Born into a wealthy Jewish family in Nemis, France (1865), Lazare, a literary critic, journalist, and socialist-anarchist, is an outspoken opponent of the Dreyfus Affair (a trial in which a Jewish-French military officer is unfairly accused of treason). In close contact with Zionist leader Achad Ha’am, he publishes his most famous work, “Anti-Semitism, its History and Causes” (L’Antisémitisme, son histoire et ses cause), pushing him to the fore-front of thinkers writing publications to help prove the innocence of Alfred Dreyfus, the accused officer in the affair.