Israel as a Democracy

With multiple diversity in geographic background and ideological outlooks, the Zionist movement practiced democracy to sustain its fledgling movement. At times its leaders and rank and file could not agree on methods, means, attitudes toward the Arabs, level of Jewish practice, or pace in achieving nationalist objectives. From the establishment of the World Zionist Organization in 1897 to the present, Zionist and Israeli politicians regularly quit a political identity only to re-emerge in practice as some future time.  Decisions in national organizations like the Jewish National Fund, Jewish Agency, Histadrut, and political parties were sometimes made in autocratic settings, yet almost always included consultation, debate, and dissent. From its earliest years until the present, its 120 member parliament has reflected a breadth of political opinion, always with a high percentage of the body politic participating in elections. And to its credit, Israel has systematically scrutinized the behavior of its politicians and the actions of its leaders in times of conflict and controversy.

Books

Arian, Alan. Politics in Israel: The Second Republic. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2005.

Arian, Alan, and Michal Shamir. The Elections in Israel, 1996. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Arian, Alan, and Michal Shamir. The Elections in Israel, 1999. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Arian, Alan, and Michal Shamir. The Elections in Israel, 2003. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2005.

Baker, H.E Legal System of Israel, Israel University Press, Jerusalem, 1968.

David, Joseph E., ed. The State of Israel: Between Judaism and Democracy : A Compendium of Interviews and Articles. Jerusalem: Israel Democracy Institute, 2003.

Daoud, Suheir Abu Oksa. Palestinian women and politics in Israel. University Press of Florida, 2009.

Elon, Amos. The Israelis: Founders and Sons. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.

Garfinkle, Adam M. Politics and Society in Modern Israel: Myths and Realities. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Hazan, Reuven Y., and Lawrence D. Longley. The Uneasy Relationship Between Parliamentary Members and Leaders. London: Frank Cass, 1999.

Horowitz, Dan, and Moshe Lissak. Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Kimmerling, Baruch. The Israel State and Society: Boundaries and Frontiers. Albany, NY. State University of New York Press, 1989.

Kretzmer, David. The Occupation of Justice: the Supreme Court of Israel and the Occupied Territories.  SUNY Press, 2002.

Levi-Faur, David, Gabriel Sheffer, and David Vogel. Israel: The Dynamics of Change and Continuity. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1999.

Mahler, Gregory S.  Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2011.

Peri, Yoram. Between Battles and Ballots: Israeli Military in Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Sharef, Zeev. Three Days. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1962.

Sofer,  Sasson. Zionism and the Foundations of Israeli Diplomacy, Cambridge, UK, 1998.

Sprinzak, Ehud, and Larry Jay Diamond. Israeli Democracy under Stress. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993.

Yaniv, Avner (ed.), National Security and Democracy in Israel, Rienner Publishers, 1993.

Yishai, Yael. Land of Paradoxes: Interest Politics in Israel, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.

Articles

Akzin, Benjamin. “The role of parties in Israeli democracy.” The Journal of Politics 1955, 17.04: 507-545.

Avnon, Dan. “The Israeli Basic Laws’ (Potentially) Fatal Flaw.” Israel Law Review 1998, 32.4: 535-66.

Barak, Aharon. “The Role of the Supreme Court in a Democracy.” Israel Studies1998, 3.2: 6-29.

Chazan, Naomi. “The Knesset.” Israel Affairs 2005, 11.2: 392-416.

Cohen, Stuart A. “The Israel Defense Forces (IDF): From a ‘People’s Army’ to a ‘Professional Military’ — Causes and Implications.” Armed Forces & Society 1995, 21.2: 237-254.

Dowty, Alan. “Is Israel Democratic? Substance and Semantics in the ‘Ethnic Democracy’ Debate.” Israel Studies 1999, 4.2: 1-15.

Hazan, Reuven Y. “Executive-Legislative Relations in an Era of Accelerated Reform: Reshaping Government in Israel.” Legislative Studies Quarterly, XXII, August 3, 1997, pp. 329-350.

Hazan, Reuven Y. “The Failure of Presidential Parliamentarianism: Constitutional versus Structural Presidentialization in Israel’s Parliamentary Democracy.” In The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies, edited by Thomas Poguntke and Paul Webb, 289-312. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Herman, Tamar (et.al) The Israeli Democracy Index 2015 Main Findings, Israeli Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2015 http://en.idi.org.il/media/4256544/democracy_index_2015_eng.pdf

Hofnung, Menachem. “Israeli Constitutional Politics: The Fragility of Impartiality.” Israel Affairs 1998, 5.2-3: 34-54.

Horowitz, Dan. “The Israeli Concept of National Security,” in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security & Democracy in Israel,” Reinner Publishers, 1994, 11-54.

Horowitz, Dan, and Moshe Lissak. “Israel as a Multi-cleavage Society.” In Trouble in Utopia: The Overburdened Polity of Israel, 32-97. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Krebs, Shiri “‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ Secrecy, Security, and Oversight of Targeted Killing Operations,” Policy Paper 9E, Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, Israel, August 2015.

Lissak, Moshe. “Civilian Components in the National Security Doctrine,” in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security & Democracy in Israel,” Reinner Publishers, 1994, 55-80.

Mahler, Gregory, and Richard Trilling. “Coalition Behavior and Cabinet Formation: The Case of Israel.” Comparative Political Studies 1975, 8.2: 200-33.

Maoz, Zeev, and Anat Shayer. “The cognitive structure of peace and war argumentation: Israeli prime ministers versus the Knesset.” Political Psychology 1987, 8.4: 575-604.

Meydani, A., and S. Mizrahi. “The Relationship Between the Supreme Court and Parliament in Light of the Theory of Moves: The Case of Israel.” Rationality and Society 2010,22.1: 55-82.

Peled, Yoav. “The Evolution of Israeli Citizenship: An Overview.” Citizenship Studies 2008, 12.3: 335-45.

Rubinstein, Aryeh. “Religious Party Politics in Israel,” Midstream,  January 1976, pp. 27-41.

Rubinstein, Elyakim. “The Declaration of Independence as a Basic Document of the State of Israel,” Israel Studies, 1998, 3:1, 195-210.

Shachar, Yoram. “The Early Drafts of the Declaration of Independence.” Tel Aviv University Law Review, 2002, 26:2, 523-600.

Yaniv, Avner. “An Imperfect Democracy,” in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security & Democracy in Israel,” Reinner Publishers, 1994, 227-231.