Building upon previous US-Israeli memorandums of understanding, the first of which is signed in 1974, the US promises 10 years of military assistance to Israel, totaling $38 billion. Representing an $8 billion increase of US military aid since the last MOU in 2007, this agreement aims for Israel to retain a qualitative military edge in a tumultuous neighborhood, including provisions for military aircraft, missile defense (Iron Dome and David’s Sling), and continuing cooperative military research. By this MOU, Israel remains the leading recipient of US foreign military assistance in the world. While affirming a solid US policy commitment to Israeli security, Washington does not allow profound disagreement with Jerusalem over major policy differences about the 2015 Iran deal, and Israel’s aggressive settlement policies in the territories.