1973 War

On October 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack against Israel on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Backed by arms from the Soviet Union, Egypt and Syria made significant territorial gains in Sinai and the Golan Heights. By the war’s end three weeks later, aided by military supplies from the United States, Israeli counterattacks proved successful. A UN applied ceasefire took effect and a brief Middle East Peace Conference was held in Geneva in December. Despite mistrust between the sides, Egyptian President Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Meir used the war to usher in a period of American-led diplomacy. Israelis critically investigated their failures in preparing for the war; their inquiries resulted in both the resignation of high ranking officials and in revision of Israel’s military readiness procedures. No treaties were signed at the end of the war, only military disengagement agreements. The diplomatic aftermath of the war evolved slowly into more detailed, secret, and direct Egyptian-Israeli diplomacy which resulted in the 1979 Israel-Egyptian Peace Treaty

Adan, Avraham. On the Banks of the Suez: An Israeli General’s Personal Account of the Yom Kippur War. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1980.

Aker, Frank. October 1973 The Arab-Israeli War. Sarasota, FL: First Edition Design Publishing, Inc., 2014.

Aly, Abdel Monem Said. The United States and the October 1973 Middle East Crisis. Ph.D. thesis, Northern Illinois University, 1982.

Allen, Peter. The Yom Kippur War. New York: Scribner, 1982.

Asher, Dani, editor. Inside Israel’s Northern Command: The Yom Kippur War on the Syrian Border. University Press of Kentucky, 2014.

Asher, Daniel. The Egyptian Strategy for the Yom Kippur War: An Analysis. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.

Badrī, Ḥasan, Tāhā Majdūb, and Ḍiyāʼal-Dīn Zuhdī. The Ramadan War, 1973. Dunn Loring, VA: T.N. Dupuy Associates, 1978.

Bar-Joseph, Uri. The Watchman Fell Asleep: The Surprise of Yom Kippur and Its Sources. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

Bar-On, Mordechai. “Yom Kippur.” Moshe Dayan: Israel’s Controversial Hero. Yale University Press, New Haven; London, (2012): 165–180.

Baxter, Peter. Yom Kippur: No Peace, No War: October 1973. Pen & Sword Military, 2017.

Blum, Howard. The Eve of Destruction: The Untold Story of the Yom Kippur War. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Boyne, Walter J. The Two O’clock War: The 1973 Yom Kippur Conflict and the Airlift That Saved Israel. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2002.

Boyne, Walter J. The Yom Kippur War and the Airlift That Saved Israel. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2003.

Brecher, Michael, and Benjamin Geist. Decisions in Crisis: Israel, 1967 and 1973. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Daigle, Craig.  The Limits of Détente: the United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1969-73.  New Haven:  Yale University Press, 2012.

Dunstan, Simon. The Yom Kippur War 1973 (1) The Golan Heights. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, August 20, 2003.

Dunstan, Simon. The Yom Kippur War 1973 (2). Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2003.

Dunstan, Simon. The Yom Kippur War: The Arab-Israeli War of 1973. Oxford: Osprey Pub., 2007.

El-Gamasy, Mohamed Abdel Ghani. The October War Memories of Field Marshall El-Gamasy of Egypt. Cairo: American University of Cairo Press, 1993.

Even, Jacob, Maoz, Simcha B., Tlamim, Moshe, Cirillo, Roger, Avidor, Gideon. At the Decisive Point in the Sinai: Generalship in the Yom Kippur War. University Press of Kentucky, 2017.

FRUS 1969-1976 Vol. 25, The Arab-Israeli Crisis and the 1973 Warhttps://israeled.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/FRUS-1969-1976-1973-war.pdf

Gawrych, George. The 1973 Arab-Israeli War: The Albatross of Decisive Victory. Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.

Gazit, M. “Egypt and Israel — Was There a Peace Opportunity Missed in 1971?” Journal of Contemporary History, 32:1 (1997): 97-115.

Ginor, Isabella, and Gideon Remez. The Soviet-Israeli War, 1967-1973: The USSR’s Military Intervention in the Egyptian-Israeli Conflict. London: Hurst, 2017.

Golan, Galia. Yom Kippur and After: The Soviet Union and the Middle East Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Harkabi, Yehoshafat. October Earthquake: Yom Kippur 1973. New York: Routledge, 1974.

Heikal, Mohammed. The Road to Ramadan. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1975.

Herzog, Chaim. The War of Atonement: The Inside Story of the Yom Kippur War, 1973. London: Greenhill, 1998.

Israelyan, Viktor Levonovič. Inside the Kremlin during the Yom Kippur War. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1995.

Kahalani, Avigdor, and Donn A. Starry. The Heights of Courage: A Tank Leader’s War on the Golan. Westport, CT: Praeger Paperback, 1992.

Kohler, Foy D., Leon Gouré, and Mose L. Harvey. The Soviet Union and the October 1973 Middle East War; the Implications for Detente. [Coral Gables, Fla.]: Center for Advanced International Studies, University of Miami, 1974.

Kipnis, Yigal. 1973 The Road to War. Charlottesville: Just World Books, 2013

Kumaraswamy, P. R. Revisiting the Yom Kippur War. London: Frank Cass, 2000.

Lebel, Udi, and Eyal Leṿin. The 1973 Yom Kippur War and the Reshaping of Israeli Civil-military Relations. Lanham, MD: Lexington, 2015.

Maghroori, Ray, and Stephen M. Gorman. The Yom Kippur War: A Case Study in Crisis Decision-making in American Foreign Policy. Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

Monroe, Elizabeth, and Anthony Farrar-Hockley. The Arab-Israel War, October 1973; Background and Events. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1975.

Morse, David R. Kissinger and the Yom Kippur War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015.

National Security Archive, “”The October War and U.S. Policy.” The October War and U.S. Policy. 

O’Ballance, Edgar. No Victor, No Vanquished: The Yom Kippur War. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1978.

Parker, Richard Bordeaux. The October War: A Retrospective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Rabinovich, Abraham. The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East. New York: Schocken Books, 2004.

Rodman, David. Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War: Diplomacy, Battle, and Lessons. Brighton: Sussex Academic, 2016.

Sachar, Howard Morley. A History of Israel, Volume II: From the Aftermath of the Yom Kippur War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Sakal, Emanuel, and Moshe Tlamim. Soldier in the Sinai: A General’s Account of the Yom Kippur War. University Press of Kentucky, 2014. 

Schiff, Zeev. October Earthquake: Yom Kippur 1973. Tel Aviv: University Pub. Projects, 1974.

Shaleṿ, Aryeh. Israel’s Intelligence Assessment before the Yom Kippur War: Disentangling Deception and Distraction. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2010.

El-Shazly, Lt. General Saad. The Crossing of Suez. San Francisco: American Mideast Research, 1980.

Siniver, Asaf (ed.). The October 1973 War Politics Diplomacy, Legacy. London: C. Hurst and Company, 2013.

Whetten, Lawrence L. The Canal War: Four-power Conflict in the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974.

United States of America. Central Intelligence Agency. William E. Colby As Director of Central Intelligence. By Harold P. Ford. 

Bar-Joseph, Uri. “The ‘Special Means of Collection’: The Missing Link in the Surprise of the Yom Kippur War.” Middle East Journal, 67:4 (2013): 531–546. 

Ben‐Zvi, Abraham. “Between warning and response: The case of the Yom Kippur War,” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence, 4:2 (1990): 227-242.

Blanga, Yehuda. “’The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming’: American Management of the Crisis Associated with Ending the October 1973 War.” Middle Eastern Studies, 49: 4 (2013): 563-580.

Cohen, Stuart A. “Operational limitations of reserve forces: The lessons of the 1973 war,” Israel Affairs 6:1 (1999): 70-103. 

Ezov, Amiram. “The Crossing Challenge: The Suez Canal Crossing by the Israel Defense Forces During the Yom Kippur War of 1973.” The Journal of Military History, 82:2 (2018): 461-490.

Handel, Michael. “The Yom Kippur War and the Inevitability of Surprise,” International Studies Quarterly, 21.3 (September 1977): 461–502.

Kahana, Ephraim. “Early Warning Versus Concept: The Case of the Yom Kippur War 1973.” Intelligence and National Security, 17:2 (2002): 81-104.

Lord, Amnon. “Intelligence Failure or Paralysis?” Jewish Political Studies Review, 24:3-4 (2012): 52–64.

Levey, Zach. “Anatomy of an airlift: United States military assistance to Israel during the 1973 war,” Cold War History 8:4 (October 2008): 481-501.

Menshawy, Mustafa. “Turning ‘Defeat’ into ‘Victory:’ the Power of Discourse on the 1973 War in Egypt.” Middle Eastern Studies, 52: 6 (2016): 897-916.

Orkibi, Eithan. “Resisting the Cultural Division of Protest: The Israeli Demobilized Reservists’ Protest After the Yom Kippur War (1973-1974). Cultural Dynamics, 29: 1-2 (2017): 23-38.

Pierri, Bruno. “A Chess Game in the Middle East: Dr. Kissinger’s Diplomacy against the USSR during the Yom Kippur War.” Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, 76:3 (2009): 351-380.

Rezk, Dina. “Re-Evaluating the Yom Kippur ‘Intelligence Failure’: The Cultural Lens in Crisis.” The International History Review, 39:3 (2017): 470-495.

Rodman, David. “Combined Arms Warfare: the Israeli Experience in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.” Defence Studies, 15:2 (2015): 161.

Rodman, David. “The Impact of American Arms Transfers to Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War,” Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 7:3 (July 2013): 107-114.

Rostow, Eugene V. “The Illegality of the Arab Attack on Israel of October 6, 1973,” American Journal of International Law, 69:2 (1975): 272–89.

Sheffy, Yigal. “Overcoming strategic weakness: The Egyptian deception and the Yom Kippur War,” Intelligence and National Security, 21:5 (January 2007): 809-828.

Stein, Kenneth W. “Evolving a Diplomatic Legacy from the October War: The US, Egyptian, and Israeli Triangle.” (2013) http://ismi.emory.edu/home/documents/Evolving%20Diplomatic.pdf

Tal, David. “A Tested Alliance: The American Airlift to Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.” Israel Studies, 19:3 (2014): 29–54. 

Tal, David. “Who Needed the October 1973 War?” Middle Eastern Studies, 52:5 (2016): 737-753.

Shlaim, Avi. “Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War,” World Politics, 28:3 (April 1976): 348-380.