Egypt and Syria surprise Israel with a coordinated attack on Yom Kippur. It initiates the most bloody and high-stakes war in Israel’s history. By taking a portion of Sinai, Egypt restores Arab dignity “lost” in Israel’s rout of Egypt in the 1967 War. Jordan stays out of the war, and Syria takes a severe beating by Israel. An Arab oil embargo ensues. Egypt turns the war into a diplomatic engagement led by the US.