Enactment of additional laws restricting Jewish rights follow the assassination of Tsar Alexander II. Attacks against Jewish businesses, homes and synagogues had occurred periodically in Europe going back to the middle of the 13th century. They also occur in German lands, Denmark, and Poland, and the Ukraine (including in the cities of Odessa, Kiev, Warsaw,Kishinev). Attacks against Jews would later take place in Middle Eastern areas such as Iraq in 1941 (Farhud) and in Aleppo in 1947.
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