Religion and State

Zionism’s core intention was to create a Jewish homeland/state with a Jewish majority.  Along the path to statehood, Zionism achieved international validation to be a Jewish state. It came in the 1917 Balfour Declaration, the 1922 Articles of the Mandate for Palestine, the 1947 UN recognition of a Jewish state, and the 1948 Israel’s Declaration of Independence, which stated the “establishment of a Jewish State in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.” Israel was accepted into the United Nations in 1949.  And yet while international recognition was given, Israeli leaders and successive governments made clear that religious freedom would be a pillar of the country’s social dynamic. Within the Jewish community, Israeli leaders made an agreement with Jewish religious authorities, the Rabbinate, whereby certain aspects of daily life would fall under exclusive jurisdiction of adherence to religious law and practice.  This included orthodox rabbinic authority over life-cycle events including marriage and divorce, public observance of Shabbat, defining ‘who is a Jew?’ and the enforcement of kosher laws in the state’s institutions and the military.  Of particular sensitivity to secular Israelis has been the sanctioned exemption to military service by Orthodox Jews. A similar distaste has evolved among secular Jews for the expenditure of scarce budgetary allocations on religious schools and in settling the territories taken in the June 1967 War.  Numerous times in Israeli history secular and religious Israelis have clashed politically over the prerogatives either enjoys or seeks over the other.  Over the life of the country, Israel’s Parliament and Supreme Court have successfully navigated the stresses and animosities that remain in defining the role of Judaism in the operation of the state. And in times of crises, these animosities dissipate in favor of the state’s defense and preservation.

Books

Abramov, S. Zalman. Perpetual Dilemma: Jewish Religion in the Jewish State. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1976.

Agassi, Joseph. Liberal Nationalism for Israel: Towards an Israeli National Identity. Jerusalem: Gefen Pub. House, 1999.

Albright, William Foxwell. Archaeology and the Religion of Israel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1953.

Almog, Shmuel, Jehuda Reinharz, and Anita Shapira. Zionism and Religion. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1998.

Anderson, George W. The History and Religion of Israel. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Antoun, Richard T., and Mary Elaine Hegland. Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1987.

Avi-Hai, Avraham. “Chapter 6: The Religious-Secular Axis: Conflict and Consensus.” In Ben Gurion, State-Builder; Principles and Pragmatism, 1948-1963. New York: Wiley, 1974.

Badi, Joseph. Religion in Israel Today; the Relationship between State and Religion. New York: Bookman Associates, 1959.

Barak-Erez, Daphne. Outlawed Pigs: Law, Religion, and Culture in Israel. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2007.

Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, and Yoḥanan Peres. Is Israel One?: Religion, Nationalism, and Multiculturalism Confounded. Leidin: Brill, 2005.

Birnbaum, Ervin. The Politics of Compromise: State and Religion in Israel. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 1970.

Breger, Marshall J., Yitzhak Reiter, and Leonard M. Hammer. Sacred Space in Israel and Palestine: Religion and Politics. London: Routledge, 2012.

Cohen, Asher, and Bernard Susser. Israel and the Politics of Jewish Identity: The Secular-Religious Impasse. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Press, 2000.

Cohen, Stuart. The Scroll or the Sword?: Dilemmas of Religion and Military Service in Israel. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997.

Cohen, Stuart, and Milton Shain. Israel: Culture, Religion, and Society 1948-1998. Cape Town: Jewish Publications, 2000.

Cohen, Yoel. God, Jews and the Media: Religion and Israel’s Media. London: Routledge, 2012.

Deshen, Shlomo A., Charles S. Liebman, and Moshe Shokeid. Israeli Judaism: The Sociology of Religion in Israel. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1995.

Don-Yiḥya, Eliʻezer. Religion and Political Accommodation in Israel. Jerusalem: Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies, 1999.

El-Or, Tamar. Next Year I Will Know More: Literacy and Identity Among Young Orthodox Women in Israel. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2002.

Elazar, Daniel J. The Other Jews: The Sephardim Today. New York: Basic Books, 1989.

Elizur, Yuval, and Lawrence Malkin. The War Within: Israel’s Ultra-orthodox Threat to Democracy and the Nation. New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2013.

Elmslie, W. A. L. How Came Our Faith; a Study of the Religion of Israel and Its Significance for the Modern World. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1949.

Gilbert, Josiah. Nature, the Supernatural, and the Religion of Israel. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893.

Hartman, David. Conflicting Visions: Spiritual Possibilities of Modern Israel. New York: Schocken Books, 1990.

Herman, Simon N. Israelis and Jews; the Continuity of an Identity. New York: Random House, 1970.

Kohen, Asher, and Bernard Susser. Israel and the Politics of Jewish Identity: The Secular-religious Impasse. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Lapidoth, Ruth, and Ora Ahimeir. Freedom of Religion in Jerusalem. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 1999.

Lee, Robert Deemer. Religion and Politics in the Middle East: Identity, Ideology, Institutions, and Attitudes. Boulder: Westview Press, 2010.

Lehmann, David, and Batia B. Siebzehner. Remaking Israeli Judaism: The Challenge of Shas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Leibowitz, Yeshayahu, and Eliezer Goldman. Judaism, Human Values, and the Jewish State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Liebman, Charles S., and Eliezer Don-Yiḥya. Civil Religion in Israel: Traditional Judaism and Political Culture in the Jewish State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Liebman, Charles S. Pressure without Sanctions: The Influence of World Jewry on Israeli Policy. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1977.

Liebman, Charles S. Religion, Democracy and Israeli Society. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997.

Liebman, Charles S. The Religious Component in Israeli Ultra-nationalism. Cincinnati: Judaic Studies Program, University of Cincinnati, 1985.

Liebman, Charles S., and Eliʻezer Don-Yiḥya. Religion and Politics in Israel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.

Leslie, Samuel Clement. The Rift in Israel; Religious Authority and Secular Democracy. New York: Schocken Books, 1971.

Luz, Ehud. Parallels Meet: Religion and Nationalism in the Early Zionist Movement (1882-1904). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1988.

Neuberger, Ralph Benyamin. Religion and Democracy in Israel. Jerusalem: Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies, 1997.

Rabinowicz, Tzvi. Hasidism and the State of Israel. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1982.

Ravitschi, Aviezer. Religion and State in Jewish Philosophy: Models of Unity, Division, Collision and Subordination. Jerusalem: Israel Democracy Institute, 2002.

Salmon, Yosef. Religion and Zionism: First Encounters. Jerusalem: Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2002.

Schiff, Gary S. Tradition and Politics: The Religious Parties of Israel. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1977.

Schwartz, Dov. Religious-Zionism: History and Ideology. Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2009.

Sharkansky, Ira. Ambiguity, Coping, and Governance: Israeli Experiences in Politics, Religion, and Policymaking. Westport: Praeger, 1999.

Sharkansky, Ira. Rituals of Conflict: Religion, Politics, and Public Policy in Israel. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1996.

Sharkansky, Ira. The Politics of Religion and the Religion of Politics: Looking at Israel. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2000.

Shelef, Nadav G. Evolving Nationalism: Homeland, Identity, and Religion in Israel, 1925-2005. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010.

Tepe, Sultan. Beyond Sacred and Secular: Politics of Religion in Israel and Turkey. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008.

Waxman, Chaim I. Religious Zionism Post Disengagement: [future Directions]. New York: Michael Scharf Publication Trust of the Yeshiva University Press, 2008.

Wolff, Laurence. The Reform Movement in Israel: Past, Present, and Future, Research Paper 13,  The Joseph and Alama Gildenhorn Institute for Israel Studies, University of Maryland, July 2015. 

Yadgar, Yaacov. Secularism and Religion in Jewish-Israeli Politics: Traditionists and Modernity. London: Routledge, 2011.

Zarembski, Laura. The Religious-secular Divide in the Eyes of Israel’s Leaders and Opinion Makers. Jerusalem: Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies, 2002.

Zucker, Norman L. The Coming Crisis in Israel; Private Faith and Public Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973.

Articles

Aran, Gideon. “From Religious Zionism to Zionist Religion: The Roots of Gush Emunim.” Studies in Contemporary Jewry (1986), 2: 116-43.

Barro, Robert J., and Rachel M. McCleary. “Which Countries Have State Religions?.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120, no. 4 (November 2005): 1331-370.

Belsky, Florence. “Religion and Education in Israel.” Comparative Education Review 2, no. 1 (June 1958): 22-27.

Ben-Rafael, Eliezer. “The Faces of Religiosity in Israel: Cleavages or Continuum?.” Israel studies (2008), 13.3: 89-113.

Berman, Eli. “Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist’s View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 115, no. 3 (August 2000): 905-53.

Borthwick, Bruce M. “Religion and Politics in Israel and Egypt.” Middle East Journal 33, no. 2 (1979): 145-63.

Boyarin, Daniel, and Jonathan Boyarin. “Diaspora: Generation and the Ground of Jewish Identity.” Critical Inquiry 19, no. 4 (1993): 693-725.

Caplan, Kimmy. “God’s Voice: Audiotaped Sermons in Israeli Haredi Society.” Modern Judaism 17, no. 3 (October 01, 1997): 253-79.

Cohen, Stuart A. “Tensions Between Military Service and Jewish Orthodoxy In Israel: Implications Imagined and Real.” Israel Studies 12, no. 1 (2007): 103-26.

Dashefsky, Arnold, and Bernard Lazerwitz. “The Role of Religious Identification in North American Migration to Israel.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 22, no. 3 (September 1983): 263-75.

Deshen, Shlomo. “Israeli Judaism: Introduction to the Major Patterns.”International Journal of Middle East Studies 9, no. 02 (1978): 141-69.

Don-Yehiya, Eliezer, and Charles S. Liebman. “The Symbol System Of Zionist-Socialism: An Aspect Of Israeli Civil Religion.” Modern Judaism 1, no. 2 (1981): 121-48.

Don-Yihya, Eliezer. “Orthodox Jewry in Israel and in North America.” Israel Studies 10, no. 1 (2005): 157-87.

Don‐Yehiya, Eliezer. “Jewish Messianism, Religious Zionism and Israeli Politics: The Impact and Origins of Gush Emunim.” Middle Eastern Studies 23, no. 2 (1987): 215-34.

Don‐Yehiya, Eliezer. “Religious Leaders in the Political Arena: The Case of Israel.” Middle Eastern Studies 20, no. 2 (1984): 154-71.

Edelman, Martin. “A Portion of Animosity: The Politics of the Disestablishment of Religion in Israel.” Israel Studies 5, no. 1 (2000): 204-27.

El-Or, Tamar. “”Are They like Their Grandmothers?” A Paradox of Literacy in the Life of Ultraorthodox Jewish Women.” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 24, no. 1 (March 01, 1993): 61-81.

Eliash, Shulamit. “The Political Role of the Chief Rabbinate of Palestine during the Mandate: Its Character and Nature.” Jewish Social Studies 47, no. 1 (January 01, 1985): 33-50.

Englard, Izhak. “Law and Religion in Israel.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 35, no. 1 (January 01, 1987): 185-208.

Ezrachi, Elan. “The Quest for Spirituality among Secular Israelis.” in Uzi Rebhun and Chaim Isaac Waxman, (eds.) Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns, University Press of New England: 315-322.

Fishman, A. “Judaism and Modernization: The Case of the Religious Kibbutzim.” Social Forces 62, no. 1 (September 1983): 9-31.

Friedman, Menachem. “The Haredi Ultra-Orthodox Society: Sources trends and processes.” Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies 41,(1991): 101-122.

Gavizon, Ruth. “The Jewish State: A Justification.” In New Essays on Zionism, edited by David Hazony, Yoram Hazony, and Michael B. Oren. Jerusalem: Shalem Press, 2006: 3-36.

Hartman, Harriet, and Moshe Hartman. “Denominational Differences in the Attachment to Israel of American Jews.” Review of Religious Research 41, no. 3 (March 2000): 394-17.

Irwin, William A. “The Study of Israel’s Religion.” Vetus Testamentum 7, no. 2 (1957): 113.

Isaacs, Miriam. “Contentious Partners: Yiddish and Hebrew in Haredi Israel.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 1999, no. 138 (1999): 101-22.

Kaplan, Steven and Hagar Salamon. “Ethiopian Jews in Israel: A Part of the People or Apart from the People?” in Uzi Rebhun and Chaim Isaac Waxman, (ed.) Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns, University Press of New England: 118-148.

Kopelowitz, Ezra, and Matthew Diamond. “Religion That Strengthens Democracy: An Analysis of Religious Political Strategies in Israel.” Theory and Society 27, no. 5 (October 1998): 671-708.

Leibowitz, Yeshayahu. “State and Religion.” Jerusalem Quarterly, 14, (Winter 1980): 59-67.

Lewin, Eyal. “The Clash of Civil Religious: A Paradigm for Understanding Israeli Politics,” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, December 2013.

Liebman, Charles S. “Religion and Democracy in Israeli Society.” In Israeli Democracy under Stress, by Ehud Sprinzak, edited by Larry Diamond. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993: 273-291.

Liebman, Charles S., and Eliezer Don-Yehiya. “The Dilemma of Reconciling Traditional Culture and Political Needs: Civil Religion in Israel.” Comparative Politics 16, no. 1 (October 1983): 53-66.

Lifshitz, Brahyahu. “Israeli Law and Jewish Law – Interaction and Independence.” Israel Law Review 24, no. 1 (1990): 507-24.

Matras, Judah. “Religious Observance and Family Formation in Israel: Some Intergenerational Changes.” American Journal of Sociology 69, no. 5 (March 1964): 464-75.

Meek, Theophile J. “Monotheism and the Religion of Israel.” Journal of Biblical Literature 61, no. 1 (March 1942): 21-43.

Oren, Stephen. “Continuity and Change in Israel’s Religious Parties.”Middle East Journal 27, no. 1 (January 01, 1973): 36-54.

Peleg, Ilan. “Israel’s Constitutional Order and the Kulturkampf : The Role of Ben-Gurion.” Israel Studies 3, no. 1 (1998): 230-50.

Porat, D. “‘Amalek’s Accomplices’ Blaming Zionism for the Holocaust: Anti-Zionist Ultra-Orthodoxy in Israel during the 1980s.” Journal of Contemporary History 27, no. 4 (October 1992): 695-729.

Ram, Uri. “Why Secularism Fails? Secular Nationalism and Religious Revivalism in Israel.” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 21, no. 1-4 (2008): 57-73.

Rebhun, Uzi. “Major Trends in the Development of Israeli Jews: A Synthesis of the Last Century.”in Uzi Rebhun and Chaim Isaac Waxman, (eds.) Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns, Lebanon: University Press of New England,2004: 3-19.

Rebhun, Uzi, and Chaim I. Waxman. “Judaism in the Public Sphere.” in Uzi Rebhun and Chaim Isaac Waxman, (eds.) Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns, Lebanon:University Press of New England, 2004: 228-32.

Rubinstein, Amnon. “State and Religion in Israel.” Journal of Contemporary History 2, no. 4 (October 1967): 107-21.

Segal, M. H. “The Religion of Israel before Sinai.” The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series 52, no. 1 (July 1961): 41-68.

Sered, Susan Starr. “Women, Religion, and Modernization: Tradition and Transformation among Elderly Jews in Israel.” American Anthropologist 92, no. 2 (1990): 306-18.

Schweid, Eliezer. “The Culture and Religion of Israel: What to Teach.” Jewish Identity in Modern Israel: Proceedings on Secular Judaism and Democracy, edited by Naftali Rothenberg and Eliezer Schweid, 2002: 40-47.

Shain, Yossi. “Jewish Kinship at a Crossroads: Lessons for Homelands and Diasporas.” Political Science Quarterly 117, no. 2 (2002): 279-309.

Sharot, Stephen. “Israel: Sociological Analyses of Religion in the Jewish State.” Sociological Analysis 51 (1990): 563-76.

Sharot, Stephan, Hannah Ayalon, and Eliezer Ben-Rafael. “Secularization and the Diminishing Decline of Religion.” Review of Religious Research 27, no. 3 (March 1986): 193-207.

Shenhav, Yehouda. “Modernity and the Hybridization of Nationalism and Religion: Zionism and the Jews of the Middle East as a Heuristic Case.” Theory and Society 36, no. 1 (February 2007): 1-30.

Shetreet, Shimon. “Reflections on Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State.” Israel Studies 2, no. 2 (1997): 190-97.

Shochetman, Eliav. “Israeli Law and Jewish Law – Interaction and Independence: A Commentary.” Israel Law Review 23, no. 3 (1990): 525-36.

Skipwith, Grey H. “The Origins of the Religion of Israel.” The Jewish Quarterly Review 12, no. 3 (April 1900): 381-414.

Smoocha, Sammy. “Jewish Ethnicity in Israel: Symbolic or Real?” in Uzi Rebhun and Chaim Isaac Waxman, (eds.) Jews in Israel: Contemporary Social and Cultural Patterns, Lebanon: University Press of New England, 2004: 47-80.

Stadler, Nurit, and Eyal Ben-Ari. “Other-Worldly Soldiers? Ultra-Orthodox Views of Military Service in Contemporary Israel¹.” Israel Affairs 9, no. 4 (2003): 17-48.

Stadler, Nurit, Eyal Ben-Ari, and Einat Mesterman. “Terror, Aid and Organization: The Haredi Disaster Victim Identification Teams (ZAKA) in Israel.” Anthropological Quarterly 78, no. 3 (2005): 619-51.

Stadler, Nurit. “Is Profane Work an Obstacle to Salvation? The Case of Ultra Orthodox (Haredi) Jews in Contemporary Israel.” Sociology of Religion 63, no. 4 (2002): 455.

Stadler, Nurit. “Playing with Sacred/Corporeal Identities: Yeshivah Students’ Fantasies of Military Participation.” Jewish Social Studies: History, Culture, and Society 13, no. 2 (2007): 155-78.

Strum, Philippa. “Women and the Politics of Religion in Israel.” Human Rights Quarterly 11, no. 4 (November 01, 1989): 483-503.

Tabory, Ephraim. “Reform and Conservative Judaism in Israel: A Social and Religious Profile.” The American Jewish Year Book 83 (January 01, 1983): 41-61.

Tabory, Ephraim. “Crossing the Threshold: State, Religion, and Opposition to Legally-Imposed Religious Weddings.” Review of Religious Research 50, no. 3 (March 01, 2009): 261-76.

Tessler, Mark A. “The Identity of Religious Minorities in Non-Secular States: Jews in Tunisia and Morocco and Arabs in Israel.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 20, no. 03 (July 1978): 359-73.

Wald, Kenneth D., and Samuel Shye. “Interreligious Conflict in Israel: The Group Basis of Conflicting Visions.” Political Behavior 16, no. 1 (March 1994): 157-78.

Weissbrod, Lilly. “Religion as National Identity in a Secular Society.” Review of Religious Research 24, no. 3 (March 1983): 188-205.

Yaron, Zvi. “Religion in Israel.” American Jewish Yearbook 76 (1976): 41-90.

Yuval-Davis, Nira. “The Bearers of the Collective: Women and Religious Legislation in Israel.” Feminist Review, no. 4 (1980): 15-27.

Zelniker, Shimshon, and Michael Kahan. “Religion and Nascent Cleavages: The Case of Israel’s National Religious Party.” Comparative Politics 9, no. 1 (October 1976): 21-48.