Israeli Foreign Policy

Israel’s foreign policy was shaped by the 100 years prior to its establishment when state-seeking and state-making dominated Zionist ideology and diplomacy. After the state was established, foreign policy was determined by the element of state-keeping. Seven elements emerged in defining and applying Zionist and Israeli foreign policy: (1) creating and sustaining a Jewish territory with a significant Jewish population, (2) developing a viable economy, (3) finding and retraining major power political support, (4) evolving a “never again syndrome,” that is that Jews would never again find themselves unable to defend themselves (military acquisition and developing a nuclear weapon for deterrence), (5) evolving a defense policy to offset the asymmetry of Israel’s demographic inferiority and geographically small size as compared to the surrounding hostile Arab population, (6) assuring access to water and fossil and other fuels sufficient to sustain the well-being of the state, and (7) seeking accommodations with neighbors when available and neutralizing regional existential threats.

Books

Alteras, Isaac.  Eisenhower and Israel: U.S. – Israeli Relations, 1953-1960. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

Amitzur Ilan, Bernadotte in Palestine, New York 1989.

Amitzur Ilan, The Origin of the Arab‑Israeli Arms Race: Arms, Embargo, Military Power and Decision in the 1948 Palestine War, London, 1996.

Aran, Amnon. Israel’s Foreign Policy towards the PLO: The Impact of Globalization. Brighton [England: Sussex Academic Press, 2009.

Baker, Alan (ed.)  Israel’s Rights as a Nation-State in International Diplomacy. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 2011. http://jcpa.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/israels-rights-full-study.pdf

Bauer, Yehuda. Out of the Ashes, Oxford, 1989.

Benson, M.  Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel, Westport, CT, 1997.

Ben-Zvi, Abraham. Decade of Transition: Eisenhower, Kennedy and the Origin of the American-Israeli Alliance. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Bercuson, D.  Canada and the Birth of Israel: A Study in Canadian Foreign Policy, Toronto 1985.

Beres, Louis.  Security or Armageddon: Israel’s Nuclear Strategy, Lexington Books 1986.

Bialer, Uri. Between East and West Israel’s Foreign Policy Orientation, 1948-1956. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Bialer, Uri. Cross on the Star of David: The Christian World in Israel’s Foreign Policy, 1948-1967. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Bialer, Uri. Oil and the Arab‑Israeli Conflict, London 1999.

Brecher, Michael. Decisions in Israel’s Foreign Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.

Caplan, Neil. Futile Diplomacy: Volume Three‑The United Nations, The Great Powers and the Middle East 1948‑1954, London, 1997.

Cohen, Avner. Worst-kept Secret: Israel’s Bargain with the Bomb. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.

Cohen, Michael.  Palestine and the Great Powers 1945‑1948, Princeton, NJ, 1982.

Cohen, Michael. Truman and Israel, Berkeley, 1990.

Danon, Danny. Israel: The Will to Prevail. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Druks, Herbert.  The Uncertain Friendship: The U.S. and Israel from Roosevelt to Kennedy. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Eban, Abba Solomon. Diplomacy for the next Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Eisenberg, Laurie  My Enemy’s Enemy: Lebanon in Early Zionist Imagination 1900‑1948, Detroit, 1994.

Eliahu Elath, Zionism at the UN a diary of the first days, The Jewish Publish Society of American,  Philadelphia, 1976.

Evatt,  Herbert V. The Task of Nations, Greenwood Press, 1949.

Freedman, Robert Owen. Contemporary Israel: Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and Security Challenges. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2009.

Freilich, Charles D. Zion’s Dilemmas: How Israel Makes National Security Policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012.

Garcia-Granados. Jorge. The Birth of Israel as I saw it. New York, 1949.

Gelber, Yoav. Jewish‑Transjordan Relations 1921‑1948, London,1997.

Gelber, Yoav. Palestine 1948: War, Escape and the Emergence of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, London 2001.

Greilsammer, Alain, and Joseph Weiler. Europe and Israel: Troubled Neighbours. Berlin: W. De Gruyter, 1988.

Handel, Michael.  Israeli Political Military Doctrine, Cambridge: Harvard Center for International Affairs, 1973.

Horin, Y. Ben-  and  B. Posen, Israel’s Strategic Doctrine, Rand Corporation, 1981.

Heller, Mark. Continuity and Change in Israeli Security Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2000.

Horowitz, David.   State in the Making, Knopf; New York, 1954.

Heller, Joseph, The Birth of Israel 1945‑1949: Ben‑Gurion and his Critics, Gainesville, 2000.

Inbar, Efraim. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications.

Kay, Zachariah. The Diplomacy of Prudence: Canada and Israel 1948‑1958, Montreal, 1997.

Kaye, Dalia Dassa, Alireza Nader, and Parisa Roshan. Israel and Iran: A Dangerous Rivalry. Santa Monica, CA: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2011.

Klieman, Aharon S., Israel & the World after 40 Years,  Pergamon Brassey’s, 1990.

Klieman, Aharon S. Statecraft in the Dark: Israel’s Practice of Quiet Diplomacy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.

Levey, Zach.  Israel and the Western Powers, 1952-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Maoz, Zeev. Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel’s Security & Foreign Policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.

Ben-Meir,  Yehuda National Security Decision Making: The Israeli Case, Tel Aviv, 1986.

Nevo, Joseph. King Hussein and the Evolution of Jordan’s Perception of a Political Settlement with Israel: 1967-1988. Brighton: Sussex Acad. Press, 2006.

Patten, Howard A. Israel and the Cold War: Diplomacy, Strategy and the Policy of the Periphery at the United Nations. London: I.B. Tauris, 2013.

Peleg, Ilan. Begin’s Foreign Policy, 1977-1983: Israel’s Move to the Right. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Radosh, Allis and Ronald Radosh, A Safe Haven Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel, Harper Collins, 2009.

Reinharz, Jehuda. Zionism and the Great Powers: A Century of Foreign Policy,” The Leo Baeck Memorial Lecture, 38, New York, 1994.

Reiser, Stewart. The Politics of Leverage: The National Religious Party of Israel and Its Influence on Foreign Policy. Cambridge, Mass. (1737 Cambridge St., Cambridge 02138): Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, 1984.

Roberts, Samuel J. Survival or Hegemony? The Foundations of Israeli Foreign Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Ro’I, Yaacov. Soviet Decision‑Making in Practice: The Soviet Union and Israel, 1947‑1954, New Brunswick, NJ, 1980.

Sandler, Shmuel. The State of Israel, the Land of Israel:  The Statist Ethnonational Dimension of Foreign Policy, Ct: Westport, 1993.

Sheffer, Gabriel,  Moshe Sharett Biography of a Political Moderate (Oxford, 1996).

Schiff, Ze’ev. Security for Peace: Israel’s Minimal Security Requirements in Negotiations with the Palestinians (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy 1989).

Seliktar, Ofira. New Zionism and the Foreign Policy System of Israel. London: Croom Helm, 1986.

Shalom, Zaka. Israel’s Nuclear Option: Behind the Scenes Diplomacy between Dimona and Washington. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.

Sofer, Sasson. Zionism and the Foundations of Israeli Diplomacy, Cambridge, UK, 1998.

Stein, Ewan. Representing Israel in Modern Egypt: Ideas, Intellectuals and Foreign Policy from Nasser to Mubarak. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012.

Stein, Kenneth W. Heroic Diplomacy: Sadat, Kissinger, Carter, Begin and the Quest for Arab-Israeli Peace, Routledge, 1999.

Tal, David (ed.). The 1956 War: Collusion and Rivalry in the Middle East. London and Portland, Oregon: Cass, 2001.

Troen, Selwyn I. and Moshe Shemesh (eds.). The Suez-Sinai Crisis 1956: Retrospective and Reappraisal. London: Cass, 1990.

Wittstock, Alfred (ed.) The World Facing Israel – Israel Facing the World – Images and Politics, Berlin: Frank and Timme, 2011.

Articles

Albin, Cecilia. “Securing the peace of Jerusalem: On the Politics of Unifying and Dividing.” Review of International Studies 23, 1997:117-142.

Alpher, Joseph. “Israel: Challenges of Peace.” Foreign Policy, Winter 1995-96, 101: 130-145.

Avineri, Shlomo. “Ideology and Israel’s Foreign Policy.” The Jerusalem Quarterly, No. 36, 1986: 3-13.

Ayalon, Daniel. “Challenges to Israeli Foreign Policy.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2010, no. 1: 7-14.

Bengio, Ofra. “Turkey’s Quiet Revolution and Its Impact on Israel.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2010, 4, no. 1: 15-21.

Barnea, Nahum. “Israel vs. Hezbollah.” Foreign Policy, November/December 2006) no. 157: 22-28.

Barnett, M. “Culture, Strategy and Foreign Policy Change: Israel’s Road to Oslo.” European Journal of International Relations, 1999, 5, no. 1: 5-36.

Bialer, Uri. “Fuel Bridge across the Middle East—Israel, Iran, and the Eilat-Ashkelon Oil Pipeline.” Israel Studies, 2007, 12;3: 29-67.

Bialer, Uri. “Israel and Nostra Aetate: the View from Jerusalem.” Paper based on his book Cross on the Star of David: The Christian World in Israel’s Foreign Policy 1948-

67, Indiana University Press, 2005.

Bialer, Uri. “Sterling Balances and Claims Negotiations: Britain and Israel, 1947-1952.” Middle Eastern Studies, January 1992, 28:1:157-177.

Bialer, Uri. “Telling the Truth to the People: Britain’s Decision to Publish the Diplomatic Papers of the Inter-war Period.” The Historical Journal, 1983, 26, no. 2: 349-367.

Bialer, Uri. “Top Hat, Tuxedo and Cannons: Israeli Foreign Policy from 1948 to 1956 as a Field of Study.” Israel Studies, 2002, 7, no. 1:1-80.

Brecher, Michael. “Israel’s Foreign Policy: Challenges of the 1970s.” International Journal, 1973, 28, no. 4: 748-65.

Brecher, Michael. “Jerusalem: Israel’s Political Decisions, 1947-1977.” The Middle East  Journal, 1978,  32, no.1: 13-34.

Brecher, Michael. “The Middle East Subordinate System and Its Impact on Israel’s Foreign Policy.” International Studies Quarterly 1969, 13, no. 2: 117-39.

Brown, Nathan J. “Evolution after Revolution: Egypt, Israel, and the United States.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013,7, no. 1: 9-12.

Brownstein, Lewis. “Decision Making in Israeli Foreign Policy: An Unplanned Process.” Political Science Quarterly, June/July 1977 92, no. 2: 259-79.

Carlson, Aurora. “A Window of Opportunity for Israel: Attracting Chinese Overseas Foreign Direct Investment.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013, 7, no. 1: 59-68.

Cohen, S. P., and E. E. Azar. “From War to Peace: The Transition between Egypt and Israel.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 1981, 25, no. 1: 87-114.

Cohen, Matthew S., and Charles D. Freilich. ” Breakdown and Possible Restart: Turkish-Israeli Relations under the AKP,”  The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs ,2014, 8, no. 1: 39-55.

Cohen, Raymond. Israel’s Starry-Eyed Foreign Policy,” Middle East Quarterly http://www.meforum.org/221/israels-starry-eyed-foreign-policy

Datz, Giselle, and Joel Peters. “Brazil and the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict in the New Century: Between Ambition, Idealism, and Pragmatism.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs  2013, 7, no. 2: 43-57.

Dowty, Alan. “Jewish Political Culture and Zionist Foreign Policy.” in Abraham Ben-Zvi and Aharon Kleiman, eds., Global Politics: Essays in Honour of David Vital, Frank Cass, 2001:309-326.

Fishman, Joel. ““A Disaster of Another Kind”: Zionism=Racism, Its Beginning, and the War of Delegitimization against Israel.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2011, 5, no. 3: 75-92.

Fishman, Joel. “The Relegitimization of Israel and the Battle for the Mainstream Consensus.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2012, 6 no. 2: 9-20.

Gelber, Yoav “Jewish‑Arab Talks During the War of Independence,” The Journal of Jewish History, 1994,15, No. 3: 283‑312.

Gilboa, Eytan. “Obama in Israel: Fixing American–Israeli Relations.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013, 7, no. 2: 19-28.

Gitelson, Susan. “Israel’s African Setback in Perspective.” Jerusalem Papers on Peace Problems, 1974, 6: 5-27.

Goldstein, Yossi. “France or US? The Struggle to Change Israel’s Foreign Policy Orientation, 1956-64 (Part I).” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs  2010, 4, no. 2: 99-113.

Golani, Motti.  “The Historical Place of the Czech-Egyptian Arms Deal, Fall 1955.” Middle Eastern Studies 1995, 31: 803-827.

Golani, Motti. “Zionism Without Zion: The Jerusalem Question 1947‑1949,”  Journal of Israeli History, 1995, 16:1:39-52.

Goldstein, Jonathan. “The Republic of China and Israel, 1911-2003.” Israel Affairs autumn/Winter 2004, 10:1-2:  223-253.

Guzansky, Yoel. “Tacit Allies: Israel and the Arab Gulf States.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2011, 5, no. 1: 9-17.

Hahn, Peter.  “The View from Jerusalem; Revelations about U.S. Diplomacy from the Archives of Israel,” Diplomatic History, 1998. 22, No. 4: 509-532.

Haron, Miriam. “Britain and Israel 1948-1950.” Modern Judaism, 1983,  3, No. 2: 217-223.

Heilbrunn, Jacob. “Israel’s Fraying Image.” National Interest, May/June 2013:16-25.

Horowitz, David. “The Israeli concept of national security”, in Avner Yaniv (ed.) National Security and Democracy in Israel. Lynne Rienner Publishers 1993:11 – 54.

Inbar, Efraim. “Attitudes towards war in the Israeli Political Elite,” Middle East Journal, 1990, 44: 431–445.

Inbar, Efraim. “Jews, Jewishness and Israel’s Foreign policy,” Jewish Political Studies Review, 1990, 2:165-183.

Inbar, Efraim. “Israeli National Security 1973-1996,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1998, 555: 62-81.

Jacoby, Tami Amanda. “Israel’s Relations with Egypt and Turkey during the Arab Spring: Weathering the Storm.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013,7, no. 2: 29-42.

Kleinman, Aharon. “The Sorry State of Israeli Statecraft.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013,7, no. 2: 9-18.

Klienman, Aharon. “Shtadlanut as Statecraft by the Stateless.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2, 2008, no. 3: 99-113.

Kleiman, Aharon. “Zionist Diplomacy and Israeli Foreign Policy,” Jerusalem Quarterly, 1979, 11: 93‑111.

Kohn, Leo. “Israel’s Foreign Relations,”  International Affairs, 1960, 36, no. 3: 330-41.

Kramer, Martin. “Israel and the Post Middle East: Is the Status Quo Sustainable” Foreign Policy July/August 2016 Issue, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2016-06-08/israel-and-post-american-middle-east

Küntzel, Matthias. “America’s Shifting “Red Lines” on Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions: A Wedge Issue in US–Israeli Relations.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013, no. 1: 37-44.

Kurtzer, Daniel. “Do Settlements Matter? An American Perspective.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2009 3, no. 2: 23-30.

Lahav, Yonathan. “Israel Abroad,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 1983, 12, no. 4: 187-88.

Lawson, F. “The Truman Administration and the Palestinians,” Arab Studies Quarterly.1990,  12, No. 1-2: 43-65.

Levey, Zach. “Israel’s Pursuit of French Arms 1952-58,” Studies in Zionism, 1993.14, no. 2:  183-10.

Lorch, Nathaniel. “The Knesset and Israel’s Foreign Relations,” Jerusalem Journal of International Relations, 1987,  9: 117-132.

Meron Medzini, “Hands Across Asia: Israel – Tiawan Relations,” Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 9:2 (2015):237-251.

Morag, Nadav. “Water, geopolitics and state building: The case of Israel,” Middle Eastern Studies,  2001, 37 no.3:179-198.

Oren, Michael. “The diplomatic struggle for the Negev 1946 – 1956,” Studies in Zionism, 1989, 10: 197–215.

Oren, Michael.  “The Tripartite System and Arms Control in the Middle East 1950-1956,” in Dore Gold (ed.). Arms Control in the Middle East.” Boulder: Westview Press, 1991: 95-113.

Pallade, Yves. “Delegitimizing Jews and the Jewish State: Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism after Auschwitz.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2009, 3, no. 1.

Pappe, Ilan. “Overt Conflict to Tacit Alliance: Anglo Israeli Relations 1948‑51,” Middle Eastern Studies 4, 1990: 561‑581.

Pardo, Sharon. “Going West: Guidelines for Israel’s Integration into the European Union.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2009, 3, no. 2 : 51-62.

Pardo, Sharon. “Two Vignettes on Israeli–European Economic Community Relations in the Late 1950s.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2014 8, no. 1: 95-101.

Peri, Yoram. “Fall from favor: Israel and the Socialist International,” Jerusalem Quarterly, 1982,  24: 129-144.

Perlmutter, Amos. “Begin’s Strategy and Dayan’s Tactics: The Conduct of Israeli Foreign Policy,” Foreign Affairs. 1978,56, no. 2: 357-72.

Pinkus, Benjamin. “Atomic Power to Israel’s Rescue: French Israeli Nuclear Cooperation 1949-1957,” Israel Studies, Spring 2002, 7 no. 1: 104-138.

Rein, R. ‑”Political Considerations and Personal Rivalries: Peronist Argentina and the Partition of Palestine,” Diplomacy and Statecraft, 1997, 8, No. 2: 125-147.

Reiser, S. “The religious parties and Israel’s foreign policy” in Bernard  Reich and Gershon Kievel (eds.) Israeli National Security Policy:Political Actors and Perspectives, Greenwood Press, 1988:105–122.

Rene Beres, Louis. “Like Two Scorpions in a Bottle: Could Israel and a Nuclear Iran Coexist in the Middle East?” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2014 8, no. 1  http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/14548

Rodman, David. “The Impact of American Arms Transfers to Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2013,7, no. 3: 107-14.

Rouleau, Eric. “Hawks and Doves in Israel’s Foreign Policy.” The World Today, December 1968,  24, no. 12: 496-503.

Rosenne, Shabtai. “Israel and the U.N.: Changed Perspectives 1945‑1976,” American Jewish Year Book.1978: 3‑59.

Rubin, Barry. “Israel’s New Strategy,” Foreign Affairs July/August 2006, 85, no. 4: 111-

Sam Ma, Young. “Israel’s Role in the UN during the Korean War.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2010, 4, no. 3: 81-89.

Semenchenko, Nina and Sergei Mirokhin.” Soviet Diplomacy and the Issue of Jewish immigration to Israel,” in Yaacov Ro’i (ed), Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union, London, 1995.

Slonim, S. “The United States and the Status of Jerusalem  1947‑1984,” Israel Law Review, 1984, 19, No. 2:179-252.

Sheffer, Gabriel. “Not “War,” Not “Victory”— Not Even “Deterrence”.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 2009,3, no. 1.

Sprinzak, Ehud. “Extremist inputs into Israel’s foreign policy: The case of Gush Emunim”, in Bernard Reich and Gershon Kievel Israeli National Security Policy Political Actors and Perspectives, Prager, 1988: 123–144.

Shalit, Erel. “The Relationship between Aggression and Fear of Annihilation in Israel,” Political Psychology 1994,15, no. 3: 415-34.

Shavit, Ya’acov. “Ideology, world view and national policy:  The case of Likud government 1977 – 1984,” Jerusalem Journal of International Relations, 1987, vol. 9:101-116.

Sheffer, Gabriel. “The elusive question: Jews and Jewry in Israeli foreign policy,” Jerusalem Quarterly 46, 1988, 104-114.

Shlaim, Avi, and Avner Yaniv. “Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy in Israel,” International Affairs, 1980, 56, no. 2: 242-62.

Stinnett, D. M. “International Uncertainty, Foreign Policy Flexibility, and Surplus Majority Coalitions in Israel,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2007, 51, no. 3: 470-95.

Strizhov, Iurii. “The Soviet Position on the Establishment of the State of Israel,” in Yaacov Ro’i (ed), Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union , London, 1995: 303‑315.

Tal, Israel. “Israel’s Doctrine of National Security,” Jerusalem Quarterly, 1977,4:44- 57.

Yishai, Y. “Party factionalism and foreign policy: Demands and responses,”  Jerusalem Journal of International Relations,  1977, 3: 53-70.

Zimmerman, Moshe. “Secrets and Revelations: The German Foreign Ministry and the Final Solution.” The Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs  2011, 5, no. 1: 115-23.