Defense – Haganah and IDF

The development and growth of Jewish self-defense organizations in Palestine reflected the slow but increasing hostility held by Arabs for Zionism’s presence and growth. In 1909, Bar Giora and Hashomer were established by volunteers to guard against sporadic Arab attacks on newly established Jewish farms and villages. In June 1920, these organizations dissolved into the Haganah, the unofficial Jewish underground self-defense organization, and grew noticeably in budget and manpower after the Arab riots against Jewish persons and property in 1929 and from 1936-39.  For the last decade of the Mandate, the Haganah developed special units that assisted in illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine, one being the Palmach, a leadership strike force.  Independent of the Haganah’s growth, in 1931, the Irgun, or National Military Organization, grew under the leadership of Revisionist Zionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky, and from 1943 onwards by Menachem Begin. Unlike the Haganah, led by David Ben Gurion as head of the Jewish Agency, the Irgun focused on offensive operations against Arab and British targets, aimed at hastening British departure from Palestine. A smaller, more strident underground Jewish military group formed as the Stern Gang, or Lehi, which was led by Yitzhak Shamir. Both Begin and Shamir would later become Prime Ministers of Israel. During Israel’s Independence War, the Lehi and the Irgun dissolved into the newly established Israel Defense Forces, a citizen’s army, which became Israel’s military backbone. With few exceptions every Israeli does compulsory military service. Over the state’s duration, many of Israel’s one time highest ranking military personnel became important political and entrepreneurial leaders of the state.

Books

Allon, Yigal. The Making of Israel’s Army. New York: Universe Books, 1970.

Bar-On, Mordechai. A Never-ending Conflict: A Guide to Israeli Military History. Westport, Ct.: Praeger, 2004.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. The Israeli-Egyptian War of Attrition 1969-1970. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

Bar-Zohar, Michael, and Nissim Mishal. Mossad: The Greatest Missions of the Israeli Secret Service. New York: HarperCollins, 2012.

Begin, Menachem. The Revolt. New York: Nash Pub., 1977.

Bell, J. Bowyer. Terror out of Zion: The Fight for Israeli Independence, 1929-1949, Irgun Zvai Leumi, LEHI, and the Palestine Underground. Dublin: Academy Press, 1979.

Ben-Ami, Yitshaq. Years of Wrath, days of Glory:Memoirs from the Irgun. New York: Shengold Publishers, 1983.

Black, Ian, and Benny Morris. Israel’s Secret Wars: A History of Israel’s Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991.

Brom, Shlomo, and Meir Elran (ed.) The Second Lebanon War: Strategic Perspectives, Tel Aviv: Institute for National Security Studies, 2007.

Childer, Erskine B. The Road to Suez, London: Maggibon and Kee, 1962.

Finer, Herman. Dulles Over Suez The Theory and Practice of His Diplomacy. London: Heinemann, 1964.

Flapan, Simha. The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities. New York: Pantheon Books, 1987.

Golan, Zev. Free Jerusalem: Heroes, Heroines and Rogues Who Created the State of Israel. [Israel?]: Devora, 2003.

Golan, Zev. Stern: The Man and His Gang. Tel Aviv: Yair Publishing, 2011.

Halevy, Efraim. Man in the Shadows: Inside the Middle East Crisis with a Man Who Led the Mossad. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2006.

Harel, Amos, and Avi Issachararoff. 34 Days Israel Hezbollah, and the War in Lebanon, New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007.

Heller, Joseph. The Stern Gang: Ideology, Politics, and Terror, 1940-1949. London: Frank Cass, 1995.

Hurewitz, J. C. The Struggle for Palestine. New York: W.W. Norton, 1950.

Jonas, George. Vengeance: The True Story of an Israeli Counter-Terrorist Team. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.

Katz, Emmanuel. Lechi; Fighters for the Freedom of Israel (F.F.I). Tel Aviv: Yair, 1987.

Katz, Samuel M. The Elite: The True Story of Israel’s Secret Counterterrorist Unit. New York: Pocket Books, 1992.

Katz, Shmuel. Days of Fire. New York: Doubleday, 1968.

Korboński, Stefan. Unknown Chapter in the Life of the Life of Menachem Begin and Irgun Zvai Leumi. Colorado, 1979.

Korn, David. Stalemate The War of Attrition and Great Power Diplomacy in the Middle East, 1967-1970. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.

Love, Kennett. Suez: The Twice-Fought War, New York, McGraw Hill, 1969.

Lloyd, Selwyn. Suez 1956 A Personal Account, New York: Mayflower Books, 1978.

Marshall, S.L. A Sinai Victory Command Decisions in History’s Shortest War, Israel’s Hundred-Hour Conquest of Egypt East of Suez, Autumn 1956, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1958

Nutting, Anthony. No End of a Lesson The Story of Suez. London: Constable and Co, 1967.

Oren, Michael B. The Origins of the Second Arab-Israeli War Egypt, Israel and the Great Powers, 1952-1956. London: Frank Cass, 1992.

Ostrovsky, Victor, and Claire Hoy. By Way of Deception: The Making and Unmaking of a Mossad Officer. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.

Rabinovich, Itamar. The War for Lebanon 1970-1983, Cornell, Ithica University Press, 1984.

Raviv, Dan, and Yossi Melman. Every Spy a Prince: The Complete History of Israel’s Intelligence Community. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.

Raviv, Dan, and Yossi Melman. Spies Against Armageddon: Inside Israel’s Secret Wars. New York: Levant Books, 2012.

Schiff, Ze’ev, and Ehud Ya’ari. Israel’s Lebanon War, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984

Shapira, Anita. Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Thomas, Gordon. Gideon’s Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2000.

Troen, S.I. and M. Shemesh The Suez- Sinai Crisis 1956 Retrospective and Reappraisal. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Articles

Bauer, Yehuda. “From Cooperation to Resistance: The Haganah 1938–1946,” Middle Eastern Studies 2, no. 3 (April 1966): 182-210.

Brenner, Y. S. “The ‘Stern Gang’ 1940–48,” Middle Eastern Studies 2, no. 1 (October 1965): 2-30.

Cohen, Stuart A., and Efraim Inbar. “Varieties of Counter-Insurgency Activities: Israel’s Military Operations Against the Palestinians 1948-90,” Small Wars and Insurgencies, 2:1, April 1991, pp. 41-60.

Elam, Yigal. “Haganah, Irgun and `Stern:’ Who Did What?” Jerusalem Quarterly 23 (Spring 1982): 70-78.

Even, Shmuel. “The IDF Strategy and the Responsibility of the Political Leadership, August 19, 2015.

Goldberg, Giora. “Haganah, Irgun and `Stern:’  Who Did What?” Jerusalem Quarterly 25 (Fall 1982): 116-20.

HaCohen, David. “Smuggling Arms for the Hagana,” Jerusalem Quarterly 9 (Fall 1978): 55-63.

Horowitz, Dan. “The Israeli Concept of National Security,” In Avner Yaniv’s [ed.] National Security and Democracy in Israel, (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 1993), pp. 11-53.

Inbar, Efraim. “Israel’s Small War: Military Response to the Intifada,” Armed Forces and Society, Fall 1991, pp. 29-50.

Korbonski, Stefan. “Unknown Chapter in the Life of Menachem Begin and Irgun Zvai Leumi,” Eastern European Quarterly 13, (Fall 1979): 373-379.

Naor, Moshe. “Israel’s 1948 War of Independence as a Total War,” Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 43 (2), pp. 241-257.

Orren, Elhannan. “The War of Independence,” In David Ben-Gurion: Politics and Leadership in Israel, (ed.) Ronald W. Zweig, London: Frank Cass, 1991, pp. 173-192.

Peretz, Don. “Eliahu Lankin, To Win the Promised Land: Story of a Freedom Fighter. Trans. Artziah Hershberg (Walnut Creek, Calif.: Benmir Books, 1992), ” International Journal of Middle East Studies,  26, no. 02 (May 1994): 332-34.

Perliger, Arie, and Leonard Weinberg. “Jewish Self-Defence and Terrorist Groups Prior to the Establishment of the State of ISRAEL: Roots and Traditions,” Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 4, no. 3 (2003): 91-118.

Raday, Frances. “Women’s Human Rights: Dichotomy between Religion and Secularism in Israel,” Israel Affairs 11, no. 1 (2005): 78-94.

Rosenberg-Friedman, Lilach. “Religious Women Fighters In Israel’S War Of Independence: A New Gender Perception, Or A Passing Episode?” Nashim: A Journal of Jewish Women’s Studies & Gender Issues 6 (Fall 2003): 119-47.

Sussman, Milton K., ed. “Ben Gurion Replies to Altalena Critics,” The Jewish Criterion 112, no. 16 (August 13, 1948): 2-30.

Stein, Kenneth. “The Intifada and the Uprisings of 1936-1939: A Comparison of the Palestinian Arab Communities,” in The Intifada: Its Impact on Israel, the Arab World and the Superpowers, Robert O. Freedman (ed.), 3-36. Florida International University Press, 1991.

Tal, David. “Between Intuition and Professionalism: Israeli Military Leadership during the 1948 Palestine War.” The Journal of Military History 68, no. 3 (July 2004): 885-909.

Aron, Wellesley. Wheels in the Storm The Genesis of the Israeli Defense Force. Australia: A Roebuck Book, 1974.

Weitz, Yechaim “From Peace in the South to War in the North: Menachem Begin as Prime Minister, 1977-1983,” Israel Studies, 19:1 (Spring 2014): 145-165.

Zweig, Ronald W. “Great-Britain, the Haganah and the Fate of the White Paper,” Cathedra (Hebrew) 29 (September 1983): 145-72.