Israeli Economy

Israel’s 1948 founding economy was tied to Jewish history in Europe and the entire Zionist enterprise and later the Israeli economy would be built on connecting a highly educated people to the land. Having been minorities in the diaspora, Jews in Palestine wanted to end reliance on non-Jewish populations. Social and economic transformations grew as early immigrants brought their socialist ideals. Established initially in agriculture, Zionists gradually developed small trades in major urban areas. While some immigrants came as capitalists, the socialist zeal of Israel’s founding majority dominated economic growth well into the 1970s. Under the British Mandate, export and import trade was limited. It had the effect of stimulating self-sufficiency. Violent Arab outbreaks catalyzed Arab and Jewish separatism demographically and economically. Wage and investment levels and national incomes per capita, greatly elevated the Jewish over the Arab economy.

Books

Aharoni, Yair. The Israeli Economy: Dreams and Realities. London: Routledge, 1991, 2013.

Audit Union of the Workers Agricultural Cooperative Societies Ltd. The Palestine Agricultural Economy Under War Conditions, Tel Aviv, 1944.

Auhagen, Hubert, Beitrage Zur Kenntnis Der Landes‑Natur Und der Land‑Wirtschaft Syriens, Berlin:  1907.

Bareli, Avi and Nahum Karlinsky (eds.).  Economy and Society in Mandatory Palestine, 1918-1948, The Ben Gurion University of the Negev Press. 2003.

Ben-Basaṭ, Avi. The Israeli Economy, 1985-1998: From Government Intervention to Market Economics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

Ben-Porath, Yoram. The Israeli Economy: Maturing through Crises. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Eisenstadt, Shmuel N. The Absorption of Immigrants: A Comparative Study Based Mainly on the Jewish Community in Palestine and the State of Israel. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1954.

Gavron, Daniel. The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia. Lanham, Md, Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

Halevi, Nadav, and Ruth Klinov-Malul.  The Economic Development of  Israel. New York: Praeger, 1968.

Himadeh, Said B. Economic Organization of Palestine, American University of Beirut, 1938.

Horowitz, Dan, and  Moshe Lissak. Trouble in Utopia:The Overburdened Polity of Israel. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Joyner, Christopher. In Boycott and Blacklist: A History of Arab Economic Warfare Against Israel, Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 1986.

Kurland, Samuel. Cooperative Palestine The Story of the Histadrut. National Committee for Labor Palestine.  New York, 1947.

Leviatan, Uri, Hugh Oliver, and Jack Quartet (ed.) Crisis in the Israeli Kibbutz: Meeting the Challenge of Changing Time. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing, 1998.

Metzer, Jacob. The Divided Economy of Mandatory Palestine. Cambridge University Press,1998.

Michaely, Michael. Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development of Israel, Praeger Special Studies in International Economics and Development, Praeger, 1968

Muenzner, G. Jewish Labour Economy in Palestine, London, Victor Gollancz, Ltd., 1945.

Nitzan, Jonathan, and Shimshon Bichler.  The Global Political Economy of Israel. London: Pluto Press, 2002.

Owen, Edward. A History of Middle East Economies in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Owen, Roger (ed.): Studies in the economic and social history of Palestine in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  London,  Macmillan, 1982.

Patinkin, Don. The Israel Economy: The First Decade. Jerusalem: Falk Project for Economic Research in Israel, 1960.

Plessner, Yakir. The Political Economy of Israel. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Razin, Assaf, and Efraim Sadka. The Economy of Modern Israel: Malaise and Promise. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Richards, Alan, and John Waterbury. A Political Economy of the Middle East: State, Class, and Economic Development. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.

Rivlin, Paul. Economic Policy and Performance in the Arab World. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001.

Rivlin, Paul. The Israeli Economy from the Foundation of the State through the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Rivlin, Paul. The Israeli Economy. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.

Ruppin, Arthur. The Agricultural Colonisation of the Zionist Organization in Palestine. London, 1926.

Russell, Raymond, Robert Hanneman, and Shlomo Getz, (eds.) The Renewal of the Kibbutz. From Reform to Transformation. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2013.

Schnell, Izhak, Michael Sofer, and Drori Israel. Arab Industrialization in Israel: Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Periphery. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

Senor,  Dan, and Saul Singer. Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel’s Economic Miracle. New York: Twelve, 2009.

Smith, Barbara. The Roots of Separatism in Palestine British Economic Policy, 1920-1929 Syracuse University Press, 1993.

Stein, Kenneth W. The Land Question in Palestine, 1917-1939. University of North Carolina Press, 1984 and 2004.

Sussman, Zvi. Israel’s Economy: Performance, Problems & Policies. London: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1986.

Wolffsohn, Michael.  Israel, Polity, Society and Economy, 1882-1986, (Humanities Press), 1987.

Articles

Abramovitch, Z.  “Wartime Development of the Arab Economy in Palestine,”  Palestine Yearbook 1, (1944‑1945): 130‑144.

Arnon, Arie. “Israeli Policy towards the Occupied Palestinian Territories: The Economic Dimension 1967-2007.” Middle East Journal 61, no. 4 (2007): 573-95.

Bart, Roni. “Israel and American Aid: Continue Forward or Reverse Course.” Strategic Assessment 10, no. 1 (June 2007).

Chenery, Hollis B., and Michael Bruno. “Development Alternatives in an Open Economy: The Case of Israel.” The Economic Journal 72, no. 285 (March 1962): 79-103.

Clark, A.P.S.  “Commerce, Industry, and Banking.” In Harry Vitteles and Khalil Totah (eds.)  The Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science 164, Philadelphia, November 1932, pp. 95-107.

Eckstein, Zvi. “Maintaining a Thriving Economy in the Shadow of Terror.” Jerusalem Brief  7 (2007).

Eran, Oded.  “Israel’s Public Debate over Natural Gas: Future Confrontations,” Institute for National Security Studies, INSS Insight No. 438, June 26, 2013, http://www.inss.org.il/index.aspx?id=4538&articleid=5144

Evans, Michael K. “An Econometric Model of the Israeli Economy, 1952  965.” Econometrica 38, no. 5 (September 1970): 624-60.

Even, Shmuel and Oded Eran. “The Natural Gas Revolution in Israel.” The Institute for National Security Studies. 2014.

Federbush, Marjorie S. and Jerome C. Muys. “Israel and Water-(What’s Next for the) ‘Turn around Nation’: How Israel’s Leadership in Advanced Water Technologies Can Enhance Global Economic Growth and Diplomatic Relations.” American Foreign Policy Interests 34.6 (2012): 309-21.

Forman, Geremy. “Settlement of Title in the Galilee; Dowson’s Colonial Guiding Principles. Israel Studies, 7, No. 3: 61-83.

Freedman, Robert O.. “The Changing Political Economy of Israel: From Agricultural Pioneers to the ‘Silicon Valley’ of the Middle East.” In Israel’s First Fifty Years, 197-218. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.

Freedman, Robert O.. “The Israeli Economy.” In Contemporary Israel: Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Security Challenges, 159-172. Boulder: Westview Press, 2009.

Gilbar, Gad G. “The Growing Economic Involvement of Palestine with the West, 1865-1914,” in David Kushner (ed.) Palestine in Late Ottoman Period, Jerusalem: Yad Ben- Zvi, 1986:188-210.

Gottheil, Fred. “Arab Immigration into Pre-state Israel: 1922-1931.” Middle Eastern Studies, 1973: 315-24.

Gross, Nachum T.  “The Economic Policy of the Mandatory  Government Palestine,” Research in Economic History, 1984, 9: 143‑185.

Gross, Nachum T. and Jacob Metzer.  “Public Finance in the Jewish  Economy  in Interwar Palestine,” Research in Economic History , 1978 3: 87‑159.

Halevi, Nadav.  “The Political Economy of Absorptive Capacity: Growth and Cycles in Jewish Palestine under the British Mandate,”  Middle Eastern Studies 19, October 1983: 456‑469.

Khalaf,  Isa. “The Effect of Socioeconomic Change on Arab Societal Collapse in Mandate Palestine,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, February 1997, 29, No. 1: 93-112.

Kleiman, E. “The Place of Manufacturing in the Growth of the Israel Economy.” Journal of Development Studies 1967, 3, no. 3: 226-48.

Kreinin, Mordechai. “A Controlled Inflation in Israel 1949-1954.” The Journal of Political Economy , 1956, 64.2

Lockman, Zachary. “Railway Workers and Relational History: Arabs and Jews in British Mandate-Ruled Palestine.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1993, 35, no. 3: 601-627.

Luft, G.  “Palestine’s Economy, Post War; The Country’s Productivity and World Markets,” Commentary, July 1947, 4:52‑57.

Maman, Daniel. “The Social Organization of the Israeli Economy: A Comparative Analysis.” Israel Affairs, 1998, 5, no. 2-3: 87-102..

Metzer, Jacob. “Some Perspectives on the Israeli Economy: Stocktaking and Looking Ahead.” Israel Studies, Summer 2014, 19, no.: 133-161.

Perez, Nahshon. “The Privatization of Jewishness in Israel (or, on Economic Post-  Zionism).” Israel Affairs, 2013, 19, no. 2: 273-89.

Riemer, S. “Israel: 10 Years of Economic Dependence” Oxford Economic Paper  1960, 12 no. 2.

Rivlin, Paul. “The Significance of Gas in the East Mediterranean.” Dayan Center. October 9, 2013.

Rivlin, Paul. “Two Middle Eastern Inflations: Israel and Turkey 1980–2001.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies,  November  2003, 30,  no. 2: 211-35.

Sadan, Ezra. “How Is Israel’s Economy Affected by the Security Situation?” JERUSALEM ISSUE BRIEF 4, no. 11 (December 19, 2004). http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief004-11.htm.

Schnell, Izhak, and Michael Sofer. “Embedding Entrepreneurship in Social Structure: Israeli-Arab Entrepreneurship.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27, 2003,  300-18.

Schnell, Izhak, Itzhak Benenson, and Michael Sofer. “The Spatial Pattern of Arab Industrial Markets in Israel.” Geography Department, Tel Aviv University, 1999.

Sharaby, Linda. “Israel’s Economic Growth: Success without Security.” Middle East Review of International Affairs September 2002. 6. no 3: http://www.gloria-center.org/2002/09/sharaby-2002-09-03/

Stein, Kenneth W. “The Jewish National Fund: Land Purchase Methods and Priorities, 1924- 1939,” Middle Eastern Studies, April 1984, 20, no. 2: 190-205.

Stein, Kenneth W.  “One Hundred Years of Social Change:  The Creation of the Palestinian Refugee Problem,” in Laurence Silberstein,  (ed.) New Perspectives of  Israeli History: The Early Years of the State, New York University Press, (1991): 57-81.

Stein, Kenneth W. “Palestine’s Rural Economy, 1917-1939,” Studies in Zionism, 1987,  8, No. 1, 1987: 25-49.

Stein, Kenneth W. “Peasant Destitution and Rural Change: Contributing Causes to the 1936-1939 Arab Disturbances in Palestine,” in  Farhad Kazemi and  John Waterbury (eds.) Peasant Politics and Rural Violence in the Recent History of the Middle East, University Presses of Florida,(1991): 143-170.

Sussman, Zvi.  “The Determination of Wages for Unskilled Labor in the Advance Sector of the Dual Economy of Mandatory Palestine,” Economic Development and Cultural Change, (October 1973): 95‑111.

Zilberfarb, Ben-Zion. “From Boom to Bust: The Israeli Economy 1990–2003.” Israel Affairs 12, no. 2 (April 2006): 221-33.

Zilberfarb, Ben‐Zion. “From Socialism to Free Markets, The Israeli Economy 1990-2003.” Israel Affairs 11, no. 1 (January 2005).

Zilberfarb, Ben‐Zion. “The Effects of the Peace Process on the Israeli Economy.” Israel Affairs 1, no. 1 (Autumn 1994): 84-95.

Zilberfarb, Ben‐Zion. “The Israeli Economy in the 1990s: Immigration, the Peace Process, and the Medium‐term Prospects for Growth.” Israel Affairs 3, no. 1 (Autumn 1996): 1-12.