UN and Israel

The United Nations was established on October 24, 1945. Palestine was then administered under the internationally sanctioned League of Nations British Mandate.  In February 1947, Britain decided to terminate its presence in the Mandate. It turned the issue of Palestine over to the United Nations. Then, in April 1947, the UN set up UNSCOP (United Nations Special Committee on Palestine) to recommend proposals for Palestine’s future. In a failed effort to block UNSCOP’s work before it started, five Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria) called for an immediate UN vote for “the termination of the Mandate over Palestine and the declaration of its independence.”  The effort was aimed at preventing the possibility that UNSCOP might call for the establishment of a Jewish state.

Books

Amitzur Ilan. Bernadotte In Palestine, 1948. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.

Anan, Kofi. Interventions. New York: The Penguin Press, 2012.

Bailey, Sydney D. The Making of Resolution 242. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1985.

Bar-Yaacov, N. The Israeli-Syrian Armistice Problems of Implementation 1949-1966. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1967.

Beker, Avi. The United Nations and Israel. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 1988.

Buehrig, Edward H. The UN and the Palestinian Refugees; a Study in Nonterritorial Administration.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1971.

Lord Caradon, Arthur J. Goldberg, Mohamed H. El-Zayyat, Abba Eban, and Joseph J. Sisco. U.N. Security Council Resolution 242: A Case Study in Diplomatic Ambiguity. Washington DC: Georgetown University, 1981.

Comay, Michael. U.N. Peacekeeping in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-1975: an Israeli Critique. Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1976.

De Blois, Matthijs, and Andrew Tucker. Israel on Trial: How International Law is Being Misused to Delegitimize the State of Israel. The Hague: The Hague Initiative for International Cooperation, 2018.

Eliath, Eliyahu.  Zionism at the UN A Diary of the First Days. New York: Jewish Publication Society, 1976.

Erakat, Noura. “The UN Statehood Bid: Palestine’s Flirtation with Multilateralism.” Land of Blue Helmets: The United Nations and the Arab World, edited by Karim Makdisi and Vijay Prashad, 1st ed., University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2017, 95–114. 

Evatt, Herbert V. The Task of Nations. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1949.

Freedman, Rosa. Failing to Protect: The UN and the Politicization of Human Rights. London: Hurst & Company, 2014.

Garcia-Granados, Jorge. The Birth of Israel. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1949.

Hurewitz, J.C. “Ralph Bunche as UN Acting Mediator: The Opening Phase,” in Ralph Bunche the Man and His Times, edited by Benjamin Rivlin, New York: Holmes and Meier, 1990: 157-176.

Israel Before the Security Council May 15-July 15, 1948: A Record of Fidelity to the United Nations. New York: Israeli Mission to the United Nations, 1948.

Jackson, Elmore. Middle East Mission, the Story of a Major Bid for Peace in the Time of Nasser and Ben Gurion. New York: W.W. Norton&Company,1983.

Khalidi, Raja. “The United Nations, Palestine, Liberation, and Development.” Land of Blue Helmets: The United Nations and the Arab World, edited by Karim Makdisi and Vijay Prashad, 1st ed., University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2017, 409–429. 

Lindsay, James G. Fixing UNRWA: Repairing the UN’s Troubled System of Aid to Palestinian Refugees.Washington: Washington Institute for Near Eastern Policy, 2009.

Pelcovits, Nathan.  The Long Armistice UN Peacekeeping and the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1948-1960. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.

———. Peacekeeping on Arab-Israeli Fronts: Lessons from the Sinai and Lebanon. Boulder: West View Press, 1984.

Peretz, Don. Israel and the Palestine Arabs. Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 1958.

Persson, Sune O. Mediation and Assassination: Count Bernadotte’s Mission to Palestine in 1948. London: Ithaca Press, 1979.

Pogany, Istvan S. The Security Council and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. England: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1984.

Rikhye, Indar Jit. The Sinai Blunder: Withdrawal of the United Nations Emergency Force Leading to the Six-Day War of June 1967. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited, 1980.

Rivlin, Benjamin (ed.). Ralph Bunche: The Man and His Times. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1990.

Romirowsky, Asaf and Alexander H. Joffe. Religion, Politics, and the Origins of Palestine Refugee Relief. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Rosenne, Shabtai. “Bunche at Rhodes: Diplomatic Negotiator,” in Ralph Bunche the Man and His Times, edited by Benjamin Rivlin, New York: Holmes and Meier, 1990: 177-185.

Schoenberg, Harris O. The World Conference against Racism: The Adoption and Repeal of the Z=R Resolution and the Implications for UN Reform. Wayne: Center for U.N. Reform Education, 2001.

Shari, Regina, ed. United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Volume Two, 1975-1981. Washington: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1981.

Shushan, Debra. “Palestine and Israel at the United Nations: Partition, Recognition, and Membership.” Charter of the United Nations: Together with Scholarly Commentaries and Essential Historical Documents, edited by Ian Shapiro and Joseph Lampert, Yale University Press, 2014, 157–173.

Siilasvuo, Ensio. In the Service of Peace in the Middle East, 1976-1979. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.

Simpson, Michael, ed. United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Volume Three, 1982-1986. Washington: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1988.

Stjernfelt, Bertil. The Sinai Peace Front UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Middle East, 1973-1980.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, Inc. 1992.

Tomeh, George, ed. United Nations Resolutions on Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Volume One, 1947-1974. Washington: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1975.

Urquhart, Brian “Ralph Bunche and the Development of UN Peacekeeping.” In Ralph Bunche the Man and His Times, edited by Benjamin Rivlin, 186-210. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1990.

Washington Institute for Near East Policy (ed.) UN Security Council Resolution 242: The Building Block of Peace Making. Washington: 1993.

Zartman, William, “The United Nations Response [pre -1967 War].” In The Six-Day War, A Retrospective, edited by Richard B. Parker, Florida: University Press of Florida, 1996: 74-118.

Articles

Al-Husseini, Jalal. “UNRWA and the Palestinian Nation-Building Process.” Institute for Palestine Studies 29:2 (2000): 51-64.

Amidror, Yaacov. “Lessons of the UNESCO Vote,” Begin-Sadat Center, November 2, 2016. http://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/375-amidror-lessons-unesco-vote/

Barak, Eitan. “Caught in the Middle: The United Nations Emergency Force, Israel, and the 1960 “Rotem Crisis.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 17:2 (2006): 393-414.

Bartholomeusz, Lance. “The Mandate of UNRWA at Sixty.” Refugee Survey Quarterly 28:2-3 (2009): 452-74.

Baruch, Pnina Sharvit. “Security Council Resolution 2334: The Legal Significance,” INSS, December 30, 2016. http://www.inss.org.il/index.aspx?id=4538&articleid=12740

Becker, R.N., et al. “The preoccupation of the United Nations with Israel: Evidence and theory.” The Review of International Organizations 10:4 (December 2015): 413-437.

Ben-Dror, Elad & Ziedler, Asaf. “Israel, Jordan, and their Efforts to Frustrate the United Nations Resolutions to Internationalize Jerusalem.” Diplomacy and Statecraft 26 (2015): 636-658.

Bocco, Ricardo. “UNRWA and the Palestinian Refugees: A History within History.” Refugee Survey Quarterly 28:2-3 (2009): 229-252.

Bligh, Alexander. “The United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), 1956–67: Past Experience, Current Lessons.” Middle Eastern Studies 50:5 (2014): 796-809.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. “Commentary.” The Middle East Journal 49:4 (1995): 569.

Dajani, Omar M. “Forty Years without Resolve: Tracing the Influence of Security Council Resolution 242 on the Middle East Peace Process.” Institute for Palestine Studies 37:1 (2007): 24-38. 

Elon, Efrat. “Israel, UNIFIL II, the UN, and the International Community.” Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture 13:4 (2007): 32-39.

Farah, Randa. “UNRWA: through the Eyes of Its Refugee Employees in Jordan.” Refugee Survey Quarterly 28:2-3 (2009): 389-411.

Feldman, Ilana. “Ad Hoc Humanity: UN Peacekeeping and the Limits of International Community in Gaza.” American Anthropologist 112:3 (2010): 416-429.

Forysythe, David P. “UNRWA, the Palestinian Refugees, and World Politics: 1949-1969.” International Organization 25:1 (1971): 26-45.

Friesel, Ofra. “Equating Zionism with Racism: The 1965 Precedent.” American Jewish History, 97:3 (2013): 283–313.

Geronik, Arie. “Israel-UN Relations: Three Phases and Three Questions.” Israel Studies 25:1 (Spring 2020): 73–98.

Goldberg, Arthur J. “What Resolution 242 Really Said.” American Foreign Policy Interests 33:1 (2011): 41-46.

Gottheil, Fred M. “UNRWA and Moral Hazard.” Middle Eastern Studies 42:3 (2006): 409-421.

Hammarskjold, Dag. “The Middle East.” Vital Speeches of the Day 24:22 (1958): 674.

Helen-Engdal, Marte, Jørgen Jensehaugen, and Hilde Henriksen Waage. “Finishing the Enterprise: Israel’s Admission to the United Nations.” The International History Review 35:3 (2013): 465-485.

Hurewitz, J.C. “The United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine: Establishment and Definition of Functions.” International Organization 7:4 (1953): 482-497.

Jackson, Elmore. “The Developing Role of the Secretary-General.” International Organization 11:3 (1957): 431-445.

Joffe, Alexander H. “UNRWA Resists Resettlement.” Middle East Quarterly 19 (2012):11-25.

Khalid, Kartini Aboo Talib and Dorcus Luwiza Mwango. “The failure of the United Nations in resolving the Palestine-Israel conflict: A Neorealist perspective,” Malaysia Journal of Society and Space 11:2 (2015): 95–106.

Kolinsky, Martin. “The Efforts of the Truman Administration to Resolve the Arab-Israeli Conflict.” Middle Eastern Studies 20 (1984): 81-94.

Kramer, Martin. “The May 1948 Vote that Made the State of Israel,” Mosaic, April 2, 2018. https://mosaicmagazine.com/essay/2018/04/the-may-1948-vote-that-made-the-state-of-israel/ 

Kushner, Arlene. “UNRWA, the United Nations Relief Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the near East, a Report.” Jerusalem: Israel Resource News Agency, 2003.

Lapidoth, Ruth. “The Misleading Interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 (1967).” Jewish Political Studies Review, 23:3-4 (2011): 7–17.

Ma’Oz, Moshe. “The UN Partition Resolution of 1947: Why Was it Not Implemented?” Palestine – Israel Journal of Politics, Economics, and Culture 9:4 (2002): 15

Makdisi, Karim. “Constructing Security Council Resolution 1701 for Lebanon in the Shadow of the ‘War on Terror’.” International Peacekeeping 18:1 (2011): 4-20. 

Marx, Emmanuel, and Nitza Nachmias. “Dilemmas of Prolonged Humanitarian Aid Operations: The Case of UNRWA (UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees).” Journal of Humanitarian Assistance 2004.

May, Cliff. “Throwing Israel to the U.N. Wolves,” The Washington Times, December 27, 2016. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/dec/27/obama-throwing-israel-to-the-uns-wolves/

Mork, Hulda K. “The Jarring Mission A Study of the UN Lapidoth, Ruth. “The Misleading Interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 (1967).” Jewish Political Studies Review, 23:3-4, (2011): 7–17.Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971.” Master’s thesis, University of Oslo, Spring 2007.

Morris, Benny. “Why the 1947 UN Partition Resolution Must Be Celebrated,” Mosaic, November 2017. https://mosaicmagazine.com/response/2017/11/the-un-partition-vote-in-november-1947-was-important-but-not-crucial/

Muravchik, Joshua. “The UN and Israel: A History of Discrimination.” World Affairs 176:4 (2013): 35-46.

Nachmias, Nitza. “UNRWA Betrays Its Mission.” Middle East Quarterly 19:4 (2012): 27-35. 

—–. “The Impossible Peacekeeping Mission.” Peacekeeping and International Relations 25:5 (1996): 14.

Nelson, Richard W. “Multinational Peacekeeping in the Middle East and the United Nations Model.” International Affairs 61:1 (1984): 67-90.

Nossel, Suzanne. “Israel and UN Reform.” Dissent 52:3 (2005): 23-28.

Oren, Michael B. “Ambivalent Adversaries: David Ben-Gurion and Israel vs. the United Nations and Dag Hammarskjold, 1956-57.” Sage Journals 27:1 (1992): 89-127. 

Perlmutter, Amos. “Patrons in the Babylonian Captivity of Clients: UNRWA and World Politics.” International Organizations 25:2 (1971): 306-308.

Perez de Cuellar, Javier. “Call for Middle East Negotiations.” United Nations Chronicle 27:2 (1990): n.p.

Ravndal, Ellen Jenny. “‘The First Major Test’: The UN Secretary-General and the Palestine Problem, 1947–9.” The International History Review 38:1 (2016): 196-213.

Romirowsky, Asaf . “United Nations agency exposed as a tool of Hamas,” Washington Examiner, August 30, 2014. 

Rosenne, Shabtai. “Israel and the United Nations: Changed Perspectives, 1945–1976.” The American Jewish Yearbook 78 (1978): 3-59.

Sachs, Natan. “What’s new and what’s not in the U.N. resolution on Israeli settlements,” Brookings Institute, December 26, 2016. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/markaz/2016/12/26/whats-new-and-whats-not-in-the-u-n-resolution-on-israeli-settlements/

Shafir, Gershon. “The Miscarriage of Peace: Israel, Egypt, the United States, and the ‘Jarring Plan’ in the Early 1970’s.” Israel Studies Forum 21:1 (2006): 3-26.

Spiegel, Baruch. “Jerusalem’s Surprisingly Good Relations with UNRWA.” Middle East Quarterly 19:4 (2012).

Takkenberg, Lex. “UNRWA and the Palestinian Refugees after Sixty Years: Some Reflections.” Refugee Survey Quarterly, 2-3 (2009): 253-59.

The United Nations. The Blue Helmets: a Review of United Nations Peace-Keeping. New York: Third Edition, 1996.

Waage, Hilde Henriksen. “The Winner Takes All: The 1949 Island of Rhodes Armistice Negotiations Revisited.” Middle East Journal 65:2 (2011): 279-304.

Yihdego, Zeray. “The Gaza Mission: Implications for International Humanitarian Law and UN Fact-Finding.” Melbourne Journal of International Law 13:1 (2012):158-216.