1973 War

On October 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack against Israel on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Backed by arms from the Soviet Union, Egypt and Syria made significant territorial gains in Sinai and the Golan Heights. By the war’s end three weeks later, aided by military supplies from the United States, Israeli counterattacks proved successful. A UN applied ceasefire took effect and a brief Middle East Peace Conference was held in Geneva in December. Despite mistrust between the sides, Egyptian President Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Meir used the war to usher in a period of American-led diplomacy. Israelis critically investigated their failures in preparing for the war; their inquiries resulted in both the resignation of high ranking officials  and in revision of Israel’s military readiness procedures.  No treaties were signed at the end of the war, only military disengagement agreements. The diplomatic aftermath of the war evolved slowly into more detailed, secret, and direct Egyptian-Israeli diplomacy  which resulted in the 1979 Israel-Egyptian Peace Treaty.

Books

Adan, Avraham. On the Banks of the Suez: An Israeli General’s Personal Account of the Yom Kippur War. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1980.

Aly, Abdel Monem Said. The United States and the October 1973 Middle East Crisis. Ph.D. thesis, Northern Illinois University, 1982.

Allen, Peter. The Yom Kippur War. New York: Scribner, 1982.

Asher, Daniel. The Egyptian Strategy for the Yom Kippur War: An Analysis. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.

Badrī, Ḥasan, Tāhā Majdūb, and Ḍiyāʼal-Dīn Zuhdī. The Ramadan War, 1973. Dunn Loring, VA: T.N. Dupuy Associates, 1978.

Bar-Joseph, Uri. The Watchman Fell Asleep: The Surprise of Yom Kippur and Its Sources. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

Blum, Howard. The Eve of Destruction: The Untold Story of the Yom Kippur War. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

Boyne, Walter J. The Two O’clock War: The 1973 Yom Kippur Conflict and the Airlift That Saved Israel. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2002.

Brecher, Michael, and Benjamin Geist. Decisions in Crisis: Israel, 1967 and 1973. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Daigle, Craig.  The Limits of Détente: the United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1969-73.  New Haven:  Yale University Press, 2012.

El-Gamasy, Mohamed Abdel Ghani. The October War Memories of Field Marshall El-Gamasy of Egypt. Cairo: American University of Cairo Press, 1993.

FRUS 1969-1976 Vol. 25, The Arab-Israeli Crisis and the 1973 War – See Source Documents on this site, https://israeled.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/FRUS-1969-1976-1973-war.pdf

Gawrych, George. The 1973 Arab-Israeli War: The Albatross of Decisive Victory. Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.

Gazit, M. “Egypt and Israel — Was There a Peace Opportunity Missed in 1971?” Journal of Contemporary History 32, no. 1 (1997): 97-115.

Golan, Galia. Yom Kippur and After: The Soviet Union and the Middle East Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Heikal, Mohammed. The Road To Ramadan. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1975

Herzog, Chaim. The War of Atonement: [the inside Story of the Yom Kippur War, 1973]. London: Greenhill, 1998.

Kohler, Foy D., Leon Gouré, and Mose L. Harvey. The Soviet Union and the October 1973 Middle East War; the Implications for Detente. [Coral Gables, Fla.]: Center for Advanced International Studies, University of Miami, 1974.

Kipnis, Yigal. 1973 The Road to War. Charlottesville: Just World Books, 2013

Kumaraswamy, P. R. Revisiting the Yom Kippur War. London: Frank Cass, 2000.

Maghroori, Ray, and Stephen M. Gorman. The Yom Kippur War: A Case Study in Crisis Decision-making in American Foreign Policy. Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

Monroe, Elizabeth, and Anthony Farrar-Hockley. The Arab-Israel War, October 1973; Background and Events,. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1975.

National Security Archive, “”The October War and U.S. Policy.” The October War and U.S. Policy. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/index.htm.

O’Ballance, Edgar. No Victor, No Vanquished: The Yom Kippur War. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1978.

Parker, Richard Bordeaux. The October War: A Retrospective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Rabinovich, Abraham. The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East. New York: Schocken Books, 2004.

Sachar, Howard Morley. A History of Israel, Volume II: From the Aftermath of the Yom Kippur War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Schiff, Zeev. October Earthquake: Yom Kippur 1973. Tel Aviv: University Pub. Projects, 1974.

Shaleṿ, Aryeh. Israel’s Intelligence Assessment before the Yom Kippur War: Disentangling Deception and Distraction. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2010.

El-Shazly, Lt. General Saad. The Crossing of Suez. San Francisco: American Mideast Research, 1980

Siniver, Asaf (ed.). The October 1973 War Politics Diplomacy, Legacy. London: C. Hurst and Company, 2013

Whetten, Lawrence L. The Canal War: Four-power Conflict in the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974.

United States of America. Central Intelligence Agency. William E. Colby As Director of Central Intelligence. By Harold P. Ford. http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/1699355/1993-01-01.pdf.

Articles

Bar-Joseph, U. “Last Chance to Avoid War: Sadat’s Peace Initiative of February 1973 and Its Failure.” Journal of Contemporary History 41, no. 3 (2006): 545-56.

Bar-Joseph, Uri, and Arie W. Kruglanski. “Intelligence Failure and Need for Cognitive Closure: On the Psychology of the Yom Kippur Surprise.” Political Psychology 24, no. 1 (2003): 75-99.

Bar-Joseph, Uri, and Rose McDermott. “Personal Functioning under Stress: Accountability and Social Support of Israeli Leaders in the Yom Kippur War.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution. no. 1 (2008): 144-170.

Bell, Coral. “The October 1973 Middle East War: A Case Study in Crisis Management During Détente,” International Affairs 50 October 1974: 531-543.

Brecher, Michael. “Images and Behaviour: Israel’s Yom Kippur Crisis 1973.” International Journal. no. 3 (1977): 475-500.

Etzioni-Halevy, Eva, and Moshe Livine. “The Response of the Israeli Establishment to the Yom Kippur War Protest.” Middle East Journal 31, no. 3 (June/July 1977): 281-96.

Gur, Mordechai. “Israeli Chief of Staff Interviewed,” no. 32 (November 1974): 24-26.

Handel, Michael I. “The Yom Kippur War and the Inevitability of Surprise.” International Studies Quarterly 21, no. 3 (September 1977): 461-502.

Indyk, Martin. “Détente and the Politics of Patronage: How the October Middle East War Started,” Australian Outlook 30 (August 1976): 171-196.

Israelyan, Victor. “The October 1973 War: Kissinger in Moscow.” Middle East Journal 49, no. 2 (1995): 248-68.

Jiryis, Sabri. “The Impact of the War on Israel.” Journal of Palestine Studies 3, no. 2 (1974): 175-76.

Liebman, Charles S. “The Myth of Defeat: The Memory of the Yom Kippur War in Israeli Society.” Middle Eastern Studies 29, no. 3 (July 1993): 399-418.

Luttwak, Edward N. and Walter Laqueur, “Kissinger and the Yom Kippur War,” Commentary 58, (September 1974): 33-40.

Maoz, Zeev, and Allison Astorino. “Waging War, Waging Peace: Decision Making and Bargaining in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1970-1973.” International Studies Quarterly 36, no. 4 (1992): 373-99.

Rodman, David. “The Impact of American Arms Transfers to Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013,7, no. 3: 107-14.

Rustow, Dankwart A. “Who Won the Yom Kippur and Oil Wars?” Foreign Policy, no. 17 (December/January 1974): 166-75.

Safran, Nadav. “Trial by Ordeal: The Yom Kippur War, October 1973.” International Security 2, no. 2 (1977): 133-77.

Said, A. K., and D. A. Hartley. “A Hypergame Approach to Crisis Decision-Making: The 1973 Middle East War.” Journal of the Operational Research Society 33, no. 10 (1982): 937-48.

Sagan, Scott M. “Lessons of the Yom Kippur Alert.” Foreign Policy 36 (1979): 160-77.

Shlaim, Avi. “Failures in National Intelligence Estimates: The Case of the Yom Kippur War .” World Politics. no. 3 : 348-380.

Scherer, John L. “Soviet and American Behavior During the Yom Kippur War.” World Affairs 141, no. 1 (1978): 3-23.

Stein, Kenneth W. “Evolving A Diplomatic Legacy from the October War: the U.S., Egyptian, and Israeli Triangle,” in Asaf Siniver (ed.) The October 1973 War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Legacy (London: Hurst and Company, 2013), pp. 209-229 http://ismi.emory.edu/home/documents/Evolving%20Diplomatic.pdf.

Stein, Kenneth W. “The Talks at Kilometer 101,” in Richard Parker (ed.) The October War: A Retrospective. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001, 361-373.

Tzabag, S. “Termination of the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria: Positions, Decisions and Constraints at Israel’s Ministerial Level.” Middle Eastern Studies37, no. 4 (2001): 182-205.

Whetten, Lawrence, and Michael Johnson. “Military Lessons of the Yom Kippur War.”The World Today 30, no. 3 (March 1974): 101-10.