With multiple diversity in geographic background and ideological outlooks, the Zionist movement practiced democracy to sustain its fledgling movement. At times its leaders and rank and file could not agree on methods, means, attitudes toward the Arabs, level of Jewish practice, or pace in achieving nationalist objectives. From the establishment of the World Zionist Organization in 1897 to the present, Zionist and Israeli politicians regularly quit a political identity only to re-emerge in practice as some future time. Decisions in national organizations like the Jewish National Fund, Jewish Agency, Histadrut, and political parties were sometimes made in autocratic settings, yet almost always included consultation, debate, and dissent. From its earliest years until the present, its 120 member parliament has reflected a breadth of political opinion, always with a high percentage of the body politic participating in elections. And to its credit, Israel has systematically scrutinized the behavior of its politicians and the actions of its leaders in times of conflict and controversy.
Arian, Alan, and Michal Shamir. The Elections in Israel, 1996. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.
Arian, Alan, and Michal Shamir. The Elections in Israel, 2003. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2005.
David, Joseph E., ed. The State of Israel: Between Judaism and Democracy : A Compendium of Interviews and Articles. Jerusalem: Israel Democracy Institute, 2003.
Elon, Amos. The Israelis: Founders and Sons. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984.
Garfinkle, Adam M. Politics and Society in Modern Israel: Myths and Realities. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Horowitz, Dan, and Moshe Lissak. Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
Kretzmer, David. The Occupation of Justice: the Supreme Court of Israel and the Occupied Territories. SUNY Press, 2002.
Mahler, Gregory S. Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2011.
Medding, Peter Y. The Founding of Israeli Democracy, 1948-1967. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Peretz, Don and Gideon Doron. The Government and Politics of Israel. New York: Routledge, 2018.
Schejter, Amit M. Muting Israeli Democracy: How Media and Cultural Policy Undermine Free Expression. University of Illinois Press, 2009.
Shamir, Michal and Rahat, Gideon. The Elections in Israel 2015. London: Taylor and Francis, 2017.
Sofer, Sasson. Zionism and the Foundations of Israeli Diplomacy, Cambridge, UK, 1998.
Weinblum, Sharon. Security and Defensive Democracy in Israel: A Critical Approach to Political Discourse. London: Routledge, 2015.
Yishai, Yael. Land of Paradoxes: Interest Politics in Israel, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.
Akirav, Osnat. “Candidate Selection and a Crowded Parliament: The Israeli Knesset 1988-2006”. Journal of Legislative Studies 2010, 16(1),96-120.
Avnon, Dan. “The Israeli Basic Laws’ (Potentially) Fatal Flaw.” Israel Law Review 1998, 32.4: 535-66.
Avineri, Shlomo. “Democracy in Israel: Past Present and Future,” January 2021, https://israeled.org/shlomo-avineri-democracy-in-israel-past-present-and-future/
Bareli, Avi. “Hierarchy, Representation, and Inclusion in a Reflective Democratic Culture: Conflicting Perspectives in Israel’s Nascent Years.” Israel Studies 22.1 (2017): 139-64.
Ben Meir, Yehuda. “Israel: The 2015 Elections,” INSS Insight, March 29, 2015. http://www.inss.org.il/index.aspx?id=4538&articleid=9039
Chazan, Naomi. “The Knesset.” Israel Affairs 2005, 11.2: 392-416.
Dowty, Alan. “Is Israel Democratic? Substance and Semantics in the ‘Ethnic Democracy’ Debate.” Israel Studies 1999, 4.2: 1-15.
Dowty, Alan, Jewish Political Traditions and Contemporary Israeli Politics,” Jewish Political Studies Review, 1990
Elazar, Daniel, “Communal Democracy and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish Political Tradition,” 1993
Elazar, Daniel, The Jews’s Rediscovery of the Political and its Implications, 1996
Fishman, Joel. “The Jewish Nation-State Bill: Is there a Contradiction between Judaism and Democracy?” Jewish Political Studies Review 26.1 (2014): 6-13.
Gitler, Inbal Ben-Asher. “Visualizing Democracy, Difference, and Judaism in Israeli Posters, 1948–1978.” Israel Studies 22.3 (2017): 48-76.
Goldberg, Giora. “The Growing Militarization of the Israeli Political System.” Israel Affairs 2006, 12.3: 377-394.
Hazan, Reuven Y. “Executive-Legislative Relations in an Era of Accelerated Reform: Reshaping Government in Israel.” Legislative Studies Quarterly, XXII, (August 3, 1997): 329-350.
Herman, Tamar (et.al) The Israeli Democracy Index 2015 Main Findings, Israeli Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2015.
Horowitz, Dan. “The Israeli Concept of National Security,” in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security & Democracy in Israel,” Reinner Publishers, 1994, 11-54.
Kedar, Nir. “The Rule of Law in Israel.” Israel Studies 23.3 (2018): 164-71.
Krebs, Shiri “‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ Secrecy, Security, and Oversight of Targeted Killing Operations,” Policy Paper 9E, Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, Israel, August 2015.
Lissak, Moshe. “Civilian Components in the National Security Doctrine,” in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security & Democracy in Israel,” Reinner Publishers, 1994: 55-80.
Maoz, Zeev, and Anat Shayer. “The cognitive structure of peace and war argumentation: Israeli prime ministers versus the Knesset.” Political Psychology 1987, 8.4: 575-604.
Mordechay, Nadiv and Yaniv Roznai. “A Jewish and (Declining) Democratic State? Constitutional Retrogression in Israel,” Maryland Law Review 77.1 (2017): 244-271.
Peled, Yoav. “The Evolution of Israeli Citizenship: An Overview.” Citizenship Studies 2008, 12.3: 335-45.
Rubinstein, Aryeh. “Religious Party Politics in Israel,” Midstream, (January 1976): 27-41.
Sasson, Theodore. “Review Essay Israeli Attitudes on Civil Rights, Democracy and Arab-Jewish Relations,” Israel Studies 23.2 (Summer 2018): 217–25.
Shamir, Michal. “Political Intolerance among Masses and Elites in Israel: A Reevaluation of the Elitist Theory of Democracy.” The Journal of Politics, 53:4 (1991): 1018-1043.
Stein, Kenneth. “Origins of Israeli Democracy: Jewish Political Culture and Pre-State Practice.” March 2021, https://israeled.org/origins-of-israeli-democracy-jewish-political-culture-and-pre-state-practice/
Wattad, Mohammed Saif-Alden. “Israel at 70: The Rule of Law and the Judiciary.” Israel Studies, 23:3 (2018): 172-9.
Yaniv, Avner. “An Imperfect Democracy,” in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security & Democracy in Israel,” Reinner Publishers, (1994): 227-231.