Confessional groups such as Jews, Armenians, Greek Orthodox and other religions had established a considerable amount of autonomous self-rule in the Ottoman Empire. These non-Muslim minorities are usually directed by a head. In many Jewish communities there is a Bet Din, or religious council that rules on religious matters such as divorce, marriage, and inheritance. The millet system gives Jews and other minorities an administrative structure, keeping them focused on the identity based on religion. For Jews, local administrative structures such as the millet, local councils, and Beit Din provide communal experiences which carry over in method if not exact content to the organizations that later evolve to promote Jewish nation building.
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