(26 March 1979)
Sadat, Anwar, Menachem Begin, and Jimmy Carter. Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt. 26 Mar. 1979. Treaty. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Jerusalem.
The Egyptian-Israeli Treaty was the fourth Arab-Israeli agreement signed between the end of the 1973 October War until 1979, with another not signed until the 1993 Oslo Accords. Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat and Israel’s Prime Minister Begin met their respective national interests in signing this bilateral treaty, confounding the Carter administration’s preferred comprehensive peace between Israel and all of her proximate neighbors. Sadat’s relentless pursuit of the full return of Israeli-held Egyptian Sinai and securing Israel’s commitment to evacuate all of Israeli settlements there were major Egyptian diplomatic successes, but Sadat would be assassinated in October 1981 for his pursuit of peace with the Jewish state. For a decade after the treaty was signed, the vast majority of Muslim and Arab states venomously opposed Egypt’s recognition of Israel. With the treaty signing, Israel won a major strategic success by removing from Arab and Muslim states’ confrontation with Israel, the largest military and existential threat that Israel had faced since its establishment in 1948. And, Israel did not have to pay severe prices that the Carter administration dearly wanted: a commitment of Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the devolution of an independent Palestinian state, and a halting of Israeli settlements in these areas.
Carter’s foreign policy success in mediating Egyptian-Israeli negotiations was mitigated by his inability to translate that success into significant domestic support in his 1980 reelection bid. From his first days in office, he alienated Labor and Likud Party Israeli leaders that they all opposed: negotiating with all Arab sides together in a conference, engaging in a political process that would lead to a Palestinian state, and withdrawing from the West Bank. Moreover, in Carter’s dogged attempt to push Israel to stop settlements and have it negotiate with the PLO, he also significantly alienated the American Jewish voting public. Verbally and at the UN, the Carter administration slashed at Israel for its settlement policy for including portions of Jerusalem as part of its capital. His administration no matter how hard it tried, failed to persuade Syria, the PLO, and Jordan to join the comprehensive peace process. Carter failed to comprehend how absolutely hostile Syria and the PLO were toward Israel’s very existence. He failed to obtain public Arab support, particularly from the Saudis for Sadat’s outreach to Israel. Decision makers at the State Department and White House were united in supporting an Egyptian-Israeli agreement, though they would have preferred a moratorium to settlement building and the evolution Palestinian self-determination. There was not similar agreement across the administration about events unfolding in Iran. On the Shah’s demise and Iran’s future, the administration was rancorously divided on policy choices in managing the political turmoil exploding in Iran. While the administration focused intently on hammering out the details of the Egyptian-Israeli Treaty, it seems first to have either intentionally or disinterest to have ignored the Shah’s slow demise in Iran for much of 1978; then it not reach consensus on how to interact with the radical Islamic anti-American clerical regime in Iran, or how or when to use force against the new political reality emerging in Iran. What if the administration had acted on intelligence hints in early 1977 that Iran might be ripe for political change? Could the Carter administration have avoided the Shah’s quick demise and the rise of the Khomeyni regime? There are State Department officials who at the time and afterwards have supported that premise. Adherence to the Egyptian-Israeli treaty, US presidential distance from Israeli leaders about the management of the territories and toward the Palestinians, and the resilience of the radical Islamic regime in Iran, have stood the test of time.
Looking back four decades later, the results of Carter’s foreign policy in the Middle East changed its political landscape in ways that no other president had done previously or since.
As for the Egyptian-Israeli Treaty itself, it was signed sixteen months after Sadat’s visit to Jerusalem. More than any other political leader, he kept the diplomatic car running, with his foot on the accelerator, cleverly shifting gears and giving gas when it was necessary. The final contents of the treaty demonstrated that he made extraordinary compromises over his initial demands for full Israeli withdrawal from all the territories and the promotion of Palestinian political self-determination. The treaty contains nine articles, a military annex, an annex dealing with the relations between the parties, and agreed understandings interpreting the main articles of the treaty, and side letters signed by both sides interpreting key phrases and concepts mentioned in the treaty. The treaty’s foundation included UNSC Resolutions 242 and 338, recognizing the territorial integrity of all states in the area. It ended the state of war between Cairo and Jerusalem, established permanent borders, noted commitments to refrain from acts or threats of violence between them, and an exchange of ambassadors. It affirmed Israel’s right to freedom of navigation through the international waters in the Middle East (Straits of Tiran and Gulf of Aqaba) major causes of the June 1967 war. Critical for Israel was the inclusion of Article 6 in the treaty which essentially said that Egypt had a priority of obligation to observe this treaty with Israel over all other treaties Egypt had or would have with other states. In other words, Egypt would not come to the aid of an Arab state that might be in a military conflict with Israel. In a separate Israel-U.S. Memorandum of Agreement concluded the same day as the treaty, the U.S. spelled out its commitments to Israel including a promise to supply Israel with oil, should it not be able to obtain oil supply from Egypt as promised in the treaty.
Lessons Learned and long term impact from Egyptian-Israeli Negotiations
- As fierce nationalists, Begin and Sadat zealously defended their prerogatives not to have any other entity or state, including the United States dictate to them, the content or pace of political negotiations and what they deemed their national security requirements. Both carefully listened to the Carter administration, but they retained to themselves exclusive determination of what those national priorities were or would be.
- Both represented mature states, not dysfunctional ones, or an organization, and each accepted the sovereign legitimacy of the other.
- Reaching an agreement with the other enhanced respective national interests. Israel could not reject a once-in-a-generation opportunity to secure diplomatic recognition through a peace treaty with the most populous and powerful Arab state. At the end of the day, Sadat could not allow his path-breaking November 1977 visit to Jerusalem to go unrewarded without the full return of Israeli-held Sinai, the removal of Israel’s Sinai settlements and a deepened relationship with the United States.
- Egyptian and Israeli leaders made core political trade-offs. Egypt “violated” a 1967 Arab commitment for “no peace, no negotiation, and no recognition of Israel.” Begin uprooted settlements despite enormous domestic criticism.
- Egypt set a diplomatic precedent for Arab states. Each could and did reach treaties with Israel based on promoting national self-interests, Jordan-1994, UAE, Bahrain, Morocco, and the Sudan in 2020, and still publically advocate for the Palestinians.
- Egypt and Israel pulled closer to the United States, despite little progress made in resolving the issue of Palestinian rights.
- Israel focused on securing its other borders and on managing internal requirements – economy, new immigrants, matters of religion and identity.
- Forty years later, no new major Arab-Israeli war had occurred.
- A major presidential foreign policy success did not automatically translate into domestic political support and votes as Carter found out in the upcoming 1980 US presidential election.
Ken Stein, December 2021
The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the State of Israel;
Convinced of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just, comprehensive, and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338;
Reaffirming their adherence to the “Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David” dated 17 September 1978;
Noting that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended to constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but also between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is prepared to negotiate peace with it on this basis;
Desiring to bring to an end the state of war between them and to establish a peace in which every state in the area can live in security;
Convinced that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel is an important step in the search for comprehensive peace in the area and for the attainment of settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict in all its aspects;
Inviting the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace process with Israel guided by and based on the principles of the aforementioned Framework;
Desiring as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the principles of international law governing international relations in times of peace;
Agree to the following provisions in the free exercise of their sovereignty, in order to implement the “Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty Between Egypt and Israel.”
- The state of war between the Parties will be terminated and peace will be established between them upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
- Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated Palestine, as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I), and Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in Annex I, the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in accordance with Article III (3).
The permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel is the recognized international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to the issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity of the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.
- The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law governing relations among states in times of peace. In particular:
- They recognize and will respect each other’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence;
- They recognize and will respect each other’s right to live in peace within their secure and recognized boundaries;
- They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.
- Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not committed from within its territory, or by any forces subject to its control or by any other forces stationed on its territory, against the population, citizens or property of the other Party. Each Party also undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting or participating in acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, subversion or violence against the other Party, anywhere, and undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice.
- The Parties agree that the normal relationship established between them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic, and cultural relations; termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory barriers to the free movement of people and goods; and will guarantee the mutual enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The process by which they undertake to achieve such a relationship parallel to the implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is set out in the annexed protocol (Annex III).
- In order to provide maximum security for both Parties on the basis of reciprocity, agreed security arrangements will be established including limited force zones in Egyptian and Israeli territory, and United Nations Forces and observers, described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex I, and other security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.
- The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations personnel in areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to request withdrawal of the United Nations personnel and that these personnel will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations, with the affirmative vote of the five Permanent Members, unless the Parties otherwise agree.
- A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.
- The security arrangements provided for in Paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.
- Ships of Israel, and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall enjoy the right of free passage through the Suez Canal and its approaches through the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the Constantinople Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals, vessels and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall be accorded non-discriminatory treatment in all matters connected with usage of the canal.
- The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba to be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and non-suspendable freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will respect each other’s right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.
- This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.
- The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.
- They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for the application in their relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions to which they are parties, including the submission of appropriate notification to the Secretary General of the United Nations and other depositaries of such conventions.
- The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty.
- Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the event of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.
- Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.
- Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.
The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.
- This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of ratification.
- This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of September 1975.
- All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be regarded as an integral part hereof.
- The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Annex I: Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements
Concept of Withdrawal
- Israel will complete withdrawal of all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai not later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
- To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the implementation of phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military measures and establishment of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter referred to as “the Zones.”
- The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:
- The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty;
- The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind the international boundary not later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.
- A Joint Commission will be formed immediately after the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty in order to supervise and coordinate movements and schedules during the withdrawal, and to adjust plans and timetables as necessary within the limits established by Paragraph 3, above. Details relating to the Joint Commission are set out in Article IV of the attached Appendix. The Joint Commission will be dissolved upon completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
Determination of Final Lines and Zones
- In order to provide maximum security for both Parties after the final withdrawal, the lines and the Zones delineated on Map 1 are to be established and organized as follows:
- Zone A:
- Zone A is bounded on the east by Line A (red line) and on the west by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on Map 1;
- An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division and its military installations, and field fortifications, will be in this Zone;
- The main elements of that Division will consist of:
- Zone A:
i. Three mechanized infantry brigades;
ii. One armed brigade;
iii. Seven field artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery pieces;
iv. Seven anti-aircraft artillery battalions including individual surface-to-air missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and above;
v. Up to 230 tanks;
vi. Up to 480 armored personnel vehicles of all types;
vii. Up to a total of twenty-two thousand personnel;
b. Zone B:
- Zone B is bounded by Line B (green line) on the east and by Line A (red line) on the west as shown on Map 1;
- Egyptian border units of four battalions equipped with light weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide security and supplement the civil police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements in the four Border Battalions will consist of up to a total of four thousand personnel;
- Land based, short range, low power, coastal warning points of the border patrol units may be established on the coast of this Zone;
- There will be in Zone B field fortifications and military installations for the four border battalions;
c. Zone C:
- Zone C is bounded by Line B (green line) on the west and the International Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on Map 1;
- Only United Nations Forces and Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C;
- The Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this Zone;
- The United Nations Force will be deployed within Zone C and perform its functions as defined in Article VI of this Annex;
- The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps located within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will establish its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:
i. In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 km. of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary;
ii. In the Sharm el Sheikh area;
d. Zone D:
- Zone D is bounded by Line D (blue line) on the east and the international boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1;
- In this Zone there will be an Israeli limited force of four infantry battalions, their military installations, and field fortifications, and United Nations observers;
- The Israeli forces in Zone D will not include tanks, artillery, and anti-aircraft missiles, except individual surface-to-air missiles;
- The main elements of the four Israeli infantry battalions will consist of up to 180 armored personnel vehicles of all types and up to a total of four thousand personnel;
- Access across the international boundary shall only be permitted through entry check points designated by each Party and under its control. Such access shall be in accordance with laws and regulations of each country;
- Only those field fortifications, military installations, forces, and weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in the Zones.
Aerial Military Regime
- Flights of combat aircraft and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and Israel shall take place only over Zones A and D, respectively.
- Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.
- Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and land in Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone B. The Egyptian border unit may be equipped with unarmed helicopters to perform their functions in Zone B.
- The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police helicopters to perform normal police functions in Zone C.
- Only civilian airfields may be built in the Zones.
- Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those military aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial waters.
- Egypt and Israel may base and operate naval vessels along the coasts of Zones A and D, respectively.
- Egyptian coast guard boats, lightly armed, may be stationed and operate in the territorial waters of Zone B to assist the border units in performing their functions in this Zone.
- Egyptian civil police equipped with light boats, lightly armed, shall perform normal police functions within the territorial waters of Zone C.
- Nothing in this Annex shall be considered as derogating from the right of innocent passage of the naval vessels of either party.
- Only civilian maritime ports and installations may be built in the Zones.
- Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those naval activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and in their territorial waters.
Early Warning Systems
Egypt and Israel may establish and operate early warning systems only in Zones A and D respectively.
United Nations Operations
- The Parties will request the United Nations to provide forces and observers to supervise the implementation of this Annex and employ their best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
- With respect to these United Nations Forces and observers, as appropriate, the Parties agree to request the following arrangements:
- Operation of check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts along the international boundary and Line B, and within Zone C;
- Periodic verification of the implementation of the provisions of this Annex will be carried out not less than twice a month unless otherwise agreed by the Parties;
- Additional verifications within 48 hours after the receipt of a request from either Party;
- Ensuring the freedom of navigation through the Strait of Tiran in accordance with Article V of the Treaty of Peace.
- The arrangements described in this Article for each zone will be implemented in Zones A, B, and C by the United Nations Force and in Zone D by the United Nations Observers.
- United Nations verification teams shall be accompanied by liaison officers of the respective Party.
- The United Nations Force and Observers will report their findings to both Parties.
- The United Nations Force and Observers operating in the Zones will enjoy freedom of movement and other facilities necessary for the performance of their tasks.
- The United Nations Force and Observers are not empowered to authorize the crossing of the international boundary.
- The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations Force and Observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other than those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
- The Parties agree that the United Nations should make those command arrangements that will best assure the effective implementation of its responsibilities.
- Upon dissolution of the Joint Commission, a liaison system between the Parties will be established. This liaison system is intended to provide an effective method to assess progress in the implementation of obligations under the present Annex and to resolve any problem that may arise in the course of implementation, and refer other unresolved matters to the higher military authorities of the two countries respectively for consideration. It is also intended to prevent situations resulting from errors or misinterpretation on the part of either Party.
- An Egyptian liaison office will be established in the city of El-Arish and an Israeli liaison office will be established in the city of Beer-Sheba. Each office will be headed by an officer of the respective country, and assisted by a number of officers.
- A direct telephone link between the two offices will be set up and also direct telephone lines with the United Nations Command will be maintained by both offices.
Respect for War Memorials
Each Party undertakes to preserve in good condition the War Memorials erected in the memory of soldiers of the other Party, namely those erected by Egypt in Israel, and shall permit access to such monuments.
The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians behind the interim withdrawal line, and the conduct of the forces of the Parties and the United Nations prior to the final withdrawal, will be governed by the attached Appendix and Map 2.
Appendix to Annex I
Organization of Movements in the Sinai
Principles of Withdrawal
- The withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and civilians from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases as described in Article I of Annex I. The description and timing of the withdrawal are included in this Appendix. The Joint Commission will develop and present to the Chief Coordinator of the United Nations Forces in the Middle East the details of these phases not later than one month before the initiation of each phase of withdrawal.
- Both parties agree on the following principles for the sequences of military movements:
- Notwithstanding the provisions of Article IX, Paragraph 2, of this Treaty, until Israeli armed forces complete withdrawal from the current J and M Lines established by the Egyptian-Israeli Agreement of September 1975, hereinafter referred to as the 1975 Agreement, up to the interim withdrawal line, all military arrangements existing under that Agreement will remain in effect, except those military arrangements otherwise provided for in this Appendix;
- As Israeli armed forces withdraw, United Nations Forces will immediately enter the evacuated areas to establish interim and temporary buffer zones as shown on Maps 2 and 3, respectively, for the purpose of maintaining a separation of forces. United Nations Forces’ deployment will precede the movement of any other personnel into these areas;
- Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have evacuated any area located in Zone A, units of Egyptian armed forces shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix;
- Within a period of seven days after Israeli armed forces have evacuated any area located in Zones A or B, Egyptian border units shall deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix, and will function in accordance with the provisions of Article II of Annex I;
- Egyptian civil police will enter evacuated areas immediately after the United Nations Forces to perform normal police functions;
- Egyptian naval units shall deploy in the Gulf of Suez in accordance with the provisions of Article II of this Appendix;
- Except those movements mentioned above, deployments of Egyptian armed forces and the activities covered in Annex I will be offered in the evacuated areas when Israeli armed forces have completed their withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
Sub-phases of the Withdrawal to the Interim Withdrawal Line
- The withdrawal to the interim withdrawal line will be accomplished in sub-phases as described in this Article and as shown on Map 3. Each sub-phase will be completed within the indicated number of months from the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty:
- First sub-phase: within two months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Arish, including the town of El Arish and its airfield, shown as Area I on Map 3;
- Second sub-phase: within three months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area between Line M of the 1975 Agreement and Line A, shown as Area II on Map 3;
- Third sub-phase: within five months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area east and south of Area II, shown as Area III on Map 3;
- Fourth sub-phase: within seven months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the area of El Tor-Ras El Kenisa, shown as Area IV on Map 3;
- Fifth sub-phase: Within nine months, Israeli armed forces will withdraw from the remaining areas west of the interim withdrawal line, including the areas of Santa Katrina and the areas east of the Gidi and Mitla Passes, shown as Area V on Map 3, thereby completing Israeli withdrawal behind the interim withdrawal line.
- Egyptian forces will deploy in the areas evacuated by Israeli armed forces as follows:
- Up to one-third of the Egyptian armed forces in the Sinai in accordance with the 1975 Agreement will deploy in the portions of Zone A lying within Area I, until the completion of interim withdrawal. Thereafter, Egyptian armed forces as described in Article II of Annex I will be deployed in Zone A up to the limits of the interim zone;
- The Egyptian naval activity in accordance with Article IV of Annex I will commence along the coasts of Areas I, III and IV, upon completion of the second, third, and fourth subphases, respectively;
- Of the Egyptian border units described in Article II of Annex I, upon completion of the first subphase one battalion will be deployed in Area I. A second battalion will be deployed in Area II upon completion of the second subphase. A third battalion will be deployed in Area III upon completion of the third subphase. The second and third battalions mentioned above may also be deployed in any of the subsequently evacuated areas of the southern Sinai.
- United Nations Forces in Buffer Zone I of the 1976 Agreement will redeploy [sic] enable the deployment of Egyptian forces described above upon the completion of the subphase, but will otherwise continue to function in accordance with the provisions of that Agreement in the remainder of that Zone until the completion of interim withdrawal, as indicated in Article I of this Appendix.
- Israeli convoys may use the roads south and east of the main road junction east of El-Arish to evacuate Israeli forces up to the completion of interim withdrawal. These convoys will proceed in daylight upon four hours notice to the Egyptian liaison group and United Nations Forces, will be escorted by United Nations Forces, and will be in accordance with schedules coordinated by the Joint Commission. An Egyptian liaison officer will accompany convoys to assure uninterrupted movement. The Joint Commission may approve other arrangements for convoys.
United Nations Forces
- The Parties shall request that United Nations Forces be deployed as necessary to perform the functions described in the Appendix up to the time of completion of final Israeli withdrawal. For that purpose, the Parties agree to the redeployment of the United Nations Emergency Force.
- United Nations Forces will supervise the implementation of this Appendix and will employ their best efforts to prevent any violation of its terms.
- When United Nations Forces deploy in accordance with the provisions of Article and [sic] II of this Appendix, they will perform the functions of verification in limited force zones in accordance with Article VI of Annex I, and will establish check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts in the temporary buffer zones described in Article II above. Other functions of the United Nations Forces which concern the interim buffer zone are described in Article V of this Appendix.
Joint Commission and Liaison
- The Joint Commission referred to in Article IV of this Treaty will function from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty up to the date of completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.
- The Joint Commission will be composed of representatives of each Party headed by senior officers. This Commission shall invite a representative of the United Nations when discussing subjects concerning the United Nations, or when either Party requests United Nations presence. Decisions of the Joint Commission will be reached by agreement of Egypt and Israel.
- The Joint Commission will supervise the implementation of the arrangements described in Annex I and this Appendix. To this end, and by agreement of both Parties, it will:
- Coordinate military movements described in this Appendix and supervise their implementation;
- Address and seek to resolve any problem arising out of the implementation of Annex I and this Appendix, and discuss any violations reported by the United Nations Force and Observers and refer to the Governments of Egypt and Israel any unresolved problems;
- Assist the United Nations Force and Observers in the execution of their mandates, and deal with the timetables of the periodic verification when referred to it by the Parties as provided for in Annex I and this Appendix;
- Organize the demarcation of the international boundary and all lines and zones described in Annex I and this Appendix;
- Supervise the handing over of the main installations in the Sinai from Israel to Egypt;
- Agree on necessary arrangements for finding and returning missing bodies of Egyptian and Israeli soldiers;
- Organize the setting up and operation of entry check points along the El-Arish-Ras Mohammed Line in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of Annex III;
- Conduct its operations through the use of joint liaison teams consisting of one Israeli representative and one Egyptian representative, provided from a standing Liaison Group, which will conduct activities as directed by the Joint Commission;
- Provide liaison and coordination to the United Nations command implementing provisions of the Treaty, and, through the joint liaison teams, maintain local coordination and cooperation with the United Nations Force stationed in specific areas or United Nations Observers monitoring specific areas for any assistance as needed;
- Discuss any other matters which the Parties by agreement may place before it.
- Meetings of the Joint Commission shall be held at least once a month. In the event that either Party of the Command of the United Nations Force requests a specific meeting, it will be convened within 24 hours.
- The Joint Committee will meet in the buffer zone until the completion of the interim withdrawal and in El-Arish and Beer-Sheba alternately afterwards. The first meeting will be held not later than two weeks after the entry into force of this Treaty.
Definition of the Interim Buffer Zone and Its Activities
- An interim buffer zone, by which the United Nations Force will effect a separation of Egyptian and Israeli elements, will be established west of and adjacent to the interim withdrawal line as shown on Map 2 after implementation of Israeli withdrawal and deployment behind the interim withdrawal line. Egyptian civil police equipped with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this zone.
- The United Nations Force will operate check points, reconnaissance patrols, and observation posts within the interim buffer zone in order to ensure compliance with the terms of this Article.
- In accordance with arrangements agreed upon by both Parties and to be coordinated by the Joint Commission, Israeli personnel will operate military technical installations at four specific locations shown on Map 2 and designated as T1 (map central coordinate 57163940), T2 (map central coordinate 59351541), T3 (map central coordinate 5933-1527), and T4 (map central coordinate 61130979) under the following principles:
- The technical installations shall be manned by technical and administrative personnel equipped with small arms required for their protection (revolvers, rifles, sub-machine guns, light machine guns, hand grenades, and ammunition), as follows:
i. T1 – up to 150 personnel;
ii. T2 and T3 – up to 350 personnel;
iii. T4 – up to 200 personnel;
- Israeli personnel will not carry weapons outside the sites, except officers who may carry personal weapons;
- Only a third party agreed to by Egypt and Israel will enter and conduct inspections within the perimeters of technical installations in the buffer zone. The third party will conduct inspections in a random manner at least once a month. The inspections will verify the nature of the operation of the installations and the weapons and personnel therein. The third party will immediately report to the Parties any divergence from an installation’s visual and electronic surveillance or communications role;
- Supply of the installations, visits for technical and administrative purposes, and replacement of personnel and equipment situated in the sites, may occur uninterruptedly from the United Nations check points to the perimeter of the technical installations, after checking and being escorted by only the United Nations Forces;
- Israel will be permitted to introduce into its technical installations items required for the proper functioning of the installations and personnel;
- As determined by the Joint Commission, Israel will be permitted to:
i. Maintain in its installations fire-fighting and general maintenance equipment as well as wheeled administrative vehicles and mobile engineering equipment necessary for the maintenance of the sites. All vehicles shall be unarmed;
ii. Within the sites and in the buffer zone, maintain roads, water lines, and communications cables which serve the site. At each of the three installation locations (T1, T2 and T3, and T4), this maintenance may be performed with up to two unarmed wheeled vehicles and by up to twelve unarmed personnel with only necessary equipment, including heavy engineering equipment if needed. This maintenance may be performed three times a week, except for special problems, and only after giving the United Nations four hours notice. The teams will be escorted by the United Nations;
- Movement to and from the technical installations will take place only during daylight hours. Access to, and exit from, the technical installations shall be as follows:
i. T1: Through a United Nations check point, and via the road between Abu Aweigila and the intersection of the Abu Aweigila road and the Gebel Libni road (at Km. 161), as shown on Map 2;
ii. T2 and T3: Through a United Nations checkpoint and via the road constructed across the buffer zone to Gebel Katrina, as shown on Map 2;
iii. T2, T3, and T4: Via helicopters flying within a corridor at the times, and according to a flight profile, agreed to by the Joint Commission. The helicopters will be checked by the United Nations Force at landing sites outside the perimeter of the installations;
- Israel will inform the United Nations Forces at least one hour in advance of each intended movement to and from the installations;
- Israel shall be entitled to evacuate sick and wounded and summon medical experts and medical teams at any time after giving immediate notice to the United Nations Forces.
- The details of the above principles and all other matters in this Article requiring coordination by the Parties will be handled by the Joint Commission.
- These technical installations will be withdrawn when Israeli forces withdraw from the interim withdrawal line, or at a time agreed by the parties.
Disposition of Installations and Military Barriers
Disposition of installations and military barriers will be determined by the Parties in accordance with the following guidelines:
- Up to three weeks before Israeli withdrawal from any area, the Joint Commission will arrange for Israeli and Egyptian liaison and technical teams to conduct a joint inspection of all appropriate installations to agree upon condition of structures and articles which will be transferred to Egyptian control and to arrange for such transfer. Israel will declare, at that time, its plans for disposition of installations and articles within the installations.
- Israel undertakes to transfer to Egypt all agreed infrastructures, utilities, and installations intact, inter alia, airfields, roads, pumping stations, and ports. Israel will present to Egypt the information necessary for the maintenance and operation of the facilities. Egyptian technical teams will be permitted to observe and familiarize themselves with the operation of these facilities for a period of up to two weeks prior to transfer.
- When Israel relinquishes Israeli military water points near El-Arish and El Tor, Egyptian technical teams will assume control of those installations and ancillary equipment in accordance with an orderly transfer process arranged beforehand by the Joint Commission. Egypt undertakes to continue to make available at all water supply points the normal quantity of currently available water up to the time Israel withdraws behind the international boundary, unless otherwise agreed in the Joint Commission.
- Israel will make its best effort to remove or destroy all military barriers, including obstacles and minefields, in the areas and adjacent waters from which it withdraws, according to the following concept:
- Military barriers will be cleared first from areas near populations, roads and major installations, and utilities;
- For those obstacles and minefields which cannot be removed or destroyed prior to Israeli withdrawal, Israel will provide detailed maps to Egypt and the United Nations through the Joint Commission not later than 15 days before entry of United Nations Forces into the affected areas;
- Egyptian engineers will enter those areas after United Nations Forces enter to conduct barrier clearance operations in accordance with Egyptian plans to be submitted prior to implementation.
- Aerial surveillance activities during the withdrawal will be carried out as follows:
- Both Parties request the United States to continue airborne surveillance flights in accordance with previous agreements until the completion of final Israeli withdrawal;
- Flight profiles will cover the Limited Forces Zones to monitor the limitations on forces and armaments, and to determine that Israeli armed forces have withdrawn from the areas described in Article II of Annex I, Article II of this Appendix, and Maps 2 and 3, and that these forces thereafter remain behind their lines. Special inspection flights may be flown at the request of either Party or of the United Nations;
- Only the main elements in the military organizations of each Party, as described in Annex I and in this Appendix, will be reported.
- Both Parties request the United States-operated Sinai Field Mission to continue its operations in accordance with previous agreements until completion of the Israeli withdrawal from the area east of the Gidi and Mitla Passes. Thereafter, the Mission be [sic] terminated.
Exercise of Egyptian Sovereignty
Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over evacuated parts of the Sinai upon Israeli withdrawal as provided for in Article I of this Treaty.
Annex II: Map of Israel-Egypt International Boundary[See next document]
Annex III: Protocol Concerning Relations of the Parties
Diplomatic and Consular Relations
The Parties agree to establish diplomatic and consular relations and to exchange ambassadors upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
Economic and Trade Relations
- The Parties agree to remove all discriminatory barriers to normal economic relations and to terminate economic boycotts of each other upon completion of the interim withdrawal.
- As soon as possible, and not later than six months after the completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties will enter negotiations with a view to concluding an agreement on trade and commerce for the purpose of promoting beneficial economic relations.
- The Parties agree to establish normal cultural relations following completion of the interim withdrawal.
- They agree on the desirability of cultural exchanges in all fields, and shall, as soon as possible and not later than six months after completion of the interim withdrawal, enter into negotiations with a view to concluding a cultural agreement for this purpose.
Freedom of Movement
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party will permit the free movement of the nationals and vehicles of the other into and within its territory according to the general rules applicable to nationals and vehicles of other states. Neither Party will impose discriminatory restrictions on the free movement of persons and vehicles from its territory to the territory of the other.
- Mutual unimpeded access to places of religious and historical significance will be provided on a non-discriminatory basis.
Cooperation for Development and Good Neighborly Relations
- The Parties recognize a mutuality of interest in good neighborly relations and agree to consider means to promote such relations.
- The Parties will cooperate in promoting peace, stability and development in their region. Each agrees to consider proposals the other may wish to make to this end.
- The Parties shall seek to foster mutual understanding and tolerance and will, accordingly, abstain from hostile propaganda against each other.
Transportation and Telecommunications
- The Parties recognize as applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the aviation agreements to which they are both party, particularly by the Convention on International Civil Aviation, 1944 (“The Chicago Convention”), and the International Air Services Transit Agreement, 1944.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal any declaration of national emergency by a party under Article 89 of the Chicago Convention will not be applied to the other party on a discriminatory basis.
- Egypt agrees that the use of airfields left by Israel near El-Arish, Rafah, Ras El-Nagb, and Sharm El- Sheikh shall be for civilian purposes only, including possible commercial use by all nations.
- As soon as possible and not later than six months after the completion of the interim withdrawal, the Parties shall enter into negotiations for the purpose of concluding a civil aviation agreement.
- The Parties will reopen and maintain roads and railways between their countries and will consider further road and rail links. The Parties further agree that a highway will be constructed and maintained between Egypt, Israel and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed free and peaceful passage of persons, vehicles, and goods between Egypt and Jordan, without prejudice to their sovereignty over that part of the highway which falls within their respective territory.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, normal postal, telephone, telex, data facsimile, wireless and cable communications and television relay services by cable, radio and satellite shall be established between the two Parties in accordance with all relevant international conventions and regulations.
- Upon completion of the interim withdrawal, each Party shall grant normal access to its ports for vessels and cargoes of the other, as well as vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from the other. Such access will be granted on the same conditions generally applicable to vessels and cargoes of other nations. Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace will be implemented upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of the aforementioned treaty.
Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Parties affirm their commitment to respect and observe human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and they will promote these rights and freedoms in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 5 of the Treaty of Peace each Party recognizes the right of the vessels of the other Party to innocent passage through its territorial sea in accordance with the rules of international law.
Egypt’s resumption of the exercise of full sovereignty over the Sinai provided for in Paragraph 2 of Article I shall occur with regard to each area upon Israel’s withdrawal from the area.
It is agreed between the parties that the review provided for in Article IV (4) will be undertaken when requested by either party, commencing within three months of such a request, but that any amendment can be made only by mutual agreement of both parties.
The second sentence of Paragraph 2 of Article V shall not be construed as limiting the first sentence of that Paragraph. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the second sentence of Paragraph 2 of Article V, which reads as follows: “The Parties will respect each other’s right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.”
Article VI (2)
The provisions of Article VI shall not be construed in contradiction to the provisions of the framework for peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp David. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the provisions of Article VI (2) of the Treaty, which reads as follows: “The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action of any other Party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.”
Article VI (5)
It is agreed by the Parties that there is no assertion that this Treaty prevails over other Treaties or agreements or that other Treaties or agreements prevail over this Treaty. The foregoing is not to be construed as contravening the provisions of Article VI (5) of the Treaty, which reads as follows: “Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter, in the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligation under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.”
Article VI, Paragraph 8, of Annex I provides as follows:
“The Parties shall agree on the nations from which the United Nations Forces and observers will be drawn. They will be drawn from nations other than those which are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.”
The Parties have agreed as follows:
“With respect to the provisions of Paragraph 8, Article VI, of Annex 1, if no agreement is reached between the Parties, they will accept or support a U.S. proposal concerning the composition of the United Nations force and observers.”
The Treaty of Peace and Annex III thereto provide for establishing normal economic relations between the Parties. In accordance herewith, it is agreed that such relations will include normal commercial sales of oil by Egypt to Israel, and that Israel shall be fully entitled to make bids for Egyptian-origin oil not needed for Egyptian domestic oil consumption, and Egypt and its oil concessionaires will entertain bids made by Israel, on the same basis and terms as apply to other bidders for such oil.
For the Government of Israel
For the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Jimmy Carter, President of the United States of America