President Obama overcomes passionate congressional rejection of the nuclear deal with Iran, signed on July 14, 2015. Despite Israel’s objections and those of Arab Gulf States, great powers (Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and China) act in their own perceived national interests, in this case believing an agreement with Tehran will temper Iran’s destabilizing regional behavior. Opponents of the deal, including AIPAC, vow to renew congressional efforts to punish Iran should it fail to adhere to the deal’s implementation, estimated to take effect in mid-2016. On October 14, 2015, the Iranian government ratifies the agreement; Iran simultaneously reveals an extensive missile arsenal, suggesting the capacity to retaliate with force against any military attack upon its territory.
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