President Lyndon Johnson’s Five Principles

In 1957, Johnson, then a US Senator from Texas witnesses Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula after the 1956 War. He is privy to a promise that the UN troops stationed between Israeli and Egyptian forces will not be removed unless done so by the UN Security Council. He sees as President the summary removal of the UN troops without Security Council approval and sees Egypt and Israel slide toward war. After the war, he takes the view as President, that if Israel is to withdraw from Sinai again, and from the territories taken in the June 1967 War, Israel and all states in the region should receive recognition and respect of their territorial integrity. Additionally, he calls for justice for the refugees—without specifying which ones, protection of maritime rights of nations in the region, and opposes an arms race between the combatants. These five principles ultimately outline the formula for the November 1967 UNSC Resolution 242. It becomes the general diplomatic outline of subsequent successful Arab-Israeli negotiations. (source)