Sitting in the Judean Mountains, situated between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean, Jerusalem, established over 5,000 years ago, is one of the oldest and most holy cities in the world. It is the spiritual center of Judaism, and later home to precious holy sites of Christianity and Islam. Jerusalem, according to Israeli Author Amos Oz, “…contains more different versions of Heaven than any outsider can imagine.” Jewish history adopted the word “aliyah” to describe one’s going to Israel, or literally, “going up” to Jerusalem. Having been captured and recaptured 44 times, the city fuses multiple cultural traditions, languages, all of which are layered on top of religious controversies and archeological treasures. The old walled city inside greater Jerusalem was built in the early 1500s, with Armenian, Jewish, Christian and Moslem quarters. Jerusalem is the capital of Israel today, a unified city since the conclusion of the June 1967 War, with free access to all Holy places. Its political future is continuously discussed in Palestinian-Israeli negotiations while it remains a valued physical and destination for the three monotheistic religions.
Adelman, Madelaine, and Miriam Fendius Elman. Jerusalem Conflict & Cooperation in a Contested City. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 2014.
Amirav, Moshe. The Palestinian-Israeli Battle for the Holy City, Sussex Academic Press, 2009.
Armstrong, Karen. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. London: Harper Collins, 1996.
Asali, Kamil J. Jerusalem in History. New York: Olive Branch Press, 2000.
Breger, Marshall and Thomas A. Indinopulos. Jerusalem’s Holy Places and the Peace Process. Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1998.
Carroll, James. Jerusalem, Jerusalem: How an Ancient City Ignited the Modern World. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011.
Cattan, Henry. Jerusalem. St. Martin’s Press, 1981.
Cline, Eric. Jerusalem Besieged: From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.
Dumper, Michael. Jerusalem Unbound: Geography, History, and the Future of the Holy City. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.
Dumper, Michael. The Politics of Jerusalem Since 1967. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Elon, Amos. Jerusalem, City of Mirrors. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1989.
Feintuch, Yossi. U.S. Policy on Jerusalem. Greenwood, 1991.
Friedland, Roger and Richard Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 2000.
Gilbert, Martin. Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century. London: Pimlico, 1996.
Grindea, Miron (ed.), Jerusalem: The Holy City in Literature. London: Kahn & Averill, 1996.
Gold, Dore. The Fight for Jerusalem Radical Islam, the West and the Future of the Holy City. Washington, DC. Regnery Publishing, 2007.
Hammer, Reuven. The Jerusalem Anthology: A Literary Guide. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1995.
Hareven, Shulamith. City of Many Days. San Francisco, CA: Mercury House, 1993.
Hoffmann, A. and G. Wolf (ed.), Jerusalem as Narrative Space. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
Israeli, Raphael. Jerusalem Divided The Armistice Regime, 1947-1967. Frank Cass, 2002.
Jacobson, Abigail. From Empire to Empire: Jerusalem between Ottoman and British Rule. Syracuse (N.Y.): Syracuse UP, 2011.
Kollek, Teddy, and Amos Kollek. For Jerusalem: A Life. New York: Random House, 1978.
Kollek, Teddy and Moshe Pearlman. Jerusalem: A History of Forty Centuries. New York: Random House, 1968.
Kühnel, Bianca. The Real and Ideal Jerusalem in Jewish, Christian and Muslim Art. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, 1998.
Lapierre, Dominique and Larry Collins.. O Jerusalem, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1972.
Levine, Lee I. (ed.), Jerusalem: Its Sanctity and Centrality in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. New York: Continuum, 1999.
Mack, Merav, et al. Jerusalem: City of the Book. Yale University Press, 2019.
Mayer, Tamar and Suleiman A Mourad (eds.), Jerusalem: Idea and Reality. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Mazza, Roberto. Jerusalem: From the Ottomans to the British. London: I.B. Tauris, 2013.
Montefiore, Simon Sebag. Jerusalem: The Biography. New York: Vintage, 2012.
Narkiss, General Uzi. The Liberation of Jerusalem The Battle of 1967. Valentine Mitchell, 1983.
Nitzan-Shiftan, Alona. Seizing Jerusalem: The Architectures of Unilateral Unification. University of Minnesota Press, 2017.
Peters, F. E. Jerusalem: The Holy City in the Eyes of Chroniclers, Visitors, Pilgrims, and Prophets from the Days of Abraham to the Beginnings of Modern Times. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Rabinovitch, Abraham. The Battle for Jerusalem: An Unintended Conquest (50th Anniversary Edition). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2017.
Reich, Ronny. Excavating the City of David: Where Jerusalem’s History Began. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2011.
Reiter, Yitzhak. Contested Holy Places Israel-Palestine Sharing and Conflict Resolution. Routledge, 2017.
Reiter, Yitzhak. Jerusalem and its Role in Islamic Solidarity, Palgrave, 2008.
Rosovsky, Nitza (ed.), City of the Great King: Jerusalem from David to the Present. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Scott, Jamie and Paul Simpson-Housley (eds.), Sacred Places and Profane Space: Essays in the Geographics of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. New York: Praeger, 1991.
Sebbag-Montefiori, H. Jerusalem: The Biography. London: Phoenix, 2012.
Shlay, Anne B., and Gillad Rosen. Jerusalem: The Spatial Politics of a Divided Metropolis. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Shragai, Nadav. Jerusalem: Delusions of Division. Jerusalem, Israel: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 2015.
Tamari, Salim. Jerusalem 1948 The Arab Neighborhoods and their Fate in the War. Institute for Jerusalem Studies & Badil Research Center, Jerusalem, 1999.
Vilnay, Z. Legends of Jerusalem (The Sacred Land). New York: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1973.
Wasserstein, Bernard. Divided Jerusalem: The Struggle for the Holy City, Yale University Press, August 2001.
Wilkinson, John et al. Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185. Oxon: Routledge, 2016.
Wharton, Annabel J., Selling Jerusalem. Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Zank, Michael. Jerusalem: A Brief History. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2018.
Ze’evi, Dror. An Ottoman Century the District of Jerusalem in the 1600s. SUNY, 1996.
Abu Odeh, Adnan. “Religious Inclusion, Political Inclusion: Jerusalem as an Undivided Capital.” Catholic University of America Law Review, 45:3 (Spring 1996): 687-97.
Albin, Cecilia. “Negotiating Indivisible Goods: The Case of Jerusalem.” Jerusalem Journal of International Relations, 13:4 (1991): 45-76.
Alfasi, Nurit; Ashery, Shlomit Flint; and Itzhak Benenson. “Between the Individual and the Community: Residential Patterns of the Haredi Population in Jerusalem.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37:6 (2012): 2152-2176.
Armstrong, Karen. “The Holiness of Jerusalem: Asset or Burden?” Journal of Palestine Studies, 27:3 (1998): 5-19.
Azaryahu, Maoz, and Arnon Golan. “Photography, Memory and Ethnic Cleansing: The Fate of the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem, 1948 – John Phillips’ Pictorial Record.” Israel Studies, 17:2 (2012): 62-76.
Baker, Alan. “Is Jerusalem Really Negotiable? An Analysis of Jerusalem’s Place in the Peace Process,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Fall 2012.
Baker, Alan. Alan Baker, “Unilateral Withdrawal from the West Bank and East Jerusalem – Legal Observations,” January 2017.
Bar, Doron. “Re-Creating Jewish Sanctity in Jerusalem; The Case of Mount Zion and David’s Tomb between 1948-1967.” The Journal of Israeli History, 23:2 (2004): 233-251.
Bar, Gideon. “Reconstructing the Past: the Creation of Jewish Sacred Space in the State of Israel, 1948-1967.” Israel Studies, 13:3 2008. http://ic.galegroup.com/
Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua. “Patterns of Christian Activity and Dispersion in Nineteenth Century Jerusalem.” Journal of Historical Geography, 2:1 (1976): 49-69.
Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua. “The Growth of Jerusalem in the Nineteenth Century.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 65:2 (1975): 252-269.
Ben-David, Lenny. “In Photos: The Story of the Liberation of Jerusalem a Century Ago.” Jewish Political Studies Review, 28:1-2 (2017): 27–41.
Berkowitz, Shmuel. “The Status of Jerusalem in International and Israeli Law,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. May 2018. http://jcpa.org/the-status-of-jerusalem-in-international-and-israeli-law/
Canetti, Daphna; Elad-Strenger, Julia; Lavi, Iris; Guy, Dana; and Daniel Bar-Tal. “Exposure to Violence, Ethos of Conflict, and Support for Compromise: Surveys in Israel, East Jerusalem, West Bank, and Gaza.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61: 1 (2017): 84-113.
Center for Israel Education. Jerusalem Timeline- 3,000 years, https://israeled.org/jerusalem-timeline/
Cohen, Hillel. “Palestinian Armed Struggle, Israel’s Peace Camp, and the Unique Case of Fatah-Jerusalem.” Israel Studies, 18: 1 (2013): 101-123.
Dekel, Udi “Terrorism in the Jerusalem Synagogue: From National Struggle to Religious War?” INSS. November 25, 2014.
Dumper, Mick. “A False Dichotomy? The Binationalism Debate and the Future of Divided Jerusalem.” International Affairs, 87:3 (2011): 671-685.
Elman, Miriam Fendius. “Jerusalem Studies: The State of the Field.” Israel Studies, 21:3 (2016): 221-41.
Elsea, Jennifer K. “Zivotofsky v. Kerry: The Jerusalem Passport Case and Its Potential Implications for Congress’s Foreign Affairs Powers.” Congressional Research Service, 28 Sept. 2015. http://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R43773
Ferrari, Silvio. “The Religious Significance of Jerusalem in the Middle East Peace Process: Some Legal Implications.” The Catholic University Law Review, 45:3 (1996): 733-743.
Gold, Dore. “Jerusalem in History and International Diplomacy.” Jewish Political Studies Review, 13: 1-2 (2001): 107-176.
Gold, Dore. “Jerusalem and US Politics,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, September 14, 2012.
Gruweis-Kovalsky, Ofira. “Israeli Policy on the Foreign Consulates in Jerusalem in the Early 1950s.” Israel Studies 24:1 (2019): 126-50.
Hacohen, Gerson. Maj. Gen. (res.) Gershon Hacohen, “Is Jerusalem Divided?” BESA Center, October 25, 2015.
Irfan, Anne. “Is Jerusalem International or Palestinian? Rethinking UNGA Resolution 181,” Jerusalem Quarterly 70 (Summer 2017): 52–61.
Inbar, Efraim. “Jerusalem is More Important than Amona,” Begin-Sadat Center, October 27, 2016.
Inbar, Efraim. “Jerusalem is the Center of Gravity,” BESA Center, January 19, 2017.
Inbari, Pinhas “The Internal Palestinian Fight for Jerusalem,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, April 14, 2016.
Inbari, Pinhas “The Muslim Schism Over Jerusalem,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, September 22, 2015.
Indyk, Martin. “Could an Embassy in Jerusalem Bring Us Closer to Peace?” New York Times, January 4, 2017.
“Jerusalem Statistical Yearbook, 2017: Summary Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.” Jerusalem Quarterly 71 (October 2017): 148–58.
Katz, Itamar and Kark, Ruth. “The Church and Landed Property: The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem,” Middle East Studies, 43:3 (2007): 383-408.
Khalidi, Rashid. “The Centrality of Jerusalem to an End of Conflict Agreement.” Journal of Palestine Studies 303:119 (2001): 82-87.
Klein, Menachem. “Jerusalem as an Israeli Problem – A Review of Forty Years of Israeli Rule over Jerusalem, Israel Studies 13:2 (2008): 54-72.
Klein, Menachem. “Jerusalem without East Jerusalemites: The Palestinian as the ‘Other’ in Jerusalem.” The Journal of Israeli History 23 (2004): 174-199.
Lapidoth, Ruth. “A Recent Agreement on the Holy Places in Jerusalem.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 7:3 (2013): 61-66.
Lawler, Andrew. “Judging Jerusalem.” Science, 315: 5812 (2007): 588-591.
Lehrs, Lior. “Jerusalem on the Negotiating Table: Analyzing the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Talks on Jerusalem (1993-2015).” Israel Studies, 21:3 (2016): 179-205.
Mazza, Roberto. “Churches at War: The Impact of the First World War on the Christian Institutions of Jerusalem, 1914–20,” Middle East Studies, 45:2 (2009): 207-227.
Michael, Kobi. and Oded Eran, “Escalation in Jerusalem: Beyond Stabilization Efforts,” INSS Insight, September 20, 2015.
Milson, Menahem. “Sadat in Jerusalem: Behind the Scenes,” Jewish Review of Books, Winter 2016.
Navoth, Michal. “The Status of Jerusalem in America’s Foreign Policy Legislation and Jurisprudence,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, October 28, 2015. http://jcpa.org/article/the-status-of-jerusalem-in-americas-foreign-policy-legislation-and-jurisprudence/
Omar, Abdallah Marouf. “Al-Aqsa Mosque’s Incident in July 2017: Affirming the Policy of Deterrence.” Insight Turkey, 19:3 (2017): 69–82.
Oppenheimer, Yudith, and Betty Herschman. “Drawing New Lines: Israel’s Unilateral Policies to Reshape Jerusalem,” Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 23:4 (October 2018): 23–30.
Papastathis, Konstantinos, “Church Finances in the Colonial Age: The Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem under British Control, 1921–25,” Middle East Studies, 49:5 (2013): 712-731.
Papastathis, Konstantinos and Kark, Ruth. “Colonialism and Religious Power Politics: The Question of New Regulations within the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem during the British Mandate,” Middle East Studies, 50:4 (2014): 589-605.
Quigley, John. “Sovereignty in Jerusalem.” Catholic University of America Law Review 45:3 (Spring 1996): 765-80.
Reiter, Yitzhak and Jon Seligman, “1917 to the Present: Al-Haram al-Sharif /Temple Mount (Har Ha-Bayit) and the Western Wall, https://israeled.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Reiter-Seligman-Where-Heaven-Earth-Meet-2009.pdf
Rempel, Terry. “The Significance of Israel’s Partial Annexation of East Jerusalem.” Middle East Journal 51, no. 4 (Autumn 1997): 520-34.
Rimon, Amnon. and Lior Lehrs, “East Jerusalem: Explosive Reality and Proposals for De-escalation,” Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, September 2015.
Rokem, Jonathan, and Marco Allegra. “Planning in Turbulent Times: Exploring Planners’ Agency in Jerusalem.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 40:3 (2016): 640-657.
Rokem, Jonathan, and Laura Vaughan. “Segregation, Mobility and Encounters in Jerusalem: The Role of Public Transport Infrastructure in Connecting the ‘Divided City’.” Urban Studies, 2 (2017): 1-19.
Shapira, Anita. “Jerusalem in 1948: A Contemporary Perspective.” Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, Society, 17: 3 (2011): 78-123.
Sher, Gilad. “The Residency Status of East Jerusalem’s Palestinians,” INSS Insight, 759, October 28, 2015.
Shragai, Nadav. “The US Embassy Prepares to Move to Jerusalem,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, May 7, 2018. http://jcpa.org/article/the-u-s-embassy-prepares-to-move-to-jerusalem/
Singer, Max. Max Singer, “Moving the US Embassy to Jerusalem: A Great Opportunity for the New President,” Begin-Sadat Center, November 21, 2016.
Slonim, S. “The United States and the Status of Jerusalem 1947-1984.” Israel Law Review, 19:2 (1984): 179-252.
Spyer, Jonathan. “Toward the Abyss in Jerusalem,” Rubin Center, October 8, 2015.
Stein, Kenneth W. “Trump’s Recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital has merit,” Center for Israel Education, December 13, 2017, https://israeled.org/trump-recognition-jerusalem-israels-capital/
Tal, David. “The Battle over Jerusalem: The Israeli-Jordanian War, 1948.” In Israel’s War of Independence Revisited, edited by Alon Kadish, 307-39. Tel Aviv: Ministry of Defense, 2004.
Thawaba, Salem and Hussein Al-Rimmawi. “Spatial Transformation of Jerusalem: 1967 to Present.” Journal of Planning History. 12, no. 1 (2012): 63-77.
Tzoreff, Yohanan, et al. East Jerusalem and the Palestinian Legislative Council Elections. Institute for National Security Studies, 2020.
U.S Department of State, Opening of US Embassy in Jerusalem, February 23, 2018, https://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2018/02/278825.htm
Yavuz, Hamza and Mehmet Akif Okur. “Reactions of the American Jews to Trump’s Jerusalem Embassy Move: Continuation of the Historical Pattern?” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 43:4 (November 2018): 207–21.
Zank, Michael. “The Jerusalem Basic Law (1980) and the Jerusalem Embassy Act (1995): A Comparative Investigation of Israeli and US Legislation on the Status of Jerusalem.” Israel Studies, 21:3 (2016): 20-35.
Zanotti, Jim. “Jerusalem: U.S. Recognition as Israel’s Capital and Planned Embassy Move.” Congressional Research Service, 8 Dec. 2017. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/IN/IN10838