Great Powers, the Middle East and the Cold War

Books

Aldrich, Richard J., Rory Cormac, and Michael S. Goodman, “The Suez Crisis,” In Spying on the World: The Declassified Documents of the Joint Intelligence Committee, 1936-2013 (pp. 240-250), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014.

***Anderson, M.S, The Eastern Question, New York: St. Martin’s, 1966.

Bass, Warren, Support Any Friend: Kennedy’s Middle East and the Making of the U.S.-Israel Alliance, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Bass, Warren, “The Suez War, 1956,” In A Surprise Out of Zion?: Case Studies in Israel’s Decisions on Whether to Alert the United States to Preemptive and Preventive Strikes, from Suez to the Syrian Nuclear Reactor (pp. 5-14), Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2015.

Bengio, Ofra, The Turkish-Israeli Relationship: Changing Ties of the Middle Eastern Outsiders, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Brackman, Roman, Israel at High Noon: From Stalin’s Failed Satellite to the New Crisis in the Middle East, New York: Enigma Books, 2006. 

Brecher, Michael, Foreign Policy System of Israeli Setting: Images Process, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

Campbell, John C., Defense of the Middle East Problems of American Foreign Policy, Praeger, 1961.

Cremeans, Charles D., The Arab and the World Nasser’s Arab Nationalist Policy, New York, Council of Foreign Relations, 1967.

Cronin, David, “Arming Israel (1957-1979),” In Balfour’s Shadow: A Century of British Support 

for Zionism and Israel, London: Pluto Press, 2017.

Dann, Uriel, The Great Powers in the Middle East, 1919-1939, New York, Holmes and Meier, 1988.

Eilam, Ehud, Containment in the Middle East, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2019.

Ferris, Jesse, Nasser’s Gamble: How Intervention in Yemen Caused the Six-Day War and the Decline of Egyptian Power, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Finer, Herman, Dulles Over Suez The Theory and Practice of His Diplomacy, London: Heineman, 1964.

***Fromkin, David, A Peace to End All Peace Creating the Modern Middle East 1914-1922, London: Andre Deutsch, 1989.

Garfinkle, Adam, Politics and Society in Modern Israel, Taylor & Francis, 2000.

Ginor, Isabella and Gideon Remes, The Soviet-Israeli War, 1967-1973: The USSR’s Military Intervention in the Egyptian-Israeli Conflict, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Golan, Galia, Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War Two to Gorbachev, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Govrin, Yosef, Israeli-Soviet Relations 1953-1967: From Confrontation to Disruption, London: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998.

Hahn, Peter L., Caught in the Middle East US Policy’s Toward the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1945-1961, University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Heller, Joseph, The United States, The Soviet Union and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-67, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016.

Hirszowicz, Lukasz, The Third Reich and the Arab East, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966.

Hook, Steven W. and John Spanier, American Foreign Policy Since World War II, Washington, DC: CQ Press, 21st edition, 2018. 

Hurewitz, J.C., Soviet-American Rivalry in the Middle East, New York: Praeger, 1969.

Kaufman, Robert G., “Israel and the Cold War,” In Henry M. Jackson: A Life in Politics (pp. 261-286), Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.

Kedourie, Elie, In the Anglo-Arab Labyrinth The McMahon-Husayn Correspondence and its Interpretations 1914-1939, Cambridge, 1956.

Klieman, Aaron S., Soviet Russia and the Middle East, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.

Kohn, Hans, Nationalism and Imperialism in the Hither East, London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd. 1932.

Komaromi, Ann, “We Are Jews Again”: Jewish Activism in the Soviet Union, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2017. 

Kozhanov, Nikolay, Russia and the Syrian Conflict: Moscow’s Domestic, Regional and Strategic Interests, Berlin: Gerlach Press, 2016.

***Kuniholm, Bruce R., The Origins of the Cold War in the Middle East Great Power Conflict and Diplomacy in Iran, Turkey, and Greece, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.

Laufer, Leopold, Israel and the Developing Countries: New Approaches to Cooperation, New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1967.

Laqueur, Walter Z., Communism and Nationalism in the Middle East, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956.

***Laqueur, Walter Z., The Struggle for the Middle East the Soviet Union and the Middle East 1958-1968, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.

***Lebow, Richard Ned and Janie Gross Stein, We All Lost the Cold War, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Lesch, David W., The New Lion of Damascus: Bashar al-Assad and Modern Syria, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. 

***Lenczowski, George, Russia and the West in Iran 1918-1948, Cornell, Ithica, 1949.

***Lieber, Robert J., Retreat and Its Consequences: American Foreign Policy and the Problem of World Order, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Lippman, Thomas W., “The Eclipse of the Soviet Union,” In Hero of the Crossing: How Anwar Sadat and the 1973 War Changed the World, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2016.

***Little, Douglas, American Orientalism the United States and the Middle East Since 1945, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

***Louis, Wm Roger, The British Empire in the Empire in the Middle East 1945-1951, Oxford, 1984.

Love, Kenneth, Suez The Twice Fought War, New York: McGraw Hill, 1969.

Mandelbaum, Michael, The Rise and Fall of Peace on Earth, NY: Oxford University Press, 2019.

***Marriott, J.A.R., The Eastern Question A Study in European Diplomacy, Oxford, 1918.

McCourt, David M., “The Suez Crisis, 1956,” In Britain and World Power since 1945: Constructing a Nation’s Role in International Politics (pp. 58-85), Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014.

Miglietta, J.P., American Alliance Policy in the Middle East, 1945-1992: Iran, Israel and Saudi Arabia, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2002.

***Monroe, Elizabeth, Britain’s Moment in the Middle East, 1914-1946, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University of Press, 1963.

Narang, Vipin, “Israel,” In Nuclear Strategy in the Modern Era: Regional Powers and the International Conflict (pp. 179-206), Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.

Oren, Michael B., Power, Faith. And Fantasy: America in the Middle East: 1776 to the Present, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2008.

Parsi, Trita, “From Cold Peace to Cold War,” In Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran, and the United States (pp. 172-189), London: Yale University Press, 2007.

Pasha, Glubb, Britain and the Arabs, A Study of Fifty Years 1908-1958, London: Houghton and Stoughton, 1959.

Patten, Howard A., Israel and the Cold War: Diplomacy, Strategy and the Policy of the Periphery at the United Nations, New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 2013.

***Polk, William R., The United States and the Arab World,” Harvard, 1965.

Popescu, Nicu and Stanislav Secrieru, “Russia’s Return to the Middle East: Building Sandcastles?” The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), July 31, 2018.

Power, Samantha, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, NY: Basic Books, Hachette, reprint edition 2003/2013. 

***Primakov, Yevgeny, Russia and the Arabs: Behind the Scenes in the Middle East from the Cold War to the Present, New York: Basic Books, 2009.

Rabinovich, Abraham, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East, New York: Schocken, 2005.

Rabkin, Yakov M., “Israel in the International Arena,” In What is Modern Israel? (pp. 171-183), London: Pluto Press, 2016.

Reidel, Bruce, “Jerusalem and Cairo,” In Beirut 1958: How America’s Wars in the Middle East Began (pp. 7-32), Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2020.

Rezk, Dina, The Arab World and Western Intelligence: Analysing the Middle East, 1956-1981, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017.

Ro’i, Yaacov, The New Jewish Diaspora: Russian-Speaking Immigrants in the United States, Israel, and Germany, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2016.

Ro’i, Yaakov and Boris Morozov, The Soviet Union and the June 1967 Six Day War, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2008.

***Rubenstein, Alvin Z., Red Star in the Nile: The Soviet-Egyptian Influence Relationship Since the June War, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Sachar, H.M., A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1977.

***Sayigh, Yezid and Avi Shlaim (ed.), The Cold War and the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 1977.

Selwyn, I.T and M. Shemesh, The Suez-Sinai Crisis 1956: Retrospective and Reappraisal, London: Frank Cass, 1990.

Schmitt, Gary (ed.), Rise of the Revisionists: Russia, China and Iran, Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 2018.

Sharett, Moshe, My Struggle for Peace: The Diary of Moshe Sharett, 1955, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2019.

Shorrock, William I., French Imperialism in the Middle East The Failure of Policy in Syria and Lebanon, 1900-1914, Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1976.

Shuckburgh, Evelyn, Descent to Suez, Foreign Office Diaries, 1951-1956, New York, W.W Norton.

Stein, Leonard, The Balfour Declaration, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1961.

Stocker, James R., Spheres of Intervention: US Foreign Policy and the Collapse of Lebanon, 1967-1976, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2016.

Stroilov, Pavel, Behind the Desert Storm: A Secret Archive Stolen From the Kremlin that Sheds New Light on the Arab Revolutions in the Middle East, Chicago: Price World Publishing, LLC, 2011.

***The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, NY: W.W. Norton, 2004.

***Tibawi, A.L., Anglo-Arab Relations and The Question of Palestine 1914-1921, London: Luzac and Company Ltd, 1978.

Tolts, Mark, The New Jewish Diaspora: Russian-Speaking Immigrants in the United States, Israel, and Germany, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2016.

Weinberg, Robert, Stalin’s Forgotten Zion, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Williams, Ann, Britain and France in the Middle East and North America, 1914-1967, New York, St. Martin’s, 1968.

Worley, D. Robert, “Cold War Strategy,” In Orchestrating the Instruments of Power: A Critical Examination of the U.S. National Security System (pp. 109-177), Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.

Worley, D. Robert, “Post-Cold War Strategy,” In Orchestrating the Instruments of Power: A Critical Examination of the U.S. National Security System (pp. 178-222), Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.

Yaniv, A., Deterrence with the bomb: The politics of Israeli strategy, Lanham: Lexington Books, 1987.

***Yodfat, Areyh, Arab Politics in the Soviet Mirror, Israel University Press, Jerusalem, 1973.

Zelikow, Philip, “The World of 1956,” In Suez Deconstructed: An Interactive Study in Crisis, War, and Peacemaking (pp. 11-28), Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2018.


Articles

Articles:

Abrams, Elliott, “Neoconservatism: A Good Idea That Won’t Go Away,” Standpoint Magazine (London), June 2013.

Aharanson, Micky, “Relations between Israel and the USSR/Russia,” The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy and Security, May 1, 2018, https://jiss.org.il/en/aharonson-relations-israel-ussr-russia/

Ali, Murad, Glenn Banks, and Nigel Parson,” U.S.-Israel Special Aid Relationship Dynamics and Implications for Pakistan,” Policy Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016.

Avineri, Shlomo, “Israel and the End of the Cold War: The Shadow Has Faded,” The Brookings Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, Spring 1993.

Azar, Edward E., “Conflict Escalation and Conflict Resolution in an International Crisis: Suez, 1956,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1972.

Bačišin, Vladimír, “Czechoslovak Material and Technical Assistance to the State of Israel,” Military Historical Archive, Ministry of National Defense of Czechoslovakia, December 17, 2018.

Ban-Noi, Uri, “The Soviet Union and the Six-Day War: Revelations from the Polish Archives,” Wilson Center.

Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, “Mizrahi and Russian Challenges to Israel’s Dominant Culture: Divergences and Convergences,” Israel Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3, Fall 2007.

Berlinski, Claire, “The Cold War’s Arab Spring: How the Soviets Created Today’s Middle East,” Tablet, June 20, 2012.

Betts, Richard K., “Wealth, Power, and Instability: East Asia and the United States after the Cold War,” International Security, Vol. 18, No. 3, Winter 1993-1994.

Bialer, Uri, “The Czech-Israeli Arms Deal Revisited,” Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 3, 1995.

***Brooks, Stephen & William Wohlforth, “Power, Globalization, and the End of the Cold War,” International Security, Winter 2000/01.

Boissoneault, Lorraine, “What the Six-Day War Tells Us About the Cold War,” Smithsonian Magazine, June 6, 2017.

Brown, Bruce, “The Middle East after the Cold War,” New Zealand International Review, Vol. 19, No. 5, September/October 1994.

***Campbell, John C., “The Soviet Union in the Middle East,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1978.

Cavari, Amnon, and Elan Nyer, “From Bipartisanship to Dysergia: Trends in Congressional Actions Toward Israel,” Israel Studies, Vol. 19, No. 3, Fall 2024.

CIA Directorate of Intelligence, “Soviet-Israel Relations: Trends and Prospects,” February 1998.

CIA Directorate of Intelligence, “Intelligence Report: Soviet Military Aid to the United Arab Republic, 1955-66,” March 1967.

CIA Office of Current Intelligence, “The Suez Crisis- A Test for the USSR’s Middle Eastern Policy,” Soviet Staff Study, January 3, 1957.

CIA, “Relations Between Syria and the USSR,” June 1, 1976.

Corning, Amy D., “Emigration, Generation, and Collective Memories: The Presence of the Past for Emigrants from the Former Soviet Union,” Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2010.

David, Steven R., “The Continuing Importance of American Interests in the Middle East after the Cold War,” Israel Affairs, Vol. 2, Issue 3-4, April 11, 2007.

***Eberstadt, Nicolas, “The Dying Bear: Russia’s Demographic Disaster,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2011: 95-108.

***Dawisha, Karen, “The Soviet Union and the Middle East: Strategy at the Crossroads?” The World Today, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1979.

Eban, Abba, “Reality and Vision in the Middle East,” Foreign Affairs, July 1965.

Eisikovitz, Rivka A., “Second Generation Identities: The Case of Transnational Young Females of Russian Descent in Israel,” Ethnicities, Vol. 14, No. 3, June 2014.

***Epstein, Alek D. “Russia and Israel A Roman Aborted?” Russia in Global Affairs, Vol. 5 No. 4, October-December 2007, 

https://www.openu.ac.il/personal_sites/download/alek/34%20Russia%20and%20Israel%20-%20RFA%20(2007).pdf

Fogiel-Bijaoui, Sylvie, “Babushka in the Holy Land: Being a Russian-Israeli Grandmother in Israel Today,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 44, No. 6, November/December 2013.

Freedman, Robert O., “Israel-Russian Relations since the Collapse of the Soviet Union,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 49, No. 2, Spring 1995.

Freedman, Robert O., “Russia and Israel under Yeltsin,” Israel Studies Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Summer 1998.

Freedman, Robert O., “Soviet Policy Toward the Middle East Since the October 1972 Arab-Israeli War,” Naval War College Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, Fall 1976.

***Fukuyama, Francis, “The End of History,” The National Interest, Summer 1989. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/24027184.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A945bfb2d369dcb9d741f02d4e07fd447

Fuller, Graham E “The Middle Eat in US-Soviet Relations,” Middle East Journal, Summer 1990, pp. 417-430, https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4328141.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A56edc161abb380bd5cf85a9c1065a1bf

***Gaddis, John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security (Oxford University Press), 1982.

Geokas, M.C. and, A.T. Papathanasis, “The Turkish-Israeli Axis, Greece and the Middle East,” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, 1999.

Ginat, Rami, “The Soviet Union and the Syrian Ba’th Regime: From Hesitation to Rapprochement,” Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2000.

Gitelman, Zvi, “Former Soviet Union,” American Jewish Year Book, Vol. 98, 1998.

Gitelman, Zvi, “Soviet Union,” The American Jewish Year Book, Vol. 91, 1991.

Golan, Galia, “The Soviet Union and the PLO since the War in Lebanon,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1986.

Goldstein, Yossi, “Doomed to Fail: Golda Meir’s Mission to Moscow,” Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012.

Gorodetsky, Gabriel, “The Soviet Union and the Creation of the State of Israel,” Tel Aviv University Center for Applied Policy Research, December 2001.

Gustafson, Barry, “The Soviet Union and the Middle East,” New Zealand International Review, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1976.

Hacohen, Malachi Haim, “The Strange Fact That the State of Israel Exists: The Cold War Liberals Between Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism,” Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, Winter 2009. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/10.2979/jss.2009.15.2.37.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A2cc28b10855e769cb02abe704218ab37

Al-Haj, Majid, “Ethnicity and Political Mobilization in a Deeply Divided Society: The Case of Russian Immigrants in Israel,” International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 2015.

Hartman, Harris, “Last of a Breed: Syria Examines its Role in the New Middle East,” Harvard International Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, Spring 1994.

Heimann, Gadi, “In Search of a Route to World Power: General de Gaulle, the Soviet Union, and Israel in the Middle Eastern Crisis of 1967,” International History Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2010.

Holbik, Karel and Edward Drachman, “Egypt as Recipient of Soviet Aid, 1955-1970,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, Vol. 127, No. 1, 1971. 

Huntington, Samuel P., “The Clash of Civilizations,” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993.

Hussain, Syed Rifaat, “Superpowers Intervention in the Middle East: A Case Study of the U.S. International in Syria, 1957,” Strategic Studies, Vol. 12, No. 4, Summer 1989.

Inbar, Efraim, “Improvements Since the End of the Cold War,” Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, 2013. https://besacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/MSPS99Eng.pdf

Inbar, Efraim, “Israeli Control of the Golan Heights: High Strategic and Moral Ground for Israel,” Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, September 1, 2011.

Jacobson, Kenneth, “The United States, Israel, and the Middle East,” The American Jewish Year Book, Vol. 93, 1993.

Kahng, Gyoo-hyoung, “Zionism, Israel, and the Soviet Union: A study in the rise and fall of brief Soviet-Israeli friendship from 1945 to 1955,” Global Economic Review, April 7, 2008.

Kanat, Kilic Bugra, “Turkish-Israeli Relations During the Cold War: The Myth of a Long ‘Special’ Relationship,” Israeli Studies Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Winter 2016.

Kanet, Roger E. and Usha Venkatesan, “The Soviet Union & The Middle East: The Egyptian-Israeli Treaty & Recent Soviet Policy,” Asian Perspective, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1980.

Karsh, Efraim, “Soviet-Israeli Relations: A New Phase?” The World Today, Vol. 41, No. 12, December 1985.

Katz, Mark N., “Russia and Israel: An Improbable Friendship,” European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), July 1, 2018.

***Keddie, Nikki R., “The End of the Cold War and the Middle East,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1992. (find via Google Scholar, pdf on line)

Lipson, Charles, “American Support for Israel: History, Sources, Limits,” Israel Affairs, Vol. 2, Issue 3-4, 1996.

Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay, “Soviet-Israeli Relations,” Contemporary Jewry, Volume 11, No. 1, March 1990, https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/23450110.pdf?casa_token=MTcj0ndPdnIAAAAA:G0N64F53k0RlwWO8nLm-Fa7smVTBsMDT61u7gzL_zhA1ORQDwNkrAh-mQMKvBrATth3DCVKe3tAQWQGezig9IYIuF6mDiRpRXLi0xRLPUtHShW_McpA

Kramer, Martin, “Israel & the Post-American Middle East: Why the Status Quo is Sustainable.” Foreign Affairs, July/Aug 2016.

Krasna, Joshua, “Moscow on the Mediterranean: Russia and Israel’s Relationship,” Russia Foreign Policy Papers, June 2018.

Krauthammer, Charles “The Unipolar Moment,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1990/1991.

Laron, Guy, “Playing With Fire: The Soviet-Syrian-Israeli Triangle, 1965-1967,” Cold War History, Vol. 10, Issue 2, 2010.

***Lasensky, Scott B., and Vera Michlin-Shapir, “Avoiding Zero-Sum: Israel and Russia in an Evolving Middle East,” Atlantic Council, 2019, pp. 143-157, https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/MENA-Chapter-nine.pdf

Lipson, Charles, “American Support for Israel: History, Sources, Limits,” Israel Affairs, Vol. 2, Issue 3-4, 1996.

Lund, Aron, “From Cold War to Civil War: 75 Years of Russian-Syrian Relations,” Swedish Institute of International Affairs, 2019.

Mansfield, Peter, “Egypt After Nasser,” The World Today, Vol. 27, No. 7, July 1971.

Mansfield, Peter, “Nasser and Nasserism,” International Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4, The Arab States and Israel, Autumn 1973.

Maryasis, Dmitry, “Russia and Israel in the Changing Middle East: Conference Proceedings,” Institute for National Security Studies, July 1, 2013.

McInerney, Maryasis, “Prospect Theory and Soviet Policy Towards Syria, 1966-1967,” Political Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1992.

***Mr. X (George Kennan), “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” Foreign Affairs, July 1947. https://www.cvce.eu/en/obj/the_sources_of_soviet_conduct_from_foreign_affairs_july_1947-en-a0f03730-dde8-4f06-a6ed-d740770dc423.html

Ofek, Raphael, “Israel’s Intelligence Contribution to US Security: The Cold War Years,” Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, February 26, 2018. https://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/israel-intelligence-cold-war/

Oren, Michael B., “Suez; A Crisis for All Seasons,” Shofar, Vol. 12, No. 1, Winter 1994. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/42941973.pdf?casa_token=pmjp-ZL0YD0AAAAA:i6CDWhC8YoLO-NSIO9UW3u5u2Kq0GjnnnbnD9ecQ4XDB0tBqDfYbvX8WisVW6tGTcXmh6ggqrPk-InL33AM8koZn-eb5G7qBlweZn7opgXMDNgxNK5Y

Peck, Michael, “In 1956, Russia Almost Launched a Nuclear War against Britain, France and Israel,” The National Interest, January 8, 2017.

Polsky, Yury, “Arab Views of Soviet Policy in the Era of Glasnost,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 56, No. 4, Autumn 2002.

Roland, Popp, “Stumbling Decidedly into the Six-Day War,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 60, No. 2, Spring 2006; https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4330250.pdf?casa_token=Ch_Zh0On4aYAAAAA:c2_yyLVQxhDJueHgbnTyhIhu5cJlXrJmOMCqABcA9LIAZt8QiDVcNI7K7jvv8Ea6aCBayJrqLbw4TsvTstBstTk-Q6kcK35c_ctBZJ0lKe4y93xufis

Qureshi, Yasmin, “A Review of Soviet-Egyptian Relations,” Pakistan Horizon, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1982.

Raanan, Oded and Vera Michlin, “Israel-Russia Relations: Mutual Esteem or Cold-Eyed Utilitarianism?” Abba Eban Institute for International Diplomacy, IDC Herzliya, October 14, 2018,

.https://www.eng.arenajournal.org.il/single-post/2018/10/14/raanan-michlin-israel-russia-ENG

Razoux, Pierre, “The Keys to Understanding the Israel-Russia Relationship,” NATO Defense College, 2008.

Remennick, Larissa, “The Two Waves of Russian-Jewish Migration from the USSR/FSU to Israel: Dissidents of the 1970s and Pragmatics of the 1990s,” Diaspora A Journal of Transnational Studies, January 2015.

“Revelations from the Russian Archives: The Jewish Antifascist Committee,” Library of Congress, August 16, 2017.

Satloff, Robert, “Don’t Pull Back,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2019: 188-190, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/dont-pull-back-from-the-middle-east.

Sharnoff, Michael, “Nasser’s Legacy on the 50th Anniversary of the 1967 War,” Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, May 21, 2017.

Sharnoff, Michael, “The Syria-Soviet Alliance,” Jewish Policy Center, Spring 2009.

Sheehan, Edward R.F., “Why Sadat packed off the Russians,” The New York Times. August 6, 1972.

Siverson, Randolph M., “The Evaluation of Self, Allies, and Enemies in the 1956 Suez Crisis, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1972.

Slater, Jerome, “The Superpowers and an Arab-Israeli Political Settlement: The Cold War Years,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 105, No. 4, 1990.

Smolansky, O.M., “Moscow and the Suez Crisis, 1956: A Reappraisal,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 80, No. 4, 1965.

Steele, William B., “Egypt’s Relations with the Soviet Union,” Naval War College Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, September 1963.

Stern, Moran and Dennis Ross, “The Role of Syria in Israeli-Turkish Relations,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 14, No. 2, Summer/Fall 2013.

Szaynok, Bożena, “The Anti-Jewish Policy of the USSR in the Last Decade of Stalin’s Rule and Its Impact on the East European Countries with Special Reference to Poland,” Russian History, Vol. 29, No. 2/4, 2002.

Tabory, Ephraim, “Jewish Identity, Israeli Nationalism, and Soviet Jewish Migration,” Journal of Church and State, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1991.

Theodorou, Angelina E., “Israeli Jews from the former Soviet Union are more secular, less religiously observant,” Pew Research Center, March 30, 2016.

Tovy, Jacob, “All Quiet on the Eastern Front: Israel and the Issue of Reparations from East-Germany, 1951-1956,” Israel Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1994.

U.S. Department of State and U.S.S.R. Government, “III. Position of the Great Powers Attitudes of the United States and the Soviet Union,” Bulletin of Peace Proposals, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1976

Veen, Erwin Van, “The Geopolitics of Syria’s Reconstruction: A Case of Matryoshka,” Clingendael Institute, 2019.

Weinryb, Bernard D., “Stalin’s Zionism,” Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Volume 46/47, 1978.

Zvyagelskaya, Irina, “Russian Policy in the Levant,” International Relations, Vol. 15, No. 60, 2018.