Yemen Officially Has One of the Middle East’s Lowest COVID-19 Counts. In Reality, the Virus Is Spreading Unseen and Unchecked”, TIME, May 28, 2020.

Menelaos Hadjicostis, “Cyprus Pledges to Cover ‘All Costs’ for Tourists Who Test Positive for COVID-19 While on Vacation”, TIME, May 28, 2020.

Amos Harel, “Israel’s COVID-19 Experts: The Lockdown Saved the Country, but Steps Are Needed to Avert Another,” Haaretz, May 28, 2020.

Judy Maltz, “Aliyah in the Time of Coronavirus: Meet the Immigrants Who Moved to Israel During a Pandemic,” Haaretz, May 28, 2020.

Martin Patience, “Coronavirus: Lebanon’s woes worsen as country pushed to the brink,” BBC News, May 27, 2020.

AFP, “Coronavirus: 15 Syrian refugees in east Lebanon test positive,” Al Arabiya English, May 27, 2020.

David Breakstone, “COVID-19 and the Jewish Question,” The Jerusalem Post, May 27, 2020.

Itan Brun, “Online International Conference: COVID-19 and the Post-Truth Era—The Role of Facts in Public Policy,” INSS, May 27, 2020. (2:04)

Ayelett Shani, “When It Comes to Emergency Preparedness, Japan and Israel Have Something in Common”, Haaretz, May 27, 2020.

Lee Yaron, “Proposed Bill Would Abolish Benefit Cuts for Most Vulnerable Israelis Affected by Coronavirus,” Haaretz, May 26, 2020.

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Egypt doctors accuse government over medics’ deaths,” BBC News, May 26, 2020.

Paul Rivlin, “Coronavirus, Oil and the Middle East,” Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, May 25, 2020.

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Iran reopens Shia Muslim shrines after two-month closure,” BBC News, May 25, 2020.

The Associated Press, “Jerusalem’s Holy Sepulcher Reopens After Coronavirus Closure,” Haaretz, May 24, 2020.

BBC Staff, “Coronavirus: Yemen’s healthcare system ‘in effect collapsed,’” BBC News, May 22, 2020.

Jack Detsch and Robbie Gramer, “Trump Administration Says Iran Could Exit Syria Amid Pandemic,” Foreign Policy, May 21, 2020.

Manjari Singh, “The Influence of Coronavirus on Diplomatic Relations: Iran, China, Gulf Arabs and India,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, May 21, 2020.

Noa Shusterman, “The Economic Challenge in the Palestinian Authority following COVID-19,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 20, 2020.

Ashish Kumar Sen, “Pakistan’s Battle with Coronavirus Reveals Governance Challenges,” United States Institute of Peace, May 19, 2020.

Meir Elran, Shmuel Even, “Civilian Resilience in Israel and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of a CBS Survey,” INSS, May 17, 2020.

Amos Yadlin and Ari Heistein, “Down but Not Out—Trump’s Deal of the Century in the Shadow of the Coronavirus,” INSS, Spring 2020.

Benjamin Miller, “The Geopolitical Effects of the Corona Crisis,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 18, 2020 (written April 2020).

CGTN, “COVID-19 Global Roundup: The Political side effects in the Middle East,” May 17, 2020.

Michael Milshtein, “​Escalation of the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle for Influence in East Jerusalem in the Shadow of the Coronavirus Crisis,” Institute for Policy  and Strategy -IPS, May 17, 2020.

Meir Elran, Shmuel Even, “Civilian Resilience in Israel and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Analysis of a CBS Survey,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 17, 2020.

Tamara Abueish, “Coronavirus: Saudi Arabia reports 2,736 new cases, conducts up to 18,000 tests daily,” Al Arabiya English, May 17, 2020.

Reuters for Al Arabiya English, “Eid amid coronavirus: Egypt to impose movement restrictions,” May 17, 2020.

AFP for Al Arabiya English, Iran’s coronavirus death toll rises to nearly 7,000: Health ministry spokesman, May 17, 2020.

Tuqa Khalid, “Saudi Arabia’s coronavirus death rate, critical cases lowest in world: Minister,” Al Arabiya English, May 17, 2020.

Associated Press at TIME, “Turkey Reports 41 New COVID-19 Deaths, Its Lowest Daily Fatality Number Since March,” May 16, 2020.

Shafiqur Rahman, “First Coronavirus Case Confirmed in Crowded Rohingya Refugee Camps,” TIME, May 15, 2020.

Juan Diaz-Prinz, Ph.D., “Yes, we can meet on online. But can we negotiate peace there?,” United States Institute of Peace, May 15, 2020.

Zeena Salman, “What It’s Like to Celebrate Ramadan Under Coronavirus Lockdown in the West Bank,” TIME, May 13, 2020.

Martin Patience, “Coronavirus: Lebanon begins ‘total’ shutdown as cases increase,” BBC News, May 13, 2020.

**Oded Eran and Shimon Stein, “Israel’s Foreign Policy in the Post-Covid-19 Era,” INSS, May 13, 2020,

**IMF Country Focus. “Covid-19 Poses Formidable Threat for Fragile States in the Middle East and North Africa,” International Monetary Fund, May 13, 2020.

Associated Press, “Doctors and nurses suffered as Iran ignored virus concerns,” May 12, 2020.

Ido Efrati, “26-hour-shifts, Confusion and Exhaustion: Israel’s Medical Residents Describe a Disaster in the Making,” Haaretz, May 12, 2020.

**Itai Brun and Amos Yadlin, “Updated Strategic Assessment (Coronavirus) for Israel for 2020 and Recommendations for the New Government,” INSS, May 12, 2020,

Adam Hoffman, Roie Yellinek, “The Middle East and China: Trust in the time of COVID-19,” Middle East Institute, May 12, 2020.

Dr. Irwin J. Mansdorf, Dr. Michael Weinberg, Dr. Jacob Weinberg, Dr. Muhammad Mahajnah, “Resilience, Stringency of Restrictions and Psychological Consequences of Covid-19 in Israel: Comparing Jewish and Arab Samples,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 12, 2020.

Saud Al-Sharafat, “Securitization of the Coronavirus Crisis in Jordan: Successes and Limitations,” The Washington Institute, May 11, 2020.

Natia Chankvetadze, Ketevan Murusidze, “Challenges of COVID-19 in areas of protracted conflict,” Middle East Institute, May 11, 2020.

Ido Efrati, “Israeli Researchers Pinpoint What Happens to Seriously Ill Coronavirus Patients,” Haaretz, May 11, 2020.

Neha Maqsood, “On the Coronavirus, Pakistan’s Government Is Missing in Action,” Foreign Policy News, May 11, 2020.

Burak Bekdil, “Turkey:Post Coronavirus Challenges Are Likely to Hurt,” BESA Center, May 10, 2020.

Efraim Inbar, “Coronavirus has not changed the Middle East,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 10, 2020.

Raed Ahmed, “The Religious Dimension of Iraq’s Coronavirus Response,” The Washington Institute, May 8, 2020.

Ido Efrati, “What We Did Right: Israeli Doctors Explain How They Beat the Coronavirus,” Haaretz, May 8, 2020.

Ben Cahill, “Gulf States: Managing the Oil Crash,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, May 7, 2020.

Ephraim Kam, “Iran, the Coronavirus Crisis, and the Consolidation in Syria,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 7, 2020.

Lt. Col. (ret.) Michael Segall, “BBC: IRGC-Affiliated Mahan Air Is to Blame for Spreading the Coronavirus in the Middle East,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 7, 2020.

Gershon HaCohen, “Coronavirus and the Modern State,” BESA-Center, May 7, 2020,

David Siman-Tov, Shmuel Even, “Assistance from the Intelligence Community in the Fight against the Corona Pandemic,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 7, 2020.

Ashley Jackson, “For the Taliban, the Pandemic Is a Ladder,” Foreign Policy News, May 6, 2020.

Eran Lerman, “Major upheavals due to coronavirus pose challenges for US-Israel relationship,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 6, 2020.

Mohammed Abdalfatah, “COVID-19 Crisis – Business as Usual for Gaza?,” Chatham House, May 6, 2020.

Orna Mizrahi, Yoram Schweitzer, “The Israel-Hezbollah Confrontation amidst the Coronavirus Crisis,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 6, 2020.

Asaf Ronel, Ido Efrati, “Labs in Israel and Abroad Report Progress Towards Coronavirus Antibody Therapy,” Haaretz, May 5, 2020.

Nadav Shragai, “Stopping the Spread of the Coronavirus at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 5, 2020.

Michal Hatuel-Radoshitzky, Shahar Eilam, Tal-Or Cohen, “When an Old Disease Meets a New Disease: Antisemitism and Delegitimization of Israel in the COVID-19 Era,” The Institute for National Security Studies, May 5, 2020.

Yousif Kalian, “Iraq and its Minorities Face a New Challenge with Coronavirus,” United States Institute of Peace, May 5, 2020.

Efraim Inbar, “China’s coronavirus cover-up and the implications for Israel,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 5, 2020.

Nader Ibrahim, Owen Pinnell and Manisha Ganguly, “Coronavirus by Air: The spread of Covid-19 in the Middle East,” BBC News, May 5, 2020.

Efraim Laor and Gershon Hacohen, “Coronavirus: Improvisation is the Key to a Successful Response,” BESA Center, May 5, 2020.

*The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security—Fellows, “Coronavirus in the Middle East: A Review and Assessment,” May 5, 2020.

James Dorsey, “Coronavirus Threatens to Drive Wedge into US-Gulf Relations,” BESA Center, May 4, 2020.

INSS, “The Coronavirus and the US Jewish Community: Setbacks, Strategies, and the Silver Lining,” INSS Podcast, May 3, 2020.

Ahmed  Abdel- Tawwab, “Covid-19 and education What are the lessons for reform of education in Egypt,” May 1, 2020, al-Ahram Online, May 1,   2020.

*Jaafar Allawi, Saad Jaber, and Abdullah Algwizani, “Three Arab Health Officials (Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia) Discuss Fighting Covid- 19,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 30, 2020.

Haley Bobseine, “Waiting for the bad to get worse: Lebanon in the time of corona,” Middle East Institute, April 30, 2020.

Maged Atef, “Egypt’s Bitter Options in the Face of Coronavirus,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 30, 2020.

Mathew Ha and Alice Cho, “China’s Coronavirus Disinformation Campaigns Are Integral to Its Global Information Warfare Strategy,” Foundation for Defense of Democracy, April 30, 2020.

Gönül Tol and Dimitar Bechev,,“Can corona diplomacy cure Turkey’s foreign policy isolation, Middle East Institute, April 29, 2020.

Gershon Hacohen, “A Tale of Two Leaders: Netanyahu During the Coronavirus Crisis and Ben-Gurion During the War of Independence,” BESA Center, April 28, 2020.

Mohamed Mokhtar Qandil, “Terrorism and Coronavirus: Hyberbole, Idealism and Ignorance (ISIS and al-Qaeda),” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 28, 2020.

Zvi Bar’el, “In Iraq, the Coronavirus Crisis Is Looking for a Government to Manage It,” Ha’Aretz, April 27, 2020,

*Yohanan Tzoreff, Kobi Michael, “Israel and Hamas: From Corona to Prisoners and a Possible Arrangement” INSS, April 27, 2020.

Yoram Schweitzer and Aviad Mendelboim, “Salafi-Jihadists and the Coronavirus Pandemic,” INSS, April 27, 2020.

Zvi Bar’el, “As Iran Tries to Project Business as Usual, the Coronavirus Inflames Tensions,” Ha’aretz, April 25, 2020.

Ranj Alaaldin, “COVID-19 will Prolong Conflict in the Middle East,” April 24, 2020, Brookings Institution, April 24, 2020,

INSS Staff, “[Audio panel discussion] Iran in the Corona Era: Implications for Israel’s National Security,” INSS, April 23, 2020.

Farnza Fassihi, “Cheap Oil Poses New Quandry for Iran as It Relaxes, Virus Lockdown,” New York Times, April 23, 2020.

*Rasha Abou Jalal, “How is Palestine dealing with added hunger, poverty from COVID-19?” Al Monitor, April 23, 2020,

Ephraim Lavie, (, “On the Eve of Ramadan: Arab Society in Israel and the Coronavirus,” INSS, April 23, 2020.

**Elizabeth Tsurkov, Qussal Jukhadar, “Ravaged by war, Syria’s health care system is utterly unprepared for pandemic,” Middle East Institute, April 23, 2020.

Sara Feuer, “Corona in the Casbah: The Pandemic’s Destabilizing Impact on Algeria,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 22, 2020.

Ofir Winter/Tzvi Lev, “Challenges to Egypt from the Coronavirus Pandemic,” INSS, April 22, 2020.

*Sever Plocker, “Finding coronavirus vaccine is international effort,” Y-Net, April 22, 2020,

**Oded Eran, “A Gloomy Forecast for the Middle East following the Coronavirus Crisis,” INSS, April 22, 2020.

Rouhani hits out at skeptics of Iran pandemic statistics,” Al-Monitor, April 22, 2020.

Yasmina Abouzzohour, “Covid in Maghreb: Responses and impacts,” Brookings Institute, April 21, 2020.

Ronny Linder, “Inside the ultra-Orthodox Hospital at the Center of Israel’s Coronavirus Pandemic,” Haaretz, April 20, 2020.

Josh Breiner, “Two Thousand Israelis Brave Coronavirus Fears to Protect Assault on Democracy,” Haaretz, April 20, 2020.

Yahya Anouti and Raed Kombargi, “How GCC governments can recover from the dual shock of COVID-19 and lower oil prices,” PWC Strategy&, April 2020.

AFP, “Middle East braces for bleak Ramadan as coronavirus threat lingers,” al-Arabiyyah, April 20, 2020,

Yossi Melman, “The Mossad Is Flaunting Too Much During the Coronavirus Crisis,” Haaretz, April 19, 2020.

Alan Baker, “Isn the Cove-19 Pandemic, What Are the Reciprocal Israeli and Palestinian Obligations,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, April 19, 2020,

*Amos Yadlin, “Before Israel Reboots its (after Coronavirus) economy,” Y-Net, April 19, 2020,

Manuel Traitenberg, “Managing the Coronavirus Crisis at the National Level: Not Only “What,” but “How,” INSS, April 19, 2020.

Amos Harel, “As Israel and Hezbollah Trade Barbs, Army Sees Opportunity in Coronavirus Crisis,” Haaretz, April 19, 2020.

Yaakov Amidror, “Israeli Decision-Making During the COVID-19 Crisis,” Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, April 19, 2020.

**Abdel Moneim Said, “Will Covid-19 mark a departure or merely an acceleration of what already was the path of the world,?” Alhramonline, April 18, 2020,

Emil Avdaliani, “Coronavirus is Hitting Russia More than the Economy,” BESA Center, April 17, 2020.

*Michael Milstein, “Israel and the Palestinian Authority in the Face of the Coronavirus Crisis, April 17, 2020, IDC Herzeliya,

Ofer Aderet, “Funerals on Zoom: How Israelis Grieve in the Time of Coronavirus,” Haaretz, April 15, 2020.

Dina Ezzat, “Egypt: Striking the Right Balance,” Ahram Online, April 15, 2020.

*AP, Mideast economies battered by virus, oil prices and conflict, Al-Nahar, April 15, 2020.

Manjari Singh, “Jordan after COVID-19: From Crisis Adjustment to Crisis Management,” Fikra Forum Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 15, 2020,

Noa Shpigel, “Missiles Out, Ventilators In: Israeli Defense Contractors Answer the Coronavirus Call,” Haaretz, April 15, 2020.

Dr. Nouh El Harmouzi, The Arab World: Between the Coronavirus Pandemic and the Plague of Populism, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 15, 2020.

Manfred Gerstenfeld, “Political Leadership During the Coronavirus Crisis,” BESA Center, April 14, 2020.

Kadri Gursel, “Is Coronavirus Good for Health of Turkish-US Relations?” Al-Monitor, April 14, 2020.

Hussain Abdul-Hussain, “Palestinians and Israelis Show Peace is Attainable with Coordinated COVID-19 Response,” Al Arabiya, April 14, 2020.

 “Scarce Resources in Syria’s Rebel-Held Areas amid COVID-19 Fears,” Al Jazeera, April 14, 2020.

Amir Afkhami, Katherine Bauer, Patrick Clawson, and Medhi Khalaji, “Iran’s Coronavirus Crisis: Implications for U.S. Policy,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 13, 2020. 

AFP, “Virus ‘Disaster in the Making’ in War-Torn Syria,” The Jordan Times, April 13, 2020.

Udi Dekel and Noa Shusterman, “The Coronavirus in Gaza: Insights from a War Game,” INSS, April 13, 2020.

Samantha Gross, Suzanne Maloney, Bruce Riedel, and Angela Stent, “Brookings Experts Comment on Oil Market Developments and Geopolitical Tensions,” Brookings, April 13, 2020.

Ben Hubbard, “Coronavirus Fears Terrify and Impoverish Migrants in the Persian Gulf,” The New York Times, April 13, 2020.

Genevie Abdo and Anna L. Jacobs, “Are COVID-19 Restrictions Inflaming Religious Tensions?” Brookings, April 13, 2020.

*Sultan Althari, “Coronavirus: Developing nations face choice between infection and starvation,” al-Arabiyyah, April 12, 2020.

Ariel Finkelstein, “Public Health and the Ultra-Orthodox Community in Israel,” The Israel Democracy Institute, April 12, 2020.

Hussein Solomon, “The Impact of Covid-19 on the Middle East and North Africa,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs Vol. 20, No. 6, April 12, 2020.

The Economist, “The Risk that Iraq Might Fall Apart,” The Economist, April 11, 2020.

Ferid Belhaj, “Importance of Government Transparency in Saving Lives,” Asharq Al-Awsat, April 11, 2020.

Al-Monitor Staff, “War-Ravaged Yemen Reports First Case of COVID-19,” Al-Monitor, April 10, 2020.

Reza Behrouz, Al-Arabiyah, “Coronavirus has gone global, but in Iran, it’s the Khamenei virus,” April 10, 2020.

Herb Keinon, “How will the Middle East look the day after coronavirus?”  The Jerusalem Post, April 10, 2020,

International Monetary Fund, “IMF Executive Board Approves a US$745 Million Disbursement to Tunisia to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic,” International Monetary Fund, April 10, 2020. 

Jonathan Fenton-Harvey, “Saudi Arabia and the UAE’s Diverging Regional Coronavirus Strategy,” Al-Monitor, April 9, 2020.

Azadeh Zamirirad, “Three Implications of the Corona Crisis in Iran,” SWP German Institute for International and Security Affairs, April 9, 2020.

Zine Labidine Ghebouli, “Coronavirus Will Change Both Algeria’s Political System and Its Opposition,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 9, 2020.

Diego Cupolo, “Turkish pandemic plan raises concerns over citizens’ digital rights,” Al Monitor, April 9, 2020.

David M. Halbfinger and Mohammed Najib, “Palestinians Fear a Coming Coronavirus Storm,” The New York Times, April 9, 2020.

Saeed Al-Batati and Ben Hubbard, “Saudi Arabia Declares Cease-Fire in Yemen, Citing Fears of Corona,” The New York Times, April 8, 2020.

Remi Daniel and Gallia Lindenstrauss, “Turkey and the Fight against the Coronavirus: Significant Challenge, Partial Response,” INSS Insight No. 1297, April 8, 2020.

Udi Dekel, Assaf Orion “The Natonal Struggle agains the Coronavirus: An Integrated, Multi-Phase Systematic Campaign, INSS, April 8, 2020m revised analytics, May 31, 2020,

Micky Aharonson and Aiman Mansour, “Will Coronavirus be a Moderating Factor in the Middle East?” Jerusalem Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 7, 2020.

 Hagar Shezaf, “Coronavirus ‘Disaster’ at Israeli Factory Prompts Policy Revamp on Palestinian Workers,” Haaretz, April 7, 2020.

Kobi Michael and Yohanan Tzoreff, “The Corona Pandemic and the Palestinian Arena: Significance for Israel,” INSS Insight No. 1295, April 6, 2020.

Orna Mizrahi and Yoram Schweitzer, “The Coronavirus Crisis Heightens the Distress of Lebanon and Hezbollah,” INSS Insight No. 1294, April 6, 2020.

Colonel (ret.) Dr. Jacques Neriah, “Lebanon Suffocates under the Coronavirus and the Rising U.S. Dollar,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, April 6, 2020.

Eliza Volkman, “Algeria’s protesters say COVID-19 will not kill movement, just transform it,” Al Monitor, April 5, 2020. 

Mehmet Cetingulec, “Syrian refugees villainized as Turkey faces costs of coronavirus,” Al Monitor, April 5, 2020.

Udi Levi, “Coronavirus and the Campaign Against Iran,” Jerusalem Institute for Strategic Studies, April 4, 2020. 

Heba Saleh, “Activists accuse Algeria of using Covid-19 to clamp down on protests,” Financial Times, April 3, 2020.  

Hanin Ghaddar, “Hezbollah’s Coronavirus Public Relations Act Won’t Save Lebanon,” Al Arabiya, April 2, 2020.

Mohammed Masbah, “Can Morocco Effectively Handle the COVID-19 Crisis?” Chatham House, April 2, 2020.

Lucy Kurzter-Ellenbogen and Robert Barron, “In Gaza, Israelis and Palestinians Face a Common Foe in Coronavirus,” April 1, 2020.

Aaron Y. Zelin and Oula A. Alrifai“Syria’s Three Governments Confront the Coronavirus,” April 1, 2020, Washington Institute for Near East Policy,

Jacob Mchangama and Sarah Mclaughlin, “Coronavirus Has Started a Censorship Pandemic,” Foreign Policy, April 1, 2020.  

Oula A. Alrifai and Aaron Y. Zelin, “Syria’s Three Governments Confront the Coronavirus,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 1, 2020.

Itai Brun, Yoel Guzansky, Daniel Rakov and Sarah J. Feuer, “Food for Thought during the Corona Virus: Ten Potential Negative Scenarios in Israel’s Strategic Environment,” INSS, April 1, 2020.

*Jonathan Marcus, “Coronavirus: A Ticking time-bomb for the Middle East,” BBC News, March 31, 2020,

Mohamed Abdelaziz, “The Egyptian Response to Coronavirus: Denial and Conspiracy,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, March 27, 2020.

Itai Brun and Sarah J. Feuer, “The Calm before the Storm? Coping with Corona in the Middle East,” INSS, March 26, 2020.

Nate Mason and Jason Pack, “Could Coronavirus Lead to an Arab Spring 2.0?” Middle East Institute, March 25, 2020.

Ambassador Alan Baker, “Israel, the Palestinians, Corona and Peace,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs Vol. 20, No. 5, March 24, 2020.

Samy Magdy and Albert Aji, “Libya Reports First Coronavirus Case as the Pandemic Sweeps Across the Middle East,” Time, March 24, 2020.

Jon B. Alterman, “Add Coronavirus to Other Crises, and the Middle East Faces a Catastrophe,” CSIS, March 23, 2020.

Jihad Azour, “COVID-19 Pandemic and the Middle East and Central Asia: Region Facing Dual Shock,” International Monetary Fund, March 23, 2020.

*IDC Herziliya, “Coronavirus in the Middle East: Regimes; Stability, Oil, Religion,” Institute for Policy and Strategy, March 20, 2020,

Neri Zilber, “Coronavirus in the Holy Land: Israel Has Been Ready for a Crisis Such as This,” The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, March 20, 2020.

Karnit Flug, “The COVID-19 Crisis- Economic Impact and Economic Policies,” The Israel Democracy Institute, March 19, 2020.

Middle East Institute, “Covid-19 and the Middle East – Rondtable covering Middle Eastern States,” March 18, 2020,

**IDC Herzeliza, “Coronavirus in the Middle East: Regimes’ Stability, Oil, Religion, and Politics, March 16, 2020,