After a parliamentary and public discussion, the Jews of France are awarded French citizenship. This happens in two stages. Sephardim, mostly of Portuguese origin, who spoke French are granted civil rights on Jan. 28, 1790. The Ashkenazim, who were less acculturated into French society, are given civic equality on Sept. 27, 1791. The law of 1791, also marks the end of French Jewry’s religious-legal autonomy.