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Watch and analyze the conference speeches

Some important moments at the Madrid peace conference take place behind the scenes when people who have been strangers and enemies make personal connections. But the speeches during three days of plenary sessions represent official government positions and reveal how far all the sides must go to achieve regional peace. The presidents of the United […]

Explore the different national interests represented by each delegation

On March 6, 1991, President George H.W. Bush tells Congress, “The time has come to put an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict.” For the next eight months, intensive shuttle diplomacy by Secretary of State James A. Baker III culminates in the Madrid peace conference at the end of October. The conference, co-chaired by Bush and […]

Watch, read and analyze media coverage of the conference

News consumers, whether reading newspapers, watching television or scrolling social media feeds, are responsible for filtering the facts from the spin and the slant. Here are some questions you should ask about anything you see to help you become a careful, critical news consumer: • Can you spot errors? If things you know about are […]

Evaluate the aftermath of the conference

Eytan Bentsur, a member of the Israeli delegation at Madrid who became director-general of the Foreign Ministry, wrote a decade after the peace conference that President George H.W. Bush’s speech opening the conference laid out the principles for the entire negotiating process: direct negotiations including land for peace; bilateral and multilateral talks; solutions coming from within the region, not […]

Get to know the leaders and their views of one another

Personal relationships and individual leadership styles can enhance or hamper negotiations. As an example, watch this video of Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk al-Shara and Palestinian delegate Saeb Erekat relishing memories of irritating Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir Jordanian Foreign Minister Kamel Abu Jaber Palestinian delegate Haider Abdel al-Shafi Syrian Foreign […]

Assess and compare the conditions for successful negotiations

Key elements that affect whether ripeness for negotiations exists: Both parties see common external threats. Current conditions could get worse or are too bad to continue. Unilateral solutions will not resolve key issues. Pre-negotiations have already narrowed differences. Incentives to negotiate are available. The potential for pragmatic compromise is present. A brighter future could exist […]

View Israeli culture as represented in the 1991 Eurovision

View and listen to the Israeli song performed in the 1991 Eurovision Song Contest, “Kan.” The song placed third and became one of Israel’s popular “Shirei Eretz Yisrael” (songs of the Land of Israel). The Datz Duo wore clothes that evoked memories of Israeli folk dancers from the early Zionist pioneering days. Examine the lyrics and consider the […]

Apertura de la Conferencia de Madrid sobre la paz en Medio Oriente

Tras la Guerra del Golfo de 1991, Estados Unidos organizó una conferencia con Israel, múltiples estados árabes, y la participación de representantes palestinos, la conferencia condujo a las negociaciones bilaterales y multilaterales.

The October 1973 War and its Aftermath – Quotable Quotes and Key Conversations

In carrying out research in the 1990s for Heroic Diplomacy: Sadat, Kissinger, Carter, Begin and the Quest for Arab-Israeli Peace, Routledge, 1999, I undertook 84 interviews with individuals who participated in the diplomacy.

The October 1973 War – Henry Kissinger’s choreography in it

Former Israeli Ambassador to Washington Simcha Dinitz recalls the October 1973 War and his discussions with U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. America did not want the Egyptian army devastated nor have Israel win a resounding victory. Sadat was weary of the Palestinians.

March 1981, The Peace Treaty with Egypt: Achievements and Setbacks, Conference, Tel Aviv University

The Shiloah Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, March-17-18, 1981, Reprinted with permission. Participants included researchers, academics, politicians, and business people.

March 20, 1992, Ken Stein Interview with Simcha Dinitz, Jerusalem, Israel

(20 March 1992) Summary of Simcha Dinitz’s Interview about the 1973 October War Simcha Dinitz was Israel’s Ambassador to the United States, 1973-1979 and later held other public policy positions, including chairman of the Jewish Agency. He served Israel during the October 1973 War and he was also served in the Israeli delegation to the […]